Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A critical review of procedures for sampling populations of adult mosquitoes

  • M. W. Service (a1)

Abstract

A critical review is presented of the many and varied procedures for sampling adult mosquitoes. All sampling methods are subject to bias, but human-bait collections are probably the most reliable single method for detecting and monitoring populations of anthropophilic species. The estimation of realistic man-biting rates, however, remains difficult. The recent advances in computer technology have generated considerable interest in population modelling, with the aim of getting a better insight into the complexities of population dynamics, mosquito control and disease transmission. Although such approaches may be informative, it is stressed that models should be based on meaningful values of the critical parameters and that these are best obtained from field populations. The difficulties of interpreting mosquito collections in both attractant traps, such as animal-baited traps, carbon-dioxide-baited traps and light-traps, and in non-attractant ones, such as Malaise traps, sticky traps, ramp traps, rotary traps, suction traps and vehicle-mounted traps, are described. Suction traps probably provide the least biased catches of aerial populations of mosquitoes, but, if populations as a whole are to be considered, then resting adults also must be adequately sampled, and this may prove difficult. It is emphasised that different trapping techniques usually sample different components of a population, and that the choice of sampling methods depends much on the type and quality of information required. The limitations of using mark-recapture techniques to study adult dispersal and obtain absolute population estimates are discussed, together with the advantages and disadvantages of applying simple and more complex mathematical procedures for analysing recapture data.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Acuff, V. R.. (1976). Trap biases influencing mosquito collecting.— Mosquito News. 36, 173176.
Aitken, T. H. G.., Worth, C. B..,Jonkers, A. H.., Tikasingh, E. S. & Downs, W. G.. (1968a). Arbovirus studies in Bush Bush forest, Trinidad, W.I., September 1959–December 1964. II. Field program and techniques.— Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 17, 237252.
Aitken, T. H. G.., Worth, C. B.& Tikasingh, E. S.. (1968b). Arbovirus studies in Bush Bush forest, Trinidad, W.I., September 1959–December 1964. III. Entomological studies.— Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 17, 253268.
Akiyama, J.. (1973). Interpretation of the results of baited trap net collections.— J. trop. Med. 76, 283284.
Asahina, S.. (1970). On the transoceanic flight of mosquitoes. [In Japanese].— Jap. J. sanit. Zool. 21, 121.
Asahina, S.& Noguchi, K.. (1968). Long distance flight of Culex tritaeniorhynchus. [In Japanese].—Jap. J. sanit. Zool. 19, 110.
Austin, J. R.. (1973). External application of propoxur in village trials against Anopheles albimanus in El Salvador, Central America.— Mosquito News. 33, 1622.
Bailey, C. L.& Gould, D. J.. (1975). Flight and dispersal of Japanese encephalitis vectors in northern Thailand. — Mosquito News. 35, 172178.
Bailey, S. F.., Eliason, D. A.& Hoffmann, B. L.. (1965). Flight and dispersal of the mosquito Culex tarsalis Coquillett in the Sacramento Valley of California. — Hilgardia. 37, 73113.
Bailly-Choumara, H.. (1973a). Étude comparative de différentes techniques de récolte de moustiques adultes (Diptera, Culicidae) faite au Maroc, en zone rurale. — Bull. Soc. Sci. nat. phys. Maroc. 53, 135187.
Bailly-Choumara, H.. (1973b). Étude préliminaire d'une récolte d'Anopheles labranchiae par piége CDC réalisee dans la region de Larache, Maroc. — Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 49, 4955.
Barr, A. R.., Smith, T. A.& Boreham, M. M.. (1960). Light intensity and the attraction of mosquitoes to light traps. — J. econ. Ent. 53, 876880.
Barr, A. R.., Smith, T. A.., Boreham, M. M.& White, K. E.. (1963). Evaluation of some factors affecting the efficiency of light traps in collecting mosquitoes. — J. econ. Ent. 56, 123127.
Bartnett, R. E.& Stephenson, R. G.. (1968). Effect of mechanical barrier mesh size on light trap collections in Harris County, Texas. — Mosquito News. 28, 108.
Basio, R. G.& Santos-Basio, L.. (1974). On Philippine mosquitoes. XIV. Biting-cycles of some species in their natural forest habitat, with particular reference to Aedes albopictus. — Philipp. J. Biol. 3, 155165.
Bates, M.. (1944). Observations on the distribution of diurnal mosquitoes in a tropical forest. — Ecology. 25, 159170.
Bellamy, R. E.& Reeves, W. C.. (1952). A portable mosquito bait trap. — Mosquito News. 12, 256258.
Bellec, C.. (1974). Les methodes d'échantillonnage des populations adultes de Simulium damnosum Theobald, 1903 (Diptera: Simuliidae) en Afrique de L'Ouest. — Thesis, Univ. Paris-Sud.
Belton, P.& Galloway, M. M.. (1966). Light-trap collections of mosquitoes near Belleville, Ontario, in 1965. — Proc. ent. Soc. Ontario. 96, 9096.
