Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 73
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ampatzoglou, Antonios Williams, Charlotte L. Atwal, Kiranjit K. Maidens, Catherine M. Ross, Alastair B. Thielecke, Frank Jonnalagadda, Satya S. Kennedy, Orla B. and Yaqoob, Parveen 2016. Effects of increased wholegrain consumption on immune and inflammatory markers in healthy low habitual wholegrain consumers. European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 55, Issue. 1, p. 183.

    Bresciani, Letizia Scazzina, Francesca Leonardi, Roberto Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta Newell, Michael Dall'Asta, Margherita Melegari, Camilla Ray, Sumantra Brighenti, Furio and Del Rio, Daniele 2016. Bioavailability and metabolism of phenolic compounds from wholegrain wheat and aleurone-rich wheat bread. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research,

    Goya, Luis Martín, María Sarriá, Beatriz Ramos, Sonia Mateos, Raquel and Bravo, Laura 2016. Effect of Cocoa and Its Flavonoids on Biomarkers of Inflammation: Studies of Cell Culture, Animals and Humans. Nutrients, Vol. 8, Issue. 4, p. 212.

    Ma, Dongyun Li, Yaoguang Zhang, Jian Wang, Chenyang Qin, Haixia Ding, Huina Xie, Yingxin and Guo, Tiancai 2016. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat. Frontiers in Plant Science, Vol. 7,

    Belobrajdic, Damien P. Jobling, Stephen A. Morell, Matthew K. Taketa, Shin and Bird, Anthony R. 2015. Wholegrain barley β-glucan fermentation does not improve glucose tolerance in rats fed a high-fat diet. Nutrition Research, Vol. 35, Issue. 2, p. 162.

    Gardener, Hannah and Wright, Clinton B. 2015. The Mediterranean Diet.

    Geng, Ping Harnly, James M. and Chen, Pei 2015. Differentiation of Whole Grain from Refined Wheat (T. aestivum) Flour Using Lipid Profile of Wheat Bran, Germ, and Endosperm with UHPLC-HRAM Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 63, Issue. 27, p. 6189.

    Geng, Ping Zhang, Mengliang Harnly, James M. Luthria, Devanand L. and Chen, Pei 2015. Use of fuzzy chromatography mass spectrometric (FCMS) fingerprinting and chemometric analysis for differentiation of whole-grain and refined wheat (T. aestivum) flour. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Vol. 407, Issue. 26, p. 7875.

    Jensen, Bettina M. Adhikari, Khem B. Schnoor, Heidi J. Juel-Berg, Nanna Fomsgaard, Inge S. and Poulsen, Lars K. 2015. Quantitative analysis of absorption, metabolism, and excretion of benzoxazinoids in humans after the consumption of high- and low-benzoxazinoid diets with similar contents of cereal dietary fibres: a crossover study. European Journal of Nutrition,

    Ma, Dongyun Sun, Dexiang Li, Yaoguang Wang, Chenyang Xie, Yingxin and Guo, Tiancai 2015. Effect of nitrogen fertilisation and irrigation on phenolic content, phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant activity of winter wheat grain. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 95, Issue. 5, p. 1039.

    Nicoll, Rachel Howard, John and Henein, Michael 2015. A Review of the Effect of Diet on Cardiovascular Calcification. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 16, Issue. 4, p. 8861.

    Sarriá, Beatriz Martínez-López, Sara Sierra-Cinos, José Luis Garcia-Diz, Luis Goya, Luis Mateos, Raquel and Bravo, Laura 2015. Effects of bioactive constituents in functional cocoa products on cardiovascular health in humans. Food Chemistry, Vol. 174, p. 214.

    Alissa, Eman M. and Ferns, Gordon A. 2014. Functional Foods and Dietary Supplements.

    Carnevali, Andrea Gianotti, Andrea Benedetti, Serena Tagliamonte, Maria Chiara Primiterra, Mariangela Laghi, Luca Danesi, Francesca Valli, Veronica Ndaghijimana, Maurice Capozzi, Francesco Canestrari, Franco and Bordoni, Alessandra 2014. Role of Kamut® brand khorasan wheat in the counteraction of non-celiac wheat sensitivity and oxidative damage. Food Research International, Vol. 63, p. 218.

