Aldrich John. 1995. Why Parties? The Origin and Transformation of Political Parties in America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Aleman Eduardo, and Tsebelis George. 2011. Political Parties and Government Coalitions in the Americas. Journal of Politics in Latin America
Amorim Neto Octavio, and Cox Gary W.. 1997. Electoral Institutions, Cleavage Structures, and the Number of Parties. American Journal of Political Science
Arriola Leonardo R.
2009. Patronage and Political Stability in Africa. Comparative Political Studies
Axelrod Robert. 1970. Conflict of Interest. Chicago, IL: Markham Publishing Company.
Baker Andy, and Greene Kenneth F.. 2011. The Latin American Lefts Mandate: Free-Market Policies and Issue Voting in New Democracies. World Politics
Bandyopadhyay Siddhartha, Chatterjee Kalyan, and Sjöström Tomas. 2011. Pre-electoral Coalitions and Post-election Bargaining. Quarterly Journal of Political Science
Bawn Kathleen, and Rosenbluth Frances. 2006. Short Versus Long Coalitions: Electoral Accountability and the Size of the Public Sector. American Journal of Political Science
Blais Andre, and Indridason Indridi H.. 2007. Making Candidates Count: The Logic of Electoral Alliances in Two Round Legislative Elections. Journal of Politics
Calvo Ernesto, and Murillo Maria Victoria. 2004. Who Delivers? Partisan Clients in the Argentine Electoral Market. American Journal of Political Science
Carey John M., and Siavelis Peter M.. 2005. Insurance for Good Losers and the Survival of Chile’s Concertación. Latin American Politics and Society
Carroll Royce, and Cox Gary W.. 2007. The Logic of Gamson’s Law: Pre-Election Coalitions and Portfolio Allocations. American Journal of Political Science
Cheibub José Antonio. 2007. Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Colomer Josep M., and Negretto Gabriel L.. 2005. Can Presidentialism Work Like Parliamentarism. Government and Opposition
Conaghan Catherine M. 1995. Politicians Against Parties: Discord and Disconnection in Ecuador’s Party System. In Building Democratic Institutions: Party Systems in Latin America, edited by Scott Mainwaring and Timothy R. Scully, 434–458. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Coppedge Michael. 1997. A Classification of Latin American Political Parties, Working Paper No. 244. Notre Dame, IN: Kellogg Institute, University of Notre Dame.
Coppedge Michael. 1998. The Dynamic Diversity of Latin American Party Systems. Party Politics
Cox Gary, and McCubbins Mathew. 1993. Legislative Leviathan: Party Government in the House. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Debus Marc. 2009. Pre-Electoral Commitments and Government Formation. Public Choice
Desposato Scott W. 2006. Parties for Rent? Careerism, Ideology, and Party Switching in Brazil’s Chamber of Deputies. American Journal of Political Science
Ferrara Federico, and Herron Erik S.. 2005. Going It Alone? Strategic Entry Under Mixed Electoral Rules. American Journal of Political Science
Gamarra Eduardo, and Malloy James M.. 1995. The Patrimonial Dynamics of Party Politics in Bolivia. In Building Democratic Institutions, edited by Scott Mainwaring and Timothy R. Scully, 399–433. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Golder Matt. 2006a. Presidential Coattails and Legislative Fragmentation. American Journal of Political Science
Golder Sona Nadenichek. 2006b. The Logic of Pre-Electoral Coalition Formation. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University.
Golder Sona Nadenichek. 2006c. Pre-Electoral Coalition Formation in Parliamentary Democracies. British Journal of Political Science
Goodin Robert E., Guth Werner, and Sausgruber Rupert. 2008. When to Coalesce: Early Versus Late Coalition Announcements in an Experimental Democracy. British Journal of Political Science
Hicken Allen, and Stoll Heather. 2011. Presidents and Parties: How Presidential Elections Shape Coordination in Legislative Elections. Comparative Political Studies
Johnson Gregg B., and Crisp Brian F.. 2003. Mandates, Powers, and Policies. American Journal of Political Science
Jones Mark P. 1994. Presidential Election Laws and Multipartism in Latin America. Political Research Quarterly
Jones Mark P. 1999. Electoral Laws and the Effective Number of Candidates in Presidential Elections. Journal of Politics
Kadima Denis, and Owuor Felix. 2006. The National Rainbow Coalition: Achievements and Challenges of Building and Sustaining a Broad-Based Political Party Coalition in Kenya. In The Politics of Political Party Coalitions, edited by Denis Kadima, 179–221. Johannesburg: EISA, Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung.