Berlin, O. G.., Work, H. T.& Parra, D.. (1976). Preliminary observations on Culex tarsalis and Culex erythrothorax bionomics in a focus of arbovirus transmission. — Proc. Pap. ann. Conf. California Mosq. Control Ass. 44, 3032.
Bidlingmayer, W. L.. (1964). The effect of moonlight on the flight activity of mosquitoes. — Ecology. 45, 8794.
Bidlingmayer, W. L.. (1966). Use of the truck trap for evaluating adult mosquito populations. — Mosquito News. 26, 139143.
Bidlingmayer, W. L.. (1967). A comparison of trapping methods for adult mosquitoes: species response and environmental influence. — J. med. Entomol. 4, 200220.
Bidlingmayer, W. L.. (1971). Mosquito flight paths in relation to the environment. Illumination levels, orientation, and resting areas. — Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 64, 11211131.
Bidlingmayer, W.L.. (1974). The influence of environmental factors and physiological stage on flight patterns of mosquitoes taken in the vehicle aspirator and truck, suction, bait and New Jersey light traps. — J. med. Entomol. 11, 119146.
Bidlingmayer, W. L.. (1975). Mosquito flight paths in relation to the environment. Effect of vertical and horizontal visual barriers. — Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 68, 5157.
Bidlingmayer, W. L.& Edman, J. D.. (1967). Vehicle mounted aspirators. — Mosquito News. 27, 407–11.
Blagoveshenskii, D. I.., Bregetova, N. G.& Montchadskii, A. S.. (1943). Activity in mosquito attacks under natural conditions and its diurnal periodicity. [In Russian]. — Zool. Zh. Vkr. 22, 138153.
Bond, H. A.., Craig, G. B.& Fay, R. W.. (1970). Field mating and movement of Aedes aegypti. — Mosquito News. 30, 394402.
Bordash, G. J.., Adam, D. S.., Gusciora, W. R.., Sussman, O.& Goldfield, M.. (1972). A comparison of mosquito collections taken from dry ice supplemented and non-supplemented modified New Jersey light traps. — Proc. New Jers. Mosq. Exterm. Ass. 59, 132146.
Boreham, P. F. L.. (1975). Some applications of bloodmeal identification in relation to the epidemiology of vector-borne tropical diseases. — J. trop. Med. Hyg. 78, 8391.
Brady, J.. (1974). Calculation of anopheline man-biting densities from concurrent indoor and outdoor resting populations. — Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 68, 359361.
Breeland, S. G.. (1972a). Studies on the diurnal resting habits of Anopheles albimanus and A. pseudopunclipennis in El Salvador. — Mosquito News. 32, 99106.
Breeland, S. G.. (1972b). Methods for measuring anopheline densities in El Salvador. — Mosquito News. 32, 62—72.
Breeland, S. G.. (1974). Population patterns of Anopheles albimanus and their significance to malaria abatement. — Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 50, 307315.
Breeland, S. G.& GLASGOW, J. W.. (1967). An improved portable resting station for Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. — Mosquito News. 27, 59.
Breeland, S. G.., Jeffery, G. M.. Lofgren, C. S.& Weidhaas, D. E.. (1974). Release of chemosterilized males for the control of Anopheles albimanus in El Salvador. I. Characteristics of the test site and the natural population. — Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 23, 274281.
Breeland, S. G.& Pickard, E.. (1965). The Malaise trap-an efficient and unbiased mosquito collecting device. — Mosquito News. 25, 1921.
Breyev, K. A.. (1958). On the use of ultra-violet light-traps for determining the specific composition and numbers of mosquito populations. [In Russian with English summary].— Paratit. Sborn. 18, 219238.
Breyev, K. A.. (1963). The effect of various light sources on the numbers and species of blood-sucking mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) collected in light traps. [In Russian with English summary].— Ent. Obozr. 42, 280303.
Brockway, P. B.., Eliason, D. A.& Bailey, S. F.. (1962). A wind directional trap for mosquitoes.— Mosquito News. 22, 404405.
Bruce-Chwatt, L. J.., Garrett-Jones, C.& Weitz, B.. (1966). Ten year study (1955–64) of host selection by anopheline mosquitoes. — Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 35, 405439.
Brucechwatt, L. J.& Gockel, C. W.. (1960). A study of the blood-feeding patterns of Anopheles mosquitoes through precipitin tests. Results of collaborative work for the period 1955–59 and their application to malaria eradication programmes. — Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 22, 685720.
Buescher, E. L.., Scherer, W. F.., Rosenberg, M. Z.., Gresser, I.., Hardy, J. L.& Bullock, H. R.. (1959). Ecologic studies of Japanese encephalitis virus in Japan. II. Mosquito infection. — Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 8, 651664.
Bullock, H. R.., Murdock, W. P.., Fowler, H. W.& Brazzel, H. R.. (1959). Notes on the overwintering of Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles in Japan. — Mosquito News. 19, 184188.
