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William H. Riker , ‘The Two-Party System and Duverger’s Law: An Essay on the History of Political Science’, American Political Science Review, 76 (1982), 753–766.
Gary W. Cox , Making Votes Count: Strategic Coordination in the World’s Electoral Systems (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997)
Gary Cox , ‘Centripetal and Centrifugal Incentives in Electoral Systems’, American Journal of Political Science, 34 (1990), 903–935
McDonald , Silvia M. Mendes and Budge , ‘What Are Elections For?’ British Journal of Political Science, 34 (2004), 1–26
Stuart N. Soroka and Christopher Wlezien , ‘Opinion-Policy Dynamics: Public Preferences and Public Expenditures in the United Kingdom’, British Journal of Political Science, 35 (2005), 665–689.
Ian Budge , ‘A New Spatial Theory of Party Competition: Uncertainty, Ideology, and Policy Equilibria Viewed Comparatively and Temporally’, British Journal of Political Science, 24 (1994), 443–467
Zeynep Somer-Topcu , ‘Timely Decisions: The Effects of Past National Elections on Party Policy Change’, Journal of Politics, 71 (2009), pp. 238–248.
M. J. Laver and Ian Budge , eds, Party Policy and Government Coalitions (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992)
Judith Bara , ‘The 2005 Manifestos: A Sense of ‘Déjà vu’?’, Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties, 16 (2006), 265–281.
David Sanders , ‘Economic Performance, Management Competence and the Outcome of the Next General Election’, Political Studies, 44 (1996), 203–231, and doing so did not significantly alter the effects of Labour-Liberal and Conservative-Liberal distance. To probe the nature of voter response, we included lagged changes in our distance measures, and this made little difference to the results as well.
James Adams and Samuel Merrill III, ‘Why Small, Centrist Third Parties Motivate Policy Divergence by Major Parties’, American Political Science Review, 100 (2006), 403–417
Gary Miller and Norman Schofield , ‘The Transformation of the Republican and Democratic Party Coalitions in the U.S.’, Perspectives on Politics, 6 (2008), 433–450
Norman Schofield and Gary Miller , ‘Elections and Activist Coalitions in the United States’, American Journal of Political Science, 51 (2007), 518–531
Norman Schofield , Gary Miller and Andrew Martin , ‘Critical Elections and Political Realignments in the USA – 1860–2000’, Political Studies, 51 (2003), 217–540
James Alt , Ivor Crewe and Bo Särlvik , ‘Angels in Plastic: The Liberal Surge in 1974’, Political Studies, 25 (1977), 343–368
See Peter Mair and Ingrid van Biezen , ’Party Membership in Twenty European Democracies, 1980–2000.’ Party Politics, 7 (2001), 5–21.
Rein Taagepera and Bernard Grofman , ‘Rethinking Duverger’s Law: Predicting the Effective Number of Parties in Plurality and PR Systems – Parties Minus Issues Equals One’, European Journal of Political Research, 13 (1985), 341–352