1Lattka, E, Illig, T, Heinrich, J, et al. (2010) Do FADS genotypes enhance our knowledge about fatty acid related phenotypes? Clin Nutr 29, 277–287.
2Lattka, E, Illig, T, Heinrich, J, et al. (2009) FADS gene cluster polymorphisms: important modulators of fatty acid levels and their impact on atopic diseases. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics 2, 119–128.
3Chapkin, RS, Kim, W, Lupton, JR, et al. (2009) Dietary docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid: emerging mediators of inflammation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 81, 187–191.
4Lavie, CJ, Milani, RV, Mehra, MR, et al. (2009) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases. J Am Coll Cardiol 54, 585–594.
5Salem, N Jr & Niebylski, CD (1995) The nervous system has an absolute molecular species requirement for proper function. Mol Membr Biol 12, 131–134.
6Serhan, CN, Yacoubian, S & Yang, R (2008) Anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators. Annu Rev Pathol 3, 279–312.
7Sprecher, H (1981) Biochemistry of essential fatty acids. Prog Lipid Res 20, 13–22.
8Sprecher, H, Luthria, DL, Mohammed, BS, et al. (1995) Reevaluation of the pathways for the biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Lipid Res 36, 2471–2477.
9Nakamura, MT & Nara, TY (2004) Structure, function, and dietary regulation of Δ6, Δ5, and Δ9 desaturases. Annu Rev Nutr 24, 345–376.
10Lattka, E, Illig, T, Koletzko, B, et al. (2010) Genetic variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster as related to essential fatty acid metabolism. Curr Opin Lipidol 21, 64–69.
11Schaeffer, L, Gohlke, H, Müller, M, et al. (2006) Common genetic variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster and their reconstructed haplotypes are associated with the fatty acid composition in phospholipids. Hum Mol Genet 15, 1745–1756.
12Malerba, G, Schaeffer, L, Xumerle, L, et al. (2008) SNPs of the FADS gene cluster are associated with polyunsaturated fatty acids in a cohort of patients with cardiovascular disease. Lipids 43, 289–299.
13Rzehak, P, Heinrich, J, Klopp, N, et al. (2009) Evidence for an association between genetic variants of the fatty acid desaturase 1 fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS1 FADS2) gene cluster and the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes. Br J Nutr 101, 20–26.
14Baylin, A, Ruiz-Narvaez, E, Kraft, P, et al. (2007) α-Linolenic acid, Δ6-desaturase gene polymorphism, and the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 554–560.
15Tanaka, T, Shen, J, Abecasis, GR, et al. (2009) Genome-wide association study of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids in the InCHIANTI Study. PLoS Genet 5, e1000338.
16Xie, L & Innis, SM (2008) Genetic variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster are associated with altered (n-6) and (n-3) essential fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids in women during pregnancy and in breast milk during lactation. J Nutr 138, 2222–2228.
17Molto-Puigmarti, C, Plat, J, Mensink, RP, et al. (2010) FADS1 FADS2 gene variants modify the association between fish intake and the docosahexaenoic acid proportions in human milk. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 1368–1376.
18Mathias, RA, Vergara, C, Gao, L, et al. (2010) FADS genetic variants and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in a homogenous island population. J Lipid Res 51, 2766–2774.
19Bokor, S, Dumont, J, Spinneker, A, et al. (2010) Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster are associated with delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase activities estimated by serum fatty acid ratios. J Lipid Res 51, 2325–2333.
20Rzehak, P, Thijs, C, Standl, M, et al. (2010) Variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster, blood levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and eczema in children within the first 2 years of life. PLoS One 5, e13261.
21Koletzko, B, Lattka, E, Zeilinger, S, et al. (2011) Genetic variants of the fatty acid desaturase gene cluster predict amounts of red blood cell docosahexaenoic and other polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnant women: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 211–219.
22Lattka, E, Rzehak, P, Szabo, E, et al. (2011) Genetic variants in the FADS gene cluster are associated with arachidonic acid concentrations of human breast milk at 1·5 and 6 mo postpartum and influence the course of milk dodecanoic, tetracosenoic, and trans-9-octadecenoic acid concentrations over the duration of lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 382–391.
23Koletzko, B, Lien, E, Agostoni, C, et al. (2008) The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations. J Perinat Med 36, 5–14.
