Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 21
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Jiang, Tingting Gao, Xuejin Wu, Chao Tian, Feng Lei, Qiucheng Bi, Jingcheng Xie, Bingxian Wang, Hong Chen, Shuai and Wang, Xinying 2016. Apple-Derived Pectin Modulates Gut Microbiota, Improves Gut Barrier Function, and Attenuates Metabolic Endotoxemia in Rats with Diet-Induced Obesity. Nutrients, Vol. 8, Issue. 3, p. 126.

    Lambert, Jennifer E. Parnell, Jill A. Tunnicliffe, Jasmine M. Han, Jay Sturzenegger, Troy and Reimer, Raylene A. 2016. Consuming yellow pea fiber reduces voluntary energy intake and body fat in overweight/obese adults in a 12-week randomized controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition,

    Ramdath, Dan Renwick, Simone and Duncan, Alison M. 2016. The Role of Pulses in the Dietary Management of Diabetes. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, Vol. 40, Issue. 4, p. 355.

    Saraf-Bank, Sahar Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad Faghihimani, Elham and Azadbakht, Leila 2016. Effects of Legume-Enriched Diet on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Individuals at Risk for Diabetes: A Crossover Study. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 35, Issue. 1, p. 31.

    Hashemi, Zohre Yang, Kaiyuan Yang, Han Jin, Alena Ozga, Jocelyn and Chan, Catherine B. 2015. Cooking enhances beneficial effects of pea seed coat consumption on glucose tolerance, incretin, and pancreatic hormones in high-fat-diet–fed rats. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Vol. 40, Issue. 4, p. 323.

    Lal, Garima Goel 2015. Nutraceutical and Functional Food Processing Technology.

    Wennberg, M. Söderberg, S. Uusitalo, U. Tuomilehto, J. Shaw, J. E. Zimmet, P. Z. Kowlessur, S. Pauvaday, V. and Magliano, D. J. 2015. High consumption of pulses is associated with lower risk of abnormal glucose metabolism in women in Mauritius. Diabetic Medicine, Vol. 32, Issue. 4, p. 513.

    Chan, Catherine B. Gupta, Joel Kozicky, Lisa Hashemi, Zohre and Yang, Kaiyuan 2014. Improved glucose tolerance in insulin-resistant rats after pea hull feeding is associated with changes in lipid metabolism-targeted transcriptome. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Vol. 39, Issue. 10, p. 1112.

    Corneau, Louise Lamarche, Benoît Dodin, Sylvie and Lemieux, Simone 2014. Sex-Related Differences in the Effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Glucose and Insulin Homeostasis. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, Vol. 2014, p. 1.

    Eslinger, Amanda J. Eller, Lindsay K. and Reimer, Raylene A. 2014. Yellow pea fiber improves glycemia and reduces Clostridium leptum in diet-induced obese rats. Nutrition Research, Vol. 34, Issue. 8, p. 714.

    Jha, Srivardhini K. McDermott, John Bacon, Gordon Lannon, Chris Joshi, P. K. and Dubé, Laurette 2014. Convergent innovation for affordable nutrition, health, and health care: the global pulse roadmap. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 1331, Issue. 1, p. 142.

    Lambert, Jennifer E Parnell, Jill A Han, Jay Sturzenegger, Troy Paul, Heather A Vogel, Hans J and Reimer, Raylene A 2014. Evaluation of yellow pea fibre supplementation on weight loss and the gut microbiota: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Gastroenterology, Vol. 14, Issue. 1,

    López-Barrios, Lidia Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A. and Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O. 2014. Bioactive Peptides and Hydrolysates from Pulses and Their Potential Use as Functional Ingredients. Journal of Food Science, Vol. 79, Issue. 3, p. R273.

    Struja, Tristan Richard, Aline Linseisen, Jakob Eichholzer, Monika and Rohrmann, Sabine 2014. The association between urinary phytoestrogen excretion and components of the metabolic syndrome in NHANES. European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 53, Issue. 6, p. 1371.

    Marinangeli, Christopher P. F. and Jones, Peter J. H. 2013. Gazing into the crystal ball: future considerations for ensuring sustained growth of the functional food and nutraceutical marketplace. Nutrition Research Reviews, Vol. 26, Issue. 01, p. 12.