    Driver, Todd H. Shlipak, Michael G. Katz, Ronit Goldenstein, Leonard Sarnak, Mark J. Hoofnagle, Andrew N. Siscovick, David S. Kestenbaum, Bryan de Boer, Ian H. and Ix, Joachim H. 2014. Low Serum Bicarbonate and Kidney Function Decline: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol. 64, Issue. 4, p. 534.

    Georgoulis, Michael Kontogianni, Meropi D. Tileli, Nafsika Margariti, Aikaterini Fragopoulou, Elisabeth Tiniakos, Dina Zafiropoulou, Rodessa and Papatheodoridis, George 2014. The impact of cereal grain consumption on the development and severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 53, Issue. 8, p. 1727.

    Hajihashemi, Parisa Azadbakht, Leila Hashemipor, Mahin Kelishadi, Roya and Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad 2014. Whole-grain intake favorably affects markers of systemic inflammation in obese children: A randomized controlled crossover clinical trial. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, Vol. 58, Issue. 6, p. 1301.

    Hruby, Adela O'Donnell, Christopher J. Jacques, Paul F. Meigs, James B. Hoffmann, Udo and McKeown, Nicola M. 2014. Magnesium Intake Is Inversely Associated With Coronary Artery Calcification. JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, p. 59.

    Kumar, Maushmi S. and Mishra, Shruti 2014. Functional Foods and Dietary Supplements.

    Lendway, William Hesse, David and Marquart, Len 2014. Minneapolis/St. Paul Chefs’ Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Whole Grain Use. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, Vol. 17, Issue. 2, p. 122.


Whole grain intake and its cross-sectional association with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, diabetes and subclinical CVD: The MESA Study

  • Pamela L. Lutsey (a1), David R. Jacobs (a1) (a2), Sujata Kori (a3), Elizabeth Mayer-Davis (a4), Steven Shea (a5), Lyn M. Steffen (a1), Moyses Szklo (a6) and Russell Tracy (a7)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 August 2007

We examined the relationship between whole grain intake and obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, diabetes and subclinical CVD using baseline data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Whole grain intake was measured by a 127-item FFQ in 5496 men and women free of CHD and previously known diabetes. Mean whole grain intake was 0·5 (sd 0·5) servings per d; biochemical measures reflect fasting levels. After adjustment for demographic and health behaviour variables, mean differences for the highest quintile of whole grain intake minus the lowest quintile of intake were 0·6 kg/m2 for BMI, 0·36 mg/l for C-reactive protein, 0·82 μmol/l for homocysteine, 0·15 mU/l*mmol/l for homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), 0·48 mU/l for serum insulin, 2·0 mg/dl for glucose and 5·7 % for prevalence of newly diagnosed impaired fasting glucose (glucose ≥ 100 mg/dl or diabetes medication). These differences represent 11–13 % of a standard deviation of BMI, HOMA, glucose and impaired fasting glucose, but 23 %, 52 % and 80 % of a standard deviation of homocysteine, C-reactive protein and insulin, respectively. An inverse association between whole grains and urine albumin excretion was suggested but retained statistical significance after adjustment only in Chinese and Hispanic participants. No associations were observed between whole grain intake and two subclinical disease measures: carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcification. Concordant with previous research, whole grain intake was inversely associated with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation and elevated fasting glucose or newly diagnosed diabetes. Counter to hypothesis, however, whole grain intake was unrelated to subclinical CVD.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Whole grain intake and its cross-sectional association with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, diabetes and subclinical CVD: The MESA Study
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Whole grain intake and its cross-sectional association with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, diabetes and subclinical CVD: The MESA Study
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Whole grain intake and its cross-sectional association with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, diabetes and subclinical CVD: The MESA Study
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: David R. Jacobs Jr., fax +1 612 624 0315, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

BE Ainsworth , WL Haskell , MC Whitt , (2000) Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32, S498S504.

DE Bild , DA Bluemke , GL Burke , (2002) Multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis: objectives and design. Am J Epidemiol 156, 871881.

G Block , M Woods , A Potosky & C Clifford (1990) Validation of a self-administered diet history questionnaire using multiple diet records. J Clin Epidemiol 43, 13271335.

JJ Carr , JR Crouse 3rd, DC Goff Jr, RB D'Agostino Jr, NP Peterson & GL Burke (2000) Evaluation of subsecond gated helical CT for quantification of coronary artery calcium and comparison with electron beam CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol 174, 915921.