Kellam Marisa. 2015. Parties for Hire: How Particularistic Parties Influence Presidents’ Governing Strategies. Party Politics
Kitschelt Herbert. 2000. Linkages Between Citizens and Politicians in Democratic Polities. Comparative Political Studies
Kitschelt Herbert, Hawkins Kirk A., Luna Juan Pablo, Rosas Guillermo, and Zechmeister Elizabeth J.. 2010. Latin American Party Systems. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kitschelt Herbert, and Wilkinson Steven I., eds. 2007. Patrons, Clients and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Linz Juan. 1994. Presidential or Parliamentary: Does It Make a Difference? In The Failure of Presidential Democracy, Volume 1, edited by Juan Linz and Arturo Valenzuela, 3–88. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Lyne Mona. 2008. The Voter’s Dilemma and Democratic Accountability. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Machado Aline. 2009. Minimum Winning Electoral Coalitions Under Presidentialism: Reality or Fiction? The Case of Brazil. Latin American Politics and Society
Mainwaring Scott. 1993. Presidentialism, Multipartism, and Democracy: The Difficult Combination. Comparative Political Studies
Mainwaring Scott. 1999. Rethinking Party Systems in the Third Wave of Democratization: The Case of Brazil. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Mainwaring Scott, and Shugart Mathew, eds. 1997. Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Martin Lanny W., and Vanberg Georg. 2008. Coalition Government and Political Communication. Political Research Quarterly
Martin Lanny W., and Stevenson Randolph T.. 2001. Government Formation in Parliamentary Democracies. American Journal of Political Science
O’Donnell Guillermo A. 1994. Delegative Democracy. Journal of Democracy
Payne J. Mark, Zovatto G. Daniel, and Mateo Díaz Mercedes. 2007. Democracies in Development: Politics and Reform in Latin America. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.
Perez-Linan Anibal. 2006. Evaluating Presidential Runoff Elections. Electoral Studies
Pop-Eleches Grigore. 2009. From Economic Crisis to Reform: IMF Programs in Latin America and Eastern Europe. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Riker William. 1962. The Theory of Political Coalitions. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Samuels David J. 2002. Presidentialized Parties: The Separation of Powers and Party Organization and Behavior. Comparative Political Studies
Samuels David, and Shugart Matthew. 2003. Presidentialism, Elections and Representation. Journal of Theoretical Politics
Samuels David, and Shugart Matthew. 2010. Presidents, Parties, and Prime Ministers: How the Separation of Powers Affects Party Organization and Behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Schwartz Thomas. 1989. Why Parties? Unpublished research memorandum. Los Angeles: University of California.
Shugart Matthew Soberg, and Carey John M.. 1992. Presidents and Assemblies: Constitutional Design and Electoral Dynamics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Spoon Jae-Jae M., and West Karleen Jones. 2015. Alone or Together? How Institutions Affect Party Entry in Presidential Elections in Europe and South America. Party Politics
Stokes Susan C. 2001. Mandates and Democracy: Neoliberalism by Surprise in Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Strøm Kaare. 1990. Minority Government and Majority Rule. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Taylor-Robinson Michelle M. 2010. Do the Poor Count? Democratic Institutions and Accountability in a Context of Poverty. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Tsuda Miwa. 2010. The Experiences of the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC): Political Parties in Kenya from 1991 to 2007. Discussion Paper No. 222.2010.02, IDE. Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies. Available from http://hdl.handle.net/2344/871, accessed 22 July 2011.
van de Walle Nicolas. 2003. Presidentialism and Clientelism in Africa’s Emerging Party Systems. Journal of Modern African Studies
Wahman Michael. 2011a. Offices and Policies: Why Do Oppositional Parties Form Pre-Electoral Coalitions in Competitive Authoritarian Regimes?
Wahman Michael. 2011b. Policy Blind Coalitions: Ethnicity and Political Coalitions in Kenya Under Multipartyism. Paper Prepared for Delivery at the 4th European Conference on Africa Studies, Uppsala, 15–18 June.
West Karleen Jones, and Spoon Jae-Jae. 2013. Credibility vs. Competition: The Impact of Party Size on Decisions to Enter Presidential Elections in South America and Europe. Comparative Political Studies