    Dahl, Wendy J. Foster, Lauren M. and Tyler, Robert T. 2012. Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.). British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 108, Issue. S1, p. S3.

    Marinangeli, Christopher P. F. and Jones, Peter J. H. 2012. Pulse grain consumption and obesity: effects on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, body composition, fat deposition and satiety. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 108, Issue. S1, p. S46.

    Udahogora, Margaret 2012. Cereals and Pulses.

    Whitlock, Kevin A. Kozicky, Lisa Jin, Alena Yee, Homun Ha, Christine Morris, Jill Field, Catherine J. Bell, Rhonda C. Ozga, Jocelyn A. and Chan, Catherine B. 2012. Assessment of the mechanisms exerting glucose-lowering effects of dried peas in glucose-intolerant rats. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 108, Issue. S1, p. S91.

    Marinangeli, Christopher P.F. and Jones, Peter J.H. 2011. Chronic Intake of Fractionated Yellow Pea Flour Reduces Postprandial Energy Expenditure and Carbohydrate Oxidation. Journal of Medicinal Food, Vol. 14, Issue. 12, p. 1654.


Whole and fractionated yellow pea flours reduce fasting insulin and insulin resistance in hypercholesterolaemic and overweight human subjects

  • Christopher P. F. Marinangeli (a1) and Peter J. H. Jones (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 September 2010

The objective of the present study was to compare whole pea flour (WPF) to fractionated pea flour (FPF; hulls only) for their ability to reduce risk factors associated with CVD and diabetes in overweight hypercholesterolaemic individuals. Using a cross-over design, twenty-three hypercholesterolaemic overweight men and women received two-treatment muffins/d containing WPF, FPF or white wheat flour (WF) for 28 d, followed by 28 d washout periods. Daily doses of WPF and FPF complied with the United States Department of Agriculture's recommended level of intake of half a cup of pulses/d (approximately 50 g/d). Dietary energy requirements were calculated for each study subject, and volunteers were only permitted to eat food supplied by the study personnel. Fasting insulin, body composition, urinary enterolactone levels, postprandial glucose response, as well as fasting lipid and glucose concentrations, were assessed at the beginning and at the end of each treatment. Insulin concentrations for WPF (37·8 (sem 3·4) pmol/ml, P = 0·021) and FPF (40·5 (sem 3·4) pmol/ml, P = 0·037) were lower compared with WF (50·7 (sem 3·4) pmol/ml). Insulin homeostasis modelling assessment showed that consumption of WPF and FPF decreased (P < 0·05) estimates of insulin resistance (IR) compared with WF. Android:gynoid fat ratios in women participants were lower (P = 0·027) in the WPF (1·01 (sem 0·01) group compared with the WF group (1·06 (sem 0·01). Urinary enterolactone levels tended to be higher (P = 0·087) in WPF compared with WF. Neither treatment altered circulating fasting lipids or glucose concentrations. In conclusion, under a controlled diet paradigm, a daily consumption of whole and fractionated yellow pea flours at doses equivalent to half a cup of yellow peas/d reduced IR, while WPF reduced android adiposity in women.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Whole and fractionated yellow pea flours reduce fasting insulin and insulin resistance in hypercholesterolaemic and overweight human subjects
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Whole and fractionated yellow pea flours reduce fasting insulin and insulin resistance in hypercholesterolaemic and overweight human subjects
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Whole and fractionated yellow pea flours reduce fasting insulin and insulin resistance in hypercholesterolaemic and overweight human subjects
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr P. J. H. Jones, fax +1 204 474 7552, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1FB Hu & WC Willett (2002) Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. JAMA 288, 25692578.

5Y Yang , L Zhou , Y Gu , (2007) Dietary chickpeas reverse visceral adiposity, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance in rats induced by a chronic high-fat diet. Br J Nutr 98, 720726.

6BJ Venn & JI Mann (2004) Cereal grains, legumes and diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 14431461.

7W Mazur (1998) Phytoestrogen content in foods. Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab 12, 729742.