24Hanebutt, FL, Demmelmair, H, Schiessl, B, et al. (2008) Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) transfer across the placenta. Clin Nutr 27, 685–693.
25Hendrickse, W, Stammers, JP & Hull, D (1985) The transfer of free fatty acids across the human placenta. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 92, 945–952.
26Krauss-Etschmann, S, Shadid, R, Campoy, C, et al. (2007) Effects of fish-oil and folate supplementation of pregnant women on maternal and fetal plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid: a European randomized multicenter trial. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 1392–1400.
27Dunstan, JA, Mori, TA, Barden, A, et al. (2004) Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on maternal and fetal erythrocyte fatty acid composition. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 429–437.
28Manku, MS, Horrobin, DF, Morse, N, et al. (1982) Reduced levels of prostaglandin precursors in the blood of atopic patients: defective delta-6-desaturase function as a biochemical basis for atopy. Prostaglandins Leukot Med 9, 615–628.
29Wright, S (1991) Essential fatty acids and atopic dermatitis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 71, 224–228.
30Leichsenring, M, Kochsiek, U & Paul, K (1995) (n-6)-Fatty acids in plasma lipids of children with atopic bronchial asthma. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 6, 209–212.
31Rocklin, RE, Thistle, L, Gallant, L, et al. (1986) Altered arachidonic acid content in polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells from patients with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. Lipids 21, 17–20.
32Galli, E, Picardo, M, Chini, L, et al. (1994) Analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in newborn sera: a screening tool for atopic disease? Br J Dermatol 130, 752–756.
33Yu, G, Kjellman, NI & Bjorksten, B (1996) Phospholipid fatty acids in cord blood: family history and development of allergy. Acta Paediatr 85, 679–683.
34Beck, M, Zelczak, G & Lentze, MJ (2000) Abnormal fatty acid composition in umbilical cord blood of infants at high risk of atopic disease. Acta Paediatr 89, 279–284.
35Newson, RB, Shaheen, SO, Henderson, AJ, et al. (2004) Umbilical cord and maternal blood red cell fatty acids and early childhood wheezing and eczema. J Allergy Clin Immunol 114, 531–537.
36Dunstan, JA, Simmer, K, Dixon, G, et al. (2008) Cognitive assessment of children at age 2(1/2) years after maternal fish oil supplementation in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 93, F45–F50.
37Escolano-Margarit, MV, Ramos, R, Beyer, J, et al. (2011) Prenatal DHA status and neurological outcome in children at age 5·5 years are positively associated. J Nutr 141, 1216–1223.
38Donahue, SM, Rifas-Shiman, SL, Gold, DR, et al. (2011) Prenatal fatty acid status and child adiposity at age 3 y: results from a US pregnancy cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 780–788.
39Golding, J, Pembrey, M & Jones, R (2001) ALSPAC – the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. I. Study methodology. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 15, 74–87.
40Lepage, G & Roy, CC (1986) Direct transesterification of all classes of lipids in a one-step reaction. J Lipid Res 27, 114–120.
41Masood, MA & Salem, N Jr (2008) High-throughput analysis of plasma fatty acid methyl esters employing robotic transesterification and fast gas chromatography. Lipids 43, 171–180.
42Jones, RW, Ring, S, Tyfield, L, et al. (2000) A new human genetic resource: a DNA bank established as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). Eur J Hum Genet 8, 653–660.
43Davey, SG & Ebrahim, S (2003) ‘Mendelian randomization’: can genetic epidemiology contribute to understanding environmental determinants of disease? Int J Epidemiol 32, 1–22.
44Weiler, H, Fitzpatrick-Wong, S, Schellenberg, J, et al. (2005) Maternal and cord blood long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are predictive of bone mass at birth in healthy term-born infants. Pediatr Res 58, 1254–1258.
45Sabel, KG, Lundqvist-Persson, C, Bona, E, et al. (2009) Fatty acid patterns early after premature birth, simultaneously analysed in mothers’ food, breast milk and serum phospholipids of mothers and infants. Lipids Health Dis 8, 20.
46Kilari, AS, Mehendale, SS, Dangat, KD, et al. (2010) Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mothers of preterm babies. J Perinat Med 38, 659–664.
47Berghaus, TM, Demmelmair, H & Koletzko, B (2000) Essential fatty acids and their long-chain polyunsaturated metabolites in maternal and cord plasma triglycerides during late gestation. Biol Neonate 77, 96–100.
48Ruyle, M, Connor, WE, Anderson, GJ, et al. (1990) Placental transfer of essential fatty acids in humans: venous-arterial difference for docosahexaenoic acid in fetal umbilical erythrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87, 7902–7906.
49Pembrey, M (2004) The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC): a resource for genetic epidemiology. Eur J Endocrinol 151, Suppl. 3, U125–U129.
50Benjamini, Y (1995) Controlling the false discovery rate – a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J Royal Statist Soc Series B – Methodological 57, 289–300.
51Lattka, E, Eggers, S, Moeller, G, et al. (2010) A common FADS2 promoter polymorphism increases promoter activity and facilitates binding of transcription factor ELK1. J Lipid Res 51, 182–191.
52Illig, T, Gieger, C, Zhai, G, et al. (2010) A genomewide perspective of genetic variation in human metabolism. Nat Genet 42, 137–141.
53Larque, E, Demmelmair, H, Berger, B, et al. (2003) In vivo investigation of the placental transfer of (13)C-labeled fatty acids in humans. J Lipid Res 44, 49–55.
54Haggarty, P, Page, K, Abramovich, DR, et al. (1997) Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid transport across the perfused human placenta. Placenta 18, 635–642.
55Gil-Sanchez, A, Larque, E, Demmelmair, H, et al. (2010) Maternal-fetal in vivo transfer of [13C]docosahexaenoic and other fatty acids across the human placenta 12 h after maternal oral intake. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 115–122.
56Haggarty, P, Ashton, J, Joynson, M, et al. (1999) Effect of maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration on transport by the human placenta. Biol Neonate 75, 350–359.
57Hrelia, S, Celadon, M, Rossi, CA, et al. (1990) Delta-6-desaturation of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids in aged rats: a kinetic analysis. Biochem Int 22, 659–667.
58Yamaoka, K, Okayasu, T & Ishibashi, T (1986) Product identification and determination of optimal condition of 8, 11, 14-eicosatrienoic acid desaturation in rat liver microsomes. Hokkaido Igaku Zasshi 61, 755–765.
59Chambaz, J, Ravel, D, Manier, MC, et al. (1985) Essential fatty acids interconversion in the human fetal liver. Biol Neonate 47, 136–140.
60Poisson, JP, Dupuy, RP, Sarda, P, et al. (1993) Evidence that liver microsomes of human neonates desaturate essential fatty acids. Biochim Biophys Acta 1167, 109–113.
61Rodriguez, A, Sarda, P, Nessmann, C, et al. (1998) Fatty acid desaturase activities and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in human liver between the seventeenth and thirty-sixth gestational weeks. Am J Obstet Gynecol 179, 1063–1070.
62Rodriguez, A, Sarda, P, Nessmann, C, et al. (1998) Δ6- and Δ5-desaturase activities in the human fetal liver: kinetic aspects. J Lipid Res 39, 1825–1832.
63Sauerwald, TU, Hachey, DL, Jensen, CL, et al. (1997) Intermediates in endogenous synthesis of C22:6 omega 3 and C20:4 omega 6 by term and preterm infants. Pediatr Res 41, 183–187.
64Carnielli, VP, Wattimena, DJ, Luijendijk, IH, et al. (1996) The very low birth weight premature infant is capable of synthesizing arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids from linoleic and linolenic acids. Pediatr Res 40, 169–174.
65Carnielli, VP, Simonato, M, Verlato, G, et al. (2007) Synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in preterm newborns fed formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 1323–1330.
66Ravel, D, Chambaz, J, Pepin, D, et al. (1985) Essential fatty acid interconversion during gestation in the rat. Biochim Biophys Acta 833, 161–164.
67Ortega-Senovilla, H, Alvino, G, Taricco, E, et al. (2009) Gestational diabetes mellitus upsets the proportion of fatty acids in umbilical arterial but not venous plasma. Diabetes Care 32, 120–122.
68Pankiewicz, E, Cretti, A, Ronin-Walknowska, E, et al. (2007) Maternal adipose tissue, maternal and cord blood essential fatty acids and their long-chain polyunsaturated derivatives composition after elective caesarean section. Early Hum Dev 83, 459–464.