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Competitive Religious Entrepreneurs: Christian Missionaries and Female Education in Colonial and Post-Colonial India

Abstract

This article explores the influence of Protestant missionaries on male–female educational inequalities in colonial India. Causal mechanisms drawn from the sociology and economics of religion highlight the importance of religious competition for the provision of public goods. Competition between religious and secular groups spurred missionaries to play a key role in the development of mass female schooling. A case study of Kerala illustrates this. The statistical analysis, with district-level datasets, covers colonial and post-colonial periods for most of India. Missionary effects are compared with those of British colonial rule, modernization, European presence, education expenditures, post-colonial democracy, Islam, caste and tribal status, and land tenure. Christian missionary activity is consistently associated with better female education outcomes in both the colonial and post-colonial periods.

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Department of International Relations, London School of Economics and Political Science (email: t.lankina@lse.ac.uk); Economics Department, Power System Engineering, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, respectively. The authors wish to thank the Editor Kristian Skrede Gleditsch and three anonymous referees for providing extremely useful suggestions for improvement of the draft article, the British Academy and De Montfort University for supplying funding for this research, and the Department of Politics and International Relations at Oxford University for providing access to superb research resources as part of its Visiting Research Fellow Programme. They are particularly grateful to the staff of the Indian Institute of the Bodleian Library for support in conducting research for this project; and also grateful for advice on data and comments on earlier versions of the paper to Ed Morgan-Jones, Michael Phillips and Latika Chaudhary. Jing Pan, Inga Saikkonen and Alisa Voznaya provided excellent research assistance. Appendix tables containing additional information are available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123412000178

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71 Though some Protestant missionaries defended caste hierarchy in church practice; Frykenberg, ‘Introduction’.

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121 We are grateful to Abhijit Banerjee and Lakshmi Iyer for sharing their data.

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125 There are missing data on post-colonial educational expenditure in Kashmir.

126 Banerjee and Iyer, ‘History, Institutions, and Economic Performance’.

127 Correlation matrixes for the colonial and post-colonial variables are available from the authors upon request.

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130 In this and post-colonial analysis the colonial status variable has not been logged because it is a dummy variable.

131 Banerjee and Iyer, ‘History, Institutions, and Economic Performance’.

132 Banerjee and Iyer, ‘History, Institutions, and Economic Performance’.

133 Andrew R. Chesnut, Competitive Spirits: Latin America's New Religious Economy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003)

134 Discussed in Frykenberg, ‘Introduction’, p. 9.

135 Frykenberg, ed., Christians and Missionaries, pp. 127–154

136 Commission of Inquiry, Village Education.

137 Jeffrey Robin, ‘Governments and Culture: How Women Made Kerala Literate’, Pacific Affairs, 60 (1987), 447472

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138 Lipset, Seong and Torres, ‘Comparative Analysis’; Barro, ‘Determinants’. The Appendix Table 4 shows though that colonial status positively affects overall literacy levels in the post-colonial, though not colonial period.

139 Chaudhary Latika, ‘Determinants of Primary Schooling in British India’, Journal of Economic History, 69 (2009), 269302

140 Banerjee and Iyer, ‘History, Institutions, and Economic Performance’.

* Department of International Relations, London School of Economics and Political Science (email: ); Economics Department, Power System Engineering, Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, respectively. The authors wish to thank the Editor Kristian Skrede Gleditsch and three anonymous referees for providing extremely useful suggestions for improvement of the draft article, the British Academy and De Montfort University for supplying funding for this research, and the Department of Politics and International Relations at Oxford University for providing access to superb research resources as part of its Visiting Research Fellow Programme. They are particularly grateful to the staff of the Indian Institute of the Bodleian Library for support in conducting research for this project; and also grateful for advice on data and comments on earlier versions of the paper to Ed Morgan-Jones, Michael Phillips and Latika Chaudhary. Jing Pan, Inga Saikkonen and Alisa Voznaya provided excellent research assistance. Appendix tables containing additional information are available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123412000178

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