8L Valentin-Blasini , MA Sadowski , D Walden , (2005) Urinary phytoestrogen concentrations in the U.S. population (1999–2000). J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 15, 509523.

13DR Matthews , JP Hosker , AS Rudenski , (1985) Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 28, 412419.

17JK Pittaway , IK Robertson & MJ Ball (2008) Chickpeas may influence fatty acid and fiber intake in an ad libitum diet, leading to small improvements in serum lipid profile and glycemic control. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 10091013.

18MO Weickert , M Mohlig , C Schofl , (2006) Cereal fiber improves whole-body insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese women. Diabetes Care 29, 775780.

19HN Ginsberg (2000) Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. J Clin Invest 106, 453458.

20KE Watson , AL Peters Harmel & G Matson (2003) Atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus: the role of insulin resistance. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 8, 253260.

21JS de Munter , FB Hu , D Spiegelman , (2007) Whole grain, bran, and germ intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study and systematic review. PLoS Med 4, e261.

22MB Schulze , M Schulz , C Heidemann , (2007) Fiber and magnesium intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 167, 956965.

23A Thorburn , J Muir & J Proietto (1993) Carbohydrate fermentation decreases hepatic glucose output in healthy subjects. Metabolism 42, 780785.

27DB Savage , KF Petersen & GI Shulman (2007) Disordered lipid metabolism and the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Physiol Rev 87, 507520.

28HJ Delargy , KR O'Sullivan , RJ Fletcher , (1997) Effects of amount and type of dietary fibre (soluble and insoluble) on short-term control of appetite. Int J Food Sci Nutr 48, 6777.

30DG Carey , AB Jenkins , LV Campbell , (1996) Abdominal fat and insulin resistance in normal and overweight women: direct measurements reveal a strong relationship in subjects at both low and high risk of NIDDM. Diabetes 45, 633638.

31LB Tanko & C Christiansen (2006) Adipose tissue, insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation: implications for atherogenesis and the cardiovascular harm of estrogen plus progestogen therapy. Climacteric 9, 169180.

32K Morito , T Hirose , J Kinjo , (2001) Interaction of phytoestrogens with estrogen receptors alpha and beta. Biol Pharm Bull 24, 351356.

33K Morito , T Aomori , T Hirose , (2002) Interaction of phytoestrogens with estrogen receptors alpha and beta (II). Biol Pharm Bull 25, 4852.

35P Penttinen , J Jaehrling , AE Damdimopoulos , (2007) Diet-derived polyphenol metabolite enterolactone is a tissue-specific estrogen receptor activator. Endocrinology 148, 48754886.

36S Rodriguez-Cuenca , M Monjo , AM Proenza , (2005) Depot differences in steroid receptor expression in adipose tissue: possible role of the local steroid milieu. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288, E200E207.

37B Richelsen (1986) Increased alpha 2- but similar beta-adrenergic receptor activities in subcutaneous gluteal adipocytes from females compared with males. Eur J Clin Invest 16, 302309.

38SB Pedersen , K Kristensen , PA Hermann , (2004) Estrogen controls lipolysis by up-regulating alpha2A-adrenergic receptors directly in human adipose tissue through the estrogen receptor alpha. Implications for the female fat distribution. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 18691878.

39CK Sites , BC Cooper , MJ Toth , (2007) Effect of a daily supplement of soy protein on body composition and insulin secretion in postmenopausal women. Fertil Steril 88, 16091617.

43DJ Jenkins , CW Kendall , M Axelsen , (2000) Viscous and nonviscous fibres, nonabsorbable and low glycaemic index carbohydrates, blood lipids and coronary heart disease. Curr Opin Lipidol 11, 4956.

44N Guevin , H Jacques , A Nadeau , (1996) Postprandial glucose, insulin, and lipid responses to four meals containing unpurified dietary fiber in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), hypertriglyceridemic subjects. J Am Coll Nutr 15, 389396.

45H Araya , N Pak , G Vera , (2003) Digestion rate of legume carbohydrates and glycemic index of legume-based meals. Int J Food Sci Nutr 54, 119126.

46H Araya , P Contreras , M Alvina , (2002) A comparison between an in vitro method to determine carbohydrate digestion rate and the glycemic response in young men. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 735739.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *