This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
Ronni Abney , James Adams , Michael Clark , Malcolm Easton , Lawrence Ezrow , Spyros Kosmidis Anja Neundorf . Forthcoming, 2013. When Does Valence Matter? Heightened Valence Effects for Governing Parties During Election Campaigns. Party Politics.
James Adams . 2001. Party Competition and Responsible Party Government: A Theory of Spatial Competition Based Upon Insights from Behavioural Voting Research. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
James Adams , Michael Clark , Lawrence Ezrow Garrett Glasgow . 2006. Are Niche Parties Fundamentally Different From Mainstream Parties? The Causes and the Electoral Consequences of Western European Parties’ Policy Shifts, 1976–1998. American Journal of Political Science 50:513–529.
James Adams Lawrence Ezrow . 2009. Who Do European Parties Represent? How Western European Parties Represent the Policy Preferences of Opinion Leaders. Journal of Politics 71:206–223.
James Adams , Lawrence Ezrow , Samuel Merrill III Zeynep Somer-Topcu . Forthcoming, 2013. Does Collective Responsibility for Performance Alter Party Strategies? Policy-Seeking Parties in Proportional Systems. British Journal of Political Science.
James Adams , Samuel Merrill III Bernard Grofman . 2005. A Unified Theory of Party Competition. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Christopher J Anderson . 2000. Economic Voting and Political Context: A Comparative Perspective. Electoral Studies 19:151–170.
Éric Belanger Bonnie Meguid . 2008. Issue Salience, Issue Ownership, and Issue-Based Vote Choice. Electoral Studies 27:477–491.
M. Daniel Bernhardt Daniel E. Ingberman . 1985. Candidate Reputations and the ‘Incumbency Effect’. Journal of Public Economics 27:47–67.
James Burk . 1999. Public Support for Peacekeeping in Lebanon and Somalia: Assessing the Casualties Hypothesis. Political Science Quarterly 114:53–78.
Matthew K. Buttice Walter J. Stone . 2012. Candidates Matter: Policy and Quality Differences in Congressional Elections. Journal of Politics 74 (3):870–887.
Michael Clark . 2009. Valence and Electoral Outcomes in Western Europe, 1976–1998. Electoral Studies 28:111–122.
Gary Cox . 1990. Centripetal and Centrifugal Incentives in Electoral Systems. American Journal of Political Science 34:905–935.
Gary Cox . 1997. Making Votes Count. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Russell J. Dalton , David M. Farrell Ian McAllister . 2011. Political Parties and Democratic Linkage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jay K Dow . 2001. A Comparative Spatial Analysis of Majoritarian and Proportional Elections. Electoral Studies 20:109–125.
James M. Enelow Melvin J. Hinich . 1982. Nonspatial Candidate Characteristics and Electoral Competition. Journal of Politics 44:115–130.
Scott Feld Bernard Grofman . 1991. Incumbency Advantage, Voter Loyalty and the Benefit of the Doubt. Journal of Theoretical Politics 3:115–137.
Carolyn L Funk . 1999. Bringing the Candidate into Models of Candidate Evaluations. Journal of Politics 61:700–720.
Timothy Groseclose . 2001. A Model of Candidate Location when One Candidate Has a Valence Advantage. American Journal of Political Science 45:862–886.
Andrea B Haupt . 2010. Parties’ Responses to Economic Globalization: What is Left for the Left and Right for the Right? Party Politics 16 (1):5–27.
Ron Hillebrand Galen Irwin . 1999. Changing Strategies: The Dilemma of the Dutch Labor Party. Pp. 112–140 in Policy, Office, or Votes? How Political Parties in Western Europe Make Hard Decisions, edited by Wolfgang Muller and Kaare Strøm. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Anthony King . 2002. Do Leaders’ Personalities Really Matter? Pp. 1–43 in Leaders’ Personalities and the Outcomes of Democratic Elections, edited by Anthony King. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Michael Laver , Kenneth Benoit John Garry . 2003. Extracting Policy Positions from Political Texts Using Words as Data. American Political Science Review 97:311–331.
Carl McCurley Jeffery J. Mondak . 1995. Inspected by #1184063113: The Influence of Incumbents’ Competence and Integrity in U.S. House Elections. American Journal of Political Science 39:864–885.
Anthony McGann . 2002. The Advantages of Ideological Cohesion: A Model of Constituency Representation and Electoral Competition in Multiparty Democracies. Journal of Theoretical Politics 14:37–70.
Gary Miller Norman Schofield . 2003. Activists and Partisan Realignment in the United States. American Political Science Review 97:245–260.
Jeffery J Mondak . 1995. Competence, Integrity, and the Electoral Success of Congressional Incumbents. Journal of Politics 57:1043–1069.
Daniel L Nielsen . 2003. Supplying Trade Reform: Political Institutions and Liberalization in Middle-Income Presidential Democracies. American Journal of Political Science 47:470–491.
Mark S. Pancer , Steven D. Brown Cathy Widdis Barr . 1999. Forming Impressions of Political Leaders: A Cross-National Comparison. Political Psychology 20:345–368.
Sergi Pardos-Prado . 2012. Valence Beyond Consenus. Electoral Studies 31:342–352.
Riccardo Pelizzo . 2003. Party Position or Party Direction? An Analysis of Party Manifesto Data. West European Politics 26:67–89.
John R Petrocik . 1996. Issue Ownership in Presidential Elections, with a 1980 Case Study. American Journal of Political Science 40:825–850.
Norman Schofield . 2003. Valence Competition in the Spatial Stochastic Model. Journal of Theoretical Politics 15:371–383.
Norman Schofield Itai Sened . 2005. Modeling the Interaction of Parties, Activists, and Voters: Why is the Political Center so Empty? European Journal of Political Research 44:355–390.
Donald Share . 1999. From Policy-Seeking to Office-Seeking: The Metamorphosis of the of the Spanish Socialist Workers Party. Pp. 89–111 in Policy, Office, or Votes? How Political Parties in Western Europe Make Hard Decisions, edited by Wolfgang Muller and Kaare Strøm. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Zeynep Somer-Topcu . 2009. Timely Decisions: The Effects of Past National Elections on Party Policy. Journal of Politics 71:238–248.
Walter J. Stone Elizabeth Simas . 2010. Candidate Valence and Ideological Positions in U.S. House Elections. American Journal of Political Science 54:371–388.
John L. Sullivan , John H. Aldrich , Eugene Borgida Wendy Rahn . 1990. Candidate Appraisal and Human Nature: Man and Superman in the 1984 Election. Political Psychology 11:459–484.
Rick L Williams . 2000. A Note on Robust Variance Estimation for Cluster-Correlated Data. Biometrics 56:645–646.
Donald A Wittman . 1977. Candidates with Policy Preferences: A Dynamic Model. Journal of Economic Theory 14:180–189.
Donald A Wittman . 2005. Valence Characteristics, Costly Policy and the Median-Crossing Property: A Diagrammatic Exposition. Public Choice 124 (3):365–382.
Donald A Wittman . 2007. Candidate Quality, Pressure Group Endorsements, and the Nature of Political Advertising. European Journal of Political Economy 23 (2):360–378.