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Why Pre-Electoral Coalitions in Presidential Systems?

  • Marisa Kellam

Why do political parties join coalitions to support other parties’ presidential candidates if presidents, once elected, are not bound to their pre-electoral pledges? This article argues that policy agreements made publicly between coalition partners during the campaign help parties pursue policy goals. However, parties cannot use pre-electoral coalitions to secure access to patronage, pork and government benefits under the control of presidents because they cannot hold presidents accountable to these agreements. Quantitative analysis of Latin American electoral coalitions demonstrates that political parties are more likely to form presidential electoral coalitions as the ideological distance between them decreases. Yet presidential electoral coalitions tend not to include non-programmatic political parties, even though such office-oriented parties are unconstrained by ideological considerations.

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Associate Professor, Waseda University (e-mail: I thank Sona Golder, Royce Carroll, Michael Wahman, Kim Yi Dionne, Francisco Pedraza, Jana Morgan, Guy Whitten and Kaare Strøm for their comments on earlier versions of this article, and Rhonda Struminger for her research assistance. Data replication materials are available at, and online appendices are available at

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