Burgess, R. J.& Muir, R. C.. (1970). A modification of the Johnson-Taylor suction trap to provide a twelve-hour segregation of the catch. — Rep. E. Mailing Res. Stn. (1969), 169170.
Büttiker, W.. (1958). Notes on exophily in anophelines in south-east Asia. — Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 19, 11181123.
Buxton, P. A.. (1955). The natural history of tsetse flies. An account of the biology of the genus Glossina (Diptera). — Mem. Lond. Sch. Hyg. trop. Med. no. 10, xviii + 816 pp.
Carestia, R. R.& Horner, K. O.. (1968). Analysis of comparative effects of selected CO2 flow rates on mosquitoes using CDC light traps. — Mosquito News. 28, 408411.
Carestia, R. R.& Savage, L. B.. (1967). Effectiveness of carbon dioxide as a mosquito attractant in the CDC miniature light trap. — Mosquito News. 27, 9092.
Carnevale, P.& Le Pont, F.. (1973). Epidemiologie du paludism humain en République Populaire du Congo. II. Utilisation des piéges lumineux ‘CDC’ comme moyen d'échantillonnage des populations anophèliennes. — Cah. ORSTOM, sér. Entomol. méd. Parasit. 11, 263273.
Carnevale, P.., Frexil, J. L.., BossenO, M.F.., Lepont, F.& Lancien, J.. (1976). Etude de l'agressivité d'Anopheles gambiae A en fonction de l'âge et du sexe des sujets humains. —17 pp. (mimeographed). Geneva, WHO. [WHO/MAL/76.874].
Causey, O. R.., Causey, C. E.., Maroja, O. M.& Macedo, D. G.. (1961). The isolation of arthropod-borne viruses, including members of two hitherto undescribed sero-logical groups in the Amazon region of Brazil. — Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 10, 227249.
Chandler, J. A.., Boreham, P. F. L.., Highton, R. B.& Hill, M. N.. (1975a). A study of the host selection patterns of the mosquitoes of the Kisumu area of Kenya. — Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg. 69, 415425.
Chandler, J. A.& Highton, R. B.. (1975b). The succession of mosquito species (Diptera, Culicidae) in rice fields in the Kisumu area of Kenya, and their possible control. — Bull. ent. Res. 65, 295302.
Chandler, J. A.., Highton, R. B.& Hill, M. N.. (1976). Mosquitoes of the Kano Plain, Kenya. I. Results of indoor collections in irrigated and non-irrigated areas using human bait and light traps. — J. med. Entomol. 12, 504510.
Chandler, J. A.., Highton, R. B.& Hill, M. N.. (1976). Mosquitoes of the Kano Plain, Kenya. II. Results of outdoor collections in irrigated and non-irrigated areas using human bait and animal bait and light traps. — J. med. Entomol. 13, 202207.
Clyde, D. F.& Shute, G. T.. (1958). Selective feeding habits of anophelines amongst Africans of different ages. — Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 7, 543545.
Colless, D. H.. (1959). Notes on the culicine mosquitoes of Singapore, VI—Observations on catches made with baited and unbaited trap-nets. — Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 53, 251258.
Conway, G. R.. (1970). Computer simulation as an aid to developing strategies for anopheline control. — Misc. Publs. ent. Soc. Am. 7, 181193.
Conway, G. R.. & Murdie, G.. (1972). Population models as a basis for pest control, pp.195213 in Jeffers, J. N. R.. (Ed.), Mathematical models in ecology. — 398 pp. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific.
Corbet, P. S.. (1961). Entomological studies from a high tower in Mpanga Forest, Uganda. VI. Nocturnal flight activity of Culicidae and Tabanidae as indicated by light-traps. — Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 113, 301314.
Corbet, P. S.. (1964). Nocturnal flight activity of sylvan Culicidae and Tabanidae (Diptera) as indicated by light-traps: a further study. — Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (A) 39, 5367.
Corbet, P. S.. (1966). Diel patterns of mosquito activity in a high arctic locality: Hazan Camp, Ellesmere Island, n.w.t. — Can. Ent. 98, 12381252.
Corbet, P. S.& Danks, H. V.. (1973). Seasonal emergence and activity of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a high arctic locality. — Can. Ent. 105, 837872.
Corbet, P. S.& Smith, S. M.. (1974). Diel periodicities of landing of nulliparous and parous Aedes aegypti (L.) at Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (Diptera, Culicidae). — Bull. ent. Res. 64, 111121.
Corbet, P. S. & Ssenkubuge, Y.. (1962). Mosquitoes attracted to various baits in forest, pp. 4956in Rep. E. Afr. Virus Res. Inst. (1961–1962) no 12, 68 pp.
Cornet, M.& Chateau, R.. (1971). Intérêt du gaz carbonique dans les enquêtes sur les vecteurs sylvatiques du virus amaril. — Cah. ORSTOM, sér. Entomol. méd. Parasit. 9, 301305.
Crans, W. J.., Downing, J. D.& Slaff, M. E.. (1976). Behavioral changes in the salt marsh mosquito, Aedes sollicitans, as a result of increased physiological age. — Mosquito News. 36, 437445.
Crovello, T. J.& Hacker, C. S.. (1972). Evolutionary strategies in life table characteristics among feral and urban strains of Aedes aegypti (L.). — Evolution. 26, 185196.
Cuéllar, C. B.. (1969a). A theoretical model of the dynamics of an Anopheles gambiae population under challenge with eggs giving rise to sterile males. —Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 40, 205212.
Cuéllar, C. B.. (1969b). The critical level of interference in species eradication of mosquitoes. — Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 40, 213219.
Cuéllar, C. B.., (1973a). A view of computer simulation in sterile male experiments, pp. 515in Computer models and application of the sterile-male technique.—195 pp. Vienna, IAEA. (Publ. no. STI/PUB/340).
Cuéllar, C. B.. (1973b). Dynamic aspects of the Pala sterile hybrid field experiment, pp. 113118in Computer models and application of the sterile-male technique. — 195 pp. Vienna, IAEA. (Publ. no. STI/PUB/340).
Cupp, E. W.& Stokes, G. M.. (1976). Feeding patterns of Culex salinarius Coquillett in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana. — Mosquito News. 36, 332335.
Curry, D. P.. (1939). Documented record of a long flight of Aedes sollicitans. — Proc. New Jers. Mosq. Exterm. Ass. 26, 3639.
Davidson, G.. (1949). A field study on ‘Gammexane’ and malaria control in the Belgian Congo. 1. The anophelines of Yaligimba and their bionomics. — Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 43, 361372.
Davidson, G.. (1974). Genetic control of insect pests. — 158 pp. London, Academic Press.
Davies, F. G.& Walker, A. R.. (1974). Isolation of ephemeral fever virus from cattle and Culicoides midges in Kenya. — Vet. Rec. 95, 6364.
Davies, J. B.. (1971). A small mosquito trap for use with animal or carbon dioxide baits. — Mosquito News. 31, 441–143.
Davies, J. B.. (1973). A simple battery operated suction trap for insects attracted to animal, light or chemical bait. — Mosquito News. 33, 102104.
Davies, J. B.. (1975). Moonlight and the biting activity of Culex (Melanoconion) portesi Senevet & Abonnenc and C. (M) taeniopus D. & K. (Diptera, Culicidae) in Trinidad forests. — Bull. ent. Res. 65, 8196.
Davies, L.& Roberts, D. M.. (1973). A net and a catch-segregating apparatus mounted in a motor vehicle for field studies on flight activity of Simuliidae and other insects. — Bull. ent. Res. 63, 103112.
Davis, E. W.& Gould, D. J.. (1973). A portable suction apparatus for collecting mosquitoes. — Mosquito News. 33, 246247.
De Figueiredo, R. J. P.., Hacker, C. S.& Thompson, J. R.. (1975). A system approach to mosquito control. — J. env. Mgmt. 3, 6376.
DeFoliart, G. R.. (1972). A modified dry ice–baited trap for collecting hematophagous Diptera. — J. med. Entomol. 9, 107108.
DeFoliart, G. R.& Morris, C. D.. (1967). A dry ice-baited trap for the collection and field storage of hematophagous Diptera. — J. med. Entomol. 4, 360362.
DeFreitas, E. N.., Shope, R. E.& Toda, A.. (1966). A blower trap for capturing mosquitoes. — Mosquito News. 26, 373377.
De Kruijf, H. A. M.. (1970). Aspects of the ecology of mosquitoes in relation to the transmission of arboviruses in Surinam. —Thesis, Leiden; published by Drukkerij Bronder-Offset, Rotterdam, 100 pp.
De Meillon, B.., Paing, M.., Sebastian, A.& Khan, Z. H.. (1967). Outdoor resting of Culex pipiens fatigans in Rangoon, Burma. — Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 36, 6773.
De Meillon, B.., Paterson, H. E.& Muspratt, J.. (1957). Studies on arthropod-borne viruses of Tongaland. II. Notes on the more common mosquitoes. —S. Afr. J. med. Sci. 22, 4753.
Detinova, T. S.. (1962). Age-grouping methods in Diptera of medical importance with special reference to some vectors of malaria. — Monograph Ser. W.H.O. no. 47, 216 pp.
De Zulueta, J.. (1950). A study of the habits of the adult mosquitoes dwelling in the savannas of eastern Colombia. — Am. J. trop. Med. 30, 325339.
De Zuluetta, J.. (1952). Observations on mosquito density in an endemic malarious area in eastern Colombia. — Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 1, 314329.
Dietz, K.., Molineaux, L.& Thomas, A.. (1974). A malaria model tested in the African savannah. — Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 50, 347357.
Dow, R. P.., Reeves, W. C.& Bellamy, R. E.. (1965). Dispersal of female Culex tarsalis into a larvicidedl area. — Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 14, 656670.
Dyce, A. L.., Standfast, H. A.& Kay, B. H.. (1972). Collection and preparation of bitingmidges (Fam. Ceratopogonidae) and other small Diptera for virus isolation. — J. Aust. ent. Soc. 11, 9196.
Edman, J. D.. (1971). Host-feeding patterns of Florida mosquitoes. I. Aedes, Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Mansonia and Psorophora. — J. med. Entomol. 8, 687695.
Edman, J. D.. (1974). Host-feeding patterns of Florida mosquitoes. III. Culex (Culex) and Culex (Neoculex). — J. med. Entomol. 11, 95104.
Edman, J. D.., Cody, E.& Lynn, H.. (1975). Blood-feeding activity of partially engorged Culex nigripalpus (Diptera: Culicidae). — Entomologia exp. appl. 18, 261268.
Edman, J. D.., Evans, F. D. S.& Williams, J. A.. (1968). Development of a diurnal resting box to collect Culiseta melanura (Coq.). — Am. 1. trop. Med. Hyg. 17, 451456.
Edman, J. D.& Lea, A. O.. (1972). Sexual behaviour of mosquitoes. 2. Large-scale rearing and mating of Culex for field experiments. — Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 65, 267269.
Edman, J. D.& Taylor, D. J.. (1968). Seasonal shift in the bird-mammal feeding ratio in a mosquito vector of human encephalitis. — Science, N.Y. 161, 6768.
Edman, J. D.& Webber, L. A.. (1975). Effect of vertebrate size and density on host-selection by caged Culex nigripalpus. — Mosquito News. 35, 508512.
Edman, J. D.., Webber, L. A.& Schmid, A. A.. (1974). Effect of host defenses on the feeding pattern of Culex nigripalpus when offered a choice of blood sources. — J. Parasit. 60, 874883.
Elliott, R.. (1968). Studies on man-vector contact in some malarious areas in Colombia. — Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 38, 239253.
Elliott, R.. (1972). The influence of vector behaviour on malaria transmission. — Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 21, 755763.
Falk, J. H.. (1974). Estimating experimenter-induced bias in field studies: a cautionary tale. — Oikos. 25, 374378.
Fallis, A. M.& Smith, S. M.. (1964). Ether extracts from birds and CO2 as attractants for some ornithophilic simuliids. — Can. J. Zool. 42, 723730.
Fay, R. W.& Craig, G. B.. (1969). Genetically marked Aedes aegypti in studies of field populations. — Mosquito News. 29, 121127.
Flemings, M. B.. (1959) An altitude biting study of Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles) and other associated mosquitoes in Japan. — J. econ. Ent. 52, 490492.
Fox, I.. (1958). The mosquitoes of the international airport, isla verde, Puerto Rico, as shown by light traps. — Mosquito News. 18, 117124.
Fraissignes, B.., Chippaux, A.& Mouchet, J.. (1968). Captures de moustiques par des pièges lumineux associés à une source de gaz carbonique. — Med. trop. 28, 215221.
Freyvogel, T. A.. (1961). Ein Beitrag zu den Problemen um die Blutmahlzeit von Stech– mucken. — Ada trop. 18, 201251.
Gabaldon, A.., Ochoa-Palacios, M.& Perez-Vivas, M. A.. (1940). Estudios sôbre ano-felinos. Serie 1. Observaciones sôbre lecturas de trampas-establo con cebo animal. — Publ. Div. Malariol. no. 5, 4156.
Garrett-Jones, C.. (1962). The possibility of active long-distance migrations by Anopheles pharoensis Theobald. — Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 27, 299302.
Garrett-Jones, C.. (1970). Problems of epidemiological entomology as applied to malariology. — Misc. Publs ent. Soc. Am. 7, 167180.
Garrett-Jones, C.& Magayuka, S. A.. (1975). Studies on the natural incidence of Plas-modium and Wuchereria infections in Anopheles in rural East Africa: I: Assessment densities by trapping hungry female Anopheles gambiae: species a. — 17 pp. (mimeographed). Geneva, WHO. [WHO/MAL/75.851].
GarrettJones, C.& Shidrawi, G. R.. (1969). Malaria vectorial capacity of a population of Anopheles gambiae. An exercise in epidemiological entomology. — Bull. Wld tilth Org. 40, 531545.
Germain, M.., Eouzan, J. P.., Ferrara, L.& Button, J. P.. (1973). Donnees complementaires sur le comportement et l'écologie d'Aedes africanus (Theobald) dans le nord du Cameroun occidental. — Cah. ORSTOM, ser. Ent. med. Parasit. 11, 127146.
Giglioli, M. E. C.. (1965). The age composition of Anopheles melas Theobald (1903) populations collected simultaneously by different methods in the Gambia, West Africa. — Cah. ORSTOM, sér. Ent. med. 3/4, 1126.
Gillett, J. D.. (1974). Direct and indirect influences of temperature on the transmission of parasites from insects to man. pp. 7995 in Taylor, A. E. R.& Muller, R.. (Eds.). The effects of meteorological factors upon parasites. —109 pp. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific.
Gillett, J. D.& Connor, J.. (1976). Host temperature and the transmission of arboviruses by mosquitoes. — Mosquito News. 36, 472477.
Gillies, M. T.. (1954). Studies of house leaving and outside resting of Anopheles gambiae Giles and Anopheles funestus Giles in East Africa. i. — The outside resting population.— Bull. ent. Res. 45, 361373.
Gillies, M. T.. (1955). The density of adult Anopheles in the neighbourhood of an East African village. — Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 4, 11031113.
Gillies, M. T.. (1957). Age-groups in the biting cycle in Anopheles gambiae. A preliminary investigation. — Bujil. ent. Res. 48, 553559.
Gillies, M. T.. (1961). Studies on the dispersion and survival of Anopheles gambiae Giles in East Africa, by means of marking and release experiments. — Bull. ent. Res. 52, 99127.
Gillies, M. T.. (1969). The ramp trap, an unbaited device for flight studies of mosquitoes. — Mosquito News. 29, 189193.
Gillies, M. T.. (1970). Assessment of control. Some problems in the measurement of anopheline populations. — Misc. Publs ent. Soc. Am. 7, 156167.
Gillies, M. T.. (1972). Some aspects of mosquito behaviour in relation to the transmission of parasites, pp. 6981 in Canning, E. U.& Wright, C. A.. (Eds.). Behavioural aspects of parasite transmission. — 219 pp. London, Linnean Society, Academic Press.
Gillies, M. T.& Snow, W. F.. (1967). A CO2-baited sticky trap for mosquitoes. — Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg. 61, 20.
Gillies, M. T.& Wilkes, T. J.. (1969). A comparison of the range of attraction of animal baits and of carbon dioxide for some West African mosquitoes. — Bull. ent. Res. 59, 441456.
Gillies, M. T.& Wilkes, T. J.. (1972). The range of attraction of animal baits and carbon dioxide for mosquitoes. Studies in a freshwater area of West Africa. — Bull. ent. Res. 61, 389–04.
Gillies, M. T.& Wilkes, T. J.. (1974). The range of attraction of birds as baits for some West African mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae). — Bull. ent. Res. 63, 573581.
Gillies, M. T.& Wilkes, T. J.. (1976). The vertical distribution of some West African mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) over open farmland in a freshwater area of the Gambia. — Bull. ent. Res. 66, 515.
Gjullin, C. M.., Brandl, D. G.& O'GRADY, J. J.. (1973). The effect of colored lights and other factors on the numbers of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, C. tarsalis and Aedes sierrensis entering light traps. — Mosquito News. 33, 6771.
Goodwin, M. H.. (1942). Studies on artificial resting places of Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. — J. natn. Malar. Soc. 1, 9399.
Gordon, W. M.& Gerberg, E. J.. (1945). A directional mosquito barrier trap. — J. natn. Malar. Soc. 4, 123125.
Gould, D. J.., Edelman, R.., Grossman, R. A.., Nisalak, A.& Sullivan, M. F.. (1974). Study of Japanese encephalitis virus in Chiangmai Valley, Thailand. IV. Vector studies. — Am. J. Epidem. 100, 4956.
Graham, J. E.& Bradley, I. E.. (1961). An evaluation of some techniques used to measure mosquito populations. — Proc. Utah Acad. Sci. 39, 7783.
Graham, P.. (1969). A comparison of sampling methods for adult mosquito populations in central Alberta, Canada. — Quaest. ent. 5, 217261.
Gruchet, H.. (1962). Etude de l'âge physiologique des femelles d'Anopheles funestus funestus Giles dans la region de Miandrivazo, Madagascar. — Bull. Soc. Path. exot. 55, 165174.
Gubler, D. J.& Bhattacharya, N. C.. (1974). A quantitative approach to the study of ban-croftian filariasis. — Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 23, 10271036.
Gunstream, S. E.& Chew, R. M.. (1967). A comparison of mosquito collection by Malaise and miniature light traps. — J. med. Entomol. 4, 495496.
Hacker, C. S.., Ling, W. W.., Hsi, B. P.& Crovello, T. J.. (1977). An application of mathematical modelling to the study of reproductive adaptations in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. — J. med. Entomol. 13, 485492.
Hacker, C. S.., Scott, D. W.& Thompson, J. R.. (1973a). Time series analysis of mosquito population data. —J, med. Entomol. 10, 533543.
Hacker, C. S.., Scott, D. W.& Thompson, J. R.. (1973b). A forecasting model for mosquito population densities. — J. med. Entomol. 10, 544551.
Hacker, C. S.., Scott, D. W.& Thompson, J. R.. (1975). A transfer function forecasting model for mosquito populations. — Can. Ent. 107, 243249.
Haddow, A. J.. (1945). The mosquitos of Bwamba county, Uganda. II. Biting activity with special reference to the influence of microclimate. — Bull. ent. Res. 36, 3373.
Haddow, A. J.. (1954). Studies of the biting-habits of African mosquitos. An appraisal of methods employed, with special reference to the twenty-four-hour catch. — Bull. ent. Res. 45, 199242.