JJ Carr , JC Nelson , ND Wong , (2005) Calcified coronary artery plaque measurement with cardiac CT in population-based studies: standardized protocol of Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Radiology 234, 3543.

LE Chambless , G Heiss , AR Folsom , (1997) Association of coronary heart disease incidence with carotid arterial wall thickness and major risk factors: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, 1987–1993. Am J Epidemiol 146, 483494.

LE Cleveland , AJ Moshfegh , AM Albertson & JD Goldman (2000) Dietary intake of whole grains. J Am Coll Nutr 19, Suppl. 3, 331S338S.

MA Espeland , GW Evans , LE Wagenknecht , (2003) Site-specific progression of carotid artery intimal-medial thickness. Atherosclerosis 171, 137143.

GE Fraser , J Sabate , WL Beeson & TM Strahan (1992) A possible protective effect of nut consumption on risk of coronary heart disease. The Adventist Health Study. Arch Intern Med 152, 14161424.

DR Jacobs Jr & DD Gallaher (2004) Whole grain intake and cardiovascular disease: a review. Curr Atheroscler Rep 6, 415423.

DR Jacobs Jr, KA Meyer , LH Kushi & AR Folsom (1999) Is whole grain intake associated with reduced total and cause-specific death rates in older women? The Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Public Health 89, 322329.

DR Jacobs Jr, HE Meyer & K Solvoll (2001) Reduced mortality among whole grain bread eaters in men and women in the Norwegian County Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 137143.

DR Jacobs Jr, MA Murtaugh , M Steffes , X Yu , J Roseman & FC Goetz (2002) Gender- and race-specific determination of albumin excretion rate using albumin-to-creatinine ratio in single, untimed urine specimens: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Am J Epidemiol 155, 11141119.

Y Jang , JH Lee , OY Kim , HY Park & SY Lee (2001) Consumption of whole grain and legume powder reduces insulin demand, lipid peroxidation, and plasma homocysteine concentrations in patients with coronary artery disease: randomized controlled clinical trial. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 21, 20652071.

DE King , BM Egan & ME Geesey (2003) Relation of dietary fat and fiber to elevation of C-reactive protein. Am J Cardiol 92, 13351339.

D Levy , RJ Garrison , DD Savage , WB Kannel & WP Castelli (1989) Left ventricular mass and incidence of coronary heart disease in an elderly cohort. The Framingham Heart Study. Ann Intern Med 110, 101107.

AH Lichtenstein & RM Russell (2005) Essential nutrients: food or supplements? Where should the emphasis be? JAMA 294, 351358.

DS Ludwig , MA Pereira , CH Kroenke , (1999) Dietary fiber, weight gain, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adults. JAMA 282, 15391546.

MR Malinow , PB Duell , DL Hess , (1998) Reduction of plasma homocyst(e)ine levels by breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid in patients with coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 338, 10091015.

JA Marshall , DH Bessesen & RF Hamman (1997) High saturated fat and low starch and fibre are associated with hyperinsulinaemia in a non-diabetic population: the San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. Diabetologia 40, 430438.

DR Matthews , JP Hosker , AS Rudenski , BA Naylor , DF Treacher & RC Turner (1985) Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 28, 412419.

EJ Mayer-Davis , MZ Vitolins , SL Carmichael , (1999) Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency interview in a Multi-Cultural Epidemiology Study. Ann Epidemiol 9, 314324.

JN Morris , JW Marr & DG Clayton (1977) Diet and heart: a postscript. Br Med J 2(6098), 13071314.

DH O'Leary , JF Polak , RA Kronmal , TA Manolio , GL Burke & SK Wolfson Jr (1999) Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 340, 1422.

P Pietinen , EB Rimm , P Korhonen , (1996) Intake of dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men. The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Circulation 94, 27202727.

L Qi , RM van Dam , S Liu , M Franz , C Mantzoros & FB Hu (2006) Whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber intakes and markers of systemic inflammation in diabetic women. Diabetes Care 29, 207211.

P Raggi , TQ Callister , B Cooil , (2000) Identification of patients at increased risk of first unheralded acute myocardial infarction by electron-beam computed tomography. Circulation 101, 850855.

LM Steffen , DR Jacobs Jr, MA Murtaugh , (2003a) Whole grain intake is associated with lower body mass and greater insulin sensitivity among adolescents. Am J Epidemiol 158, 243250.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *