Hostname: page-component-7d8f8d645b-clzrd Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-05-30T02:11:00.603Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

The range of attraction of animal baits and carbon dioxide for mosquitoes. Studies in a freshwater area of West Africa

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 July 2009

M. T. Gillies
School of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, BNI 9BQ, U.K.
T. J. Wilkes
School of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, BNI 9BQ, U.K.


In an inland area of the Gambia the density of flying mosquitoes at successive distances from a pair of bait-calves or an equivalent source of carbon dioxide was measured with ramp-traps to determine the maximum range at which orientation towards the bait was initiated. Thirty-six traps were operated at intervals of 7·5 m up to a distance of 60 m from the bait, on 66 nights. Anopheles ziemanni Grünb., Mansonia uniformis (Theo.) and Aedes spp. were responding to the presence of the baitcalves from a distance of 22·5–30 m; with carbon dioxide as bait the same species showed a clear response at 15 m but, with the doubtful exception of M. uniformis, not at 22·5–30 m. M. africana (Theo.) responded to both calf and carbon dioxide baits at 15 m but not at more distant ranges. Culex thalassius Theo. and C. univittatus Theo. showed a response at 7·5 m but not at any greater distance. C. decens group showed no response to either bait even in the nearest traps (7·5 m). The parous rate in Mansonia spp. varied with distance from the bait. Similar variation in the proportion of females infested with mites was not detected.

Research Paper
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1972

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Bossert, W. H. & Wilson, E. O. (1963). The analysis of olfactory communication among animals.—J. theor. Biol. 5, 443469.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corbet, P. S. (1960). Recognition of nulliparous mosquitoes without dissection.—Nature, Lond. 187, 525526.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corbet, P. S. (1962). The age-composition of biting mosquito populations according to time and level: a further study.—Bull. ent. Res. 53, 409416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coz, J. (1964). Étude des variations de l'âage physiologique d'A. gambiae Giles et A. mascarensis de Meillon, au cours de captures de nuit.—Bull. Soc. Path. exot. 57, 619626.Google Scholar
Detinova, T. S. (1962). Age-grouping methods in Diptera of medical importance with special reference to some vectors of malaria.—Monograph Ser. W.H.O. no. 47, 216 pp.Google ScholarPubMed
Gillies, M. T. (1969). The ramp-trap, an unbaited device for flight studies of mosquitoes.—Mosq. News 29, 189193.Google Scholar
Gillies, M. T. & De Meillon, B. (1968). The Anophelinae of Africa south of the Sahara (Ethiopian zooeographical Region).—2nd edn, Publ. S. Afr. Inst. med. Res. no. 54, 343 pp.Google Scholar
Gillies, M. T. & Wilkes, T. J. (1969). A comparison of the range of attraction of animal baits and of carbon dioxide for some West African mosquitoes.—Bull. ent. Res. 59, 441456.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gillies, M. T. & Wilkes, T. J. (1970). The range of attraction of single baits for some West African mosquitoes.—Bull. ent. Res. 60, 225235.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haddow, A. J. (1960). Studies on the biting habits and medical importance of East African mosquitoes in the genus Aedes. I—Subgenera Aëdimorphus, Banksinella and Dunnius.—Bull. ent. Res. 50, 759779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haddow, A. J., Van Someren, E. C. C., Lumsden, W. H. R., Harper, J. O. & Gillett, J. D. (1951). The mosquitoes of Bwamba County, Uganda. VIII—Records of occurrence, behaviour and habitat.—Bull. ent. Res. 42, 207238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamon, J., Sales, S., Coz, J., Ouédraogo, C. S., Dyemkouma, A. & Diallo, B. (1964). Observations sur les préférences alimentaires des moustiques de la République de Haute-Volta.—Bull. Soc. Path. exot. 57, 11331150.Google Scholar
Hocking, B. (1963). The use of attractants and repellents in vector control.—Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 29 (Suppl.), 121126.Google ScholarPubMed
Jupp, P. G. (1970). The taxonomic status of Culex (Culex) univittatus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) in South Africa.—Mosq. Syst. Newsletter 2, 916.Google Scholar
McClelland, G. A. H. & Weitz, B. (1960). Further observations on the natural hosts of three species of Mansonia Blanchard (Diptera, Culicidae) in Uganda.—Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 54, 300304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paterson, H. E., Bronsden, P., Levitt, J. & Worth, C. B. (1964). Some Culicine mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) at Ndumu, Republic of South Africa. A study of their host preferences and host range.—Med. Proc. 10, 188192.Google Scholar
Samarawickrema, W. A. (1968). Biting cycles and parity of the mosquito Mansonia (Mansonioides) uniformis (Theo.) in Ceylon.—Bull. ent. Res. 58, 299314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Service, M. W. (1964). The attraction of mosquitoes by animal baits in the Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria.—J. ent. Soc. S. Afr. 27, 2936.Google Scholar
Service, M. W. (1965). The identification of blood-meals from Culicine mosquitos from Northern Nigeria.—Bull. ent. Res. 55, 637643.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sturkie, P. D. (1965). Avian physiology.—2nd edn, 766 pp. Ithaca, Cornell U.P.Google Scholar