Haddow, A. J.. (1956). Observations on the biting-habits of African mosquitos in the genus Eratmapodites Theobald. — Bull. ent. Res. 46, 761772.
Haddow, A. J.. (1961a). Entomological studies from a high tower in Mpanga forest, Uganda. VII. The biting behaviour of mosquitoes and tabanids. — Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 113, 315335.
Haddow, A. J.. (1961b). Studies on the biting habits and medical importance of East African mosquitos in the genus Aëdes. II. — Subgenera Mucidus, Diceromyia, Finlaya and Stegomyia.Bull. ent. Res. 52, 317351.
Haddow, A. J.., Corbet, P. S.& Ssenkubuge, Y.. (1962). Trials of the efficiency of Lumsden trap, pp. 5658in Rep. E. Afr. Virus Res. lnst. (1961–1962), no. 12, 68 pp.
Haddow, A. J.., Smithburn, K. C., Dick, G. W. A.., Kitchen, S. F.& Lumsden, W. H. R.. (1948). Implication of the mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) africanus Theobald in the forest cycle of yellow fever in Uganda. — Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 42, 218223.
Haddow, A. J.& Ssenkubuge, Y.. (1965). Entomological studies from a steel tower in Zika forest, Uganda. Part I. The biting activity of mosquitos and tabanids as shown by twenty-four-hour catches. — Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 117, 215243.
Haile, D. G.& Weidhaas, D. E.. (1977). Computer simulation of mosquito populations (Anopheles albimanus) for comparing the effectiveness of control technologies. — J. med. Entomol. 13, 553567.
Hamlyn-Harris, R.. (1933). Some ecological factors involved in the dispersal of mosquitos in Queensland. — Bull. ent. Res. 24, 229232.
Hamon, J.. (1964). Observations sur l'emploi des moustiquaires-piéges pour la capture semi-automatique des moustiques. — Bull. Soc. Path. exot. 57, 576588.
Harden, F. W.., Poolson, B. J.., Bennett, L. W.& Gaskin, R. C.. (1970). Analysis of Co2 supplemented mosquito adult landing rate counts. — Mosquito News. 30, 369374.
Hargrove, J. W.. (1976). The effect of human presence on the behaviour of tsetse (Glossina spp.) (Diptera, Glossinidae) near a stationary ox. — Bull. ent. Res. 66, 173178.
Hartstack, A. W.., Hollingsworth, J. P.. Lindquist, D. A.. (1968). A technique for measuring trapping efficiency of electric insect traps. — J. econ. Ent. 61, 546552.
Harwood, R. F.. (1962). Trapping overwintering adults of the mosquitoes Culex tarsalis and Anopheles freeborni. — Mosquito News. 22, 2631.
Harwood, R. F.& Halfhill, J. E.. (1960). Mammalian burrows and vegetation as summer resting sites of the mosquitoes Culex tarsalis and Anopheles freeborni. — Mosquito News. 20, 174178.
Haufe, W. O.& Burgess, L.. (1960). Design and efficiency of mosquito traps based on visual response to patterns. — Can. Ent. 92, 124140.
Hayes, R. O.., Bellamy, R. E.., Reeves, W. C.& Willis, M. J.. (1958). Comparison of four sampling methods for measurement of Culex tarsalis adult populations. — Mosquito News. 18, 218227.
Hayes, R. O.., Kitaguchi, G. E.& Mann, R. M.. (1967). The ‘CDC sweeper’, a six-volt mechanical aspirator for collecting adult mosquitoes. — Mosquito News. 27, 359363.
Hayes, R. O.., Tempelis, C. H.., Hess, A. D.& Reeves, W. C.. (1973). Mosquito host preference studies in Hale County, Texas. — Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 22, 270277.
Headlee, T. J.. (1928). The development of mechanical apparatus for detecting the presence of mosquitoes in various localities. — Proc. New Jers. Mosq. Ex term. Ass. 15, 160168.
Hemmings, R. J.. (1959). Observations on the operation of mosquito light traps with a cylindrical vertical screen. — Mosquito News. 19, 101.
Henderson, B. E.., Mccrae, A. W. R.., Kirya, B. G.., Ssenkubuge, Y.& Sempala, S. D. K.. (1972). Arbovirus epizootics involving man, mosquitoes and vertebrates at Lunyo, Uganda. — Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 66, 343355.
Herbert, E. W.., Meyer, R. P.& Turbes, P. G.. (1972). A comparison of mosquito catches with CDC light traps and CO2-baited traps in the republic of Vietnam. — Mosquito News. 32, 212214.
Hervy, J. P.. (1976). Rythme nycthemeral d'activité d'Aedes aegypti L., dans une localité à haute densite stégomyienne de savane soudanienne ouest-africane. — Cah. ORSTOM, sér. Ent. méd. Parasit. 14, 155172.
Hibler, C. P.& Olsen, O. W.. (1965). A trap for hematophagous Diptera. — J. Parasit. 51, 10101011.
Hill, M. N.. (1971). A bicycle-mounted trap for collecting adult mosquitoes. — J. med. Entomol. 8, 108109.
Hobbs, J. H.., Lowe, R. E.& Schreck, C. E.. (1974). Studies of flight range and survival of Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann in El Salvador. I. Dispersal and survival during the dry season. — Mosquito News. 34, 389393.
Hocking, B.. (1960). Smell in insects: a bibliography with abstracts. — EP tech. Rep. Def. Res. Brd Ottawa., no. 8, 266 pp.
Hocking, B.. (1970). Insect flight and entomologist's inheritance. — Ent. News. 81, 269278.
Hocking, B.& Hudson, J. E.. (1974). Insect wind traps: improvements and problems. — Quaest. ent. 10, 275284.
Hocking, B.& Khan, A. A.. (1966). The mode of action of repellent chemicals against blood-sucking flies. — Can. Ent. 98, 821831.
Hodgkin, E. P.. (1956) The transmission of malaria in Malaya. — Stud. Inst. med. Res. Malaya. no. 27, viii + 98 pp.
Hollingsworth, J. P.., Hartstack, A. W.& Lindquist, D. A.. (1968). Influence of near-ultraviolet output of attractant lamps on catches of insects by light traps. — J. econ. Ent. 61, 515521.
Hu, S. M. K.& Grayston, J. J.. (1962). Encephalitis on Taiwan. II. Mosquito collection and bionomic studies. — Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 11, 131140.
Huffaker, C. B.& Back, R. C.. (1943). A study of methods of sampling mosquito populations. — J. econ. Ent. 36, 561569.
Iha, S.. (1971). Feeding preference and seasonal distribution of mosquitoes in relation to the epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in Okinawa main island. [In Japanese with English summary]. — Trop. Med. 12, 143168.
Ikeuchi, M.. (1967). Ecological studies on mosquitoes collected by light traps, [in Japanese with English summary]. — Trop. Med. 9, 186200.
Ishii, T.. (1970). Seasonal abundance of mosquitoes in Kyoto prefecture in 1969. [in Japanese]. — Ann Rep. Kyoto Pref. Inst. publ. Hlth. 15, 118.
Ishii, T.. (1971C). Seasonal prevalence of several species of mosquitoes caught in one light trap, [in Japanese with English summary]. — Ann. Rep. Kyoto Pref. Inst. publ. Hlth. 16, 5154.
Ishii, T.. (1971b). Mosquito abundance surveyed with light trap: a comparison of operation for various numbers of nights a week (preliminary report), [in Japanese with English summary]. — Ann. Rep. Kyoto Pref. Inst. publ. Hlth. 16, 5562.
Ishii, T.. (1975). Daily fluctuation of species-number composition in trap caught mosquito populations (preliminary report), [in Japanese with English summary]. — Ann. Rep. Kyoto Pref. Inst. publ. Hlth. 19, 6368.
Ishii, T.& Karoji, Y.. (1975). Analysis of mosquito population dynamics by using trap collection. 1. Definition of collection index and estimation of its relative error. — Botyu–Kagaku. 40, 7380.
Ishii, T.& Karoji, Y.. (1976a). Analysis of mosquito population dynamics by using trap collection. 2. A comparison of various sample populations collected simultaneously atone station. — J. Sci. Univ. Tokushima. 9, 1546.
Ishii, T.& Karoji, Y.. (1976b). Confidence of the collection index of Japanese encephalitis vector mosquitoes collected inconsecutively by a light trap. — Physiol. Ecol. Japan. 17, 449455.
Itô, S.. (1964). Collection of mosquitoes by light traps at four stations of Nagasaki city. — Endem. Dis. Bull. Nagasaki Univ. 6, 231241.
Johnson, C. G.. (1957). The distribution of insects in the air and the empirical relation of density to height. — J. Anim. Ecol. 26, 479494.
Johnson, C. G.& Taylor, L. R.. (1955a). The development of large suction traps for airborne insects. — Ann. appl. Biol. 43, 5162.
Johnson, C. G.& Taylor, L. R.. (1955b). The measurement of insect density in the air. Part i. — Lab. Pract. 4, 187192.
Johnson, C. G.. Taylor, L. R.. (1955C). The measurement of insect density in the air. Part ii. — Lab. Pract. 4, 235239.
Johnson, J. G.., Weaver, J. W.& Sudia, W. D.. (1973). Flashlight batteries as a power source for CDC miniature light traps. — Mosquito News. 33, 190194.
Jolivet, P., Ree, H. I.., Hong, H. K.& Wada, Y. (1975). Dispersal of Culex tritaenior-hynchus in Korea. — 6 pp. (mimeographed). Geneva, WHO. [WHO/VBC/75.559].
Joshi, G. P.., Fontaine, R. E.& Pradhan, G. D.. (1975). The CDC battery-operated light trap for assessment of An. gambiae and An. funestus in a WHO stage VII insecticide trial, Kisumu, Kenya.—7 pp. (mimeographed). Geneva, WHO. [WHO/VBC/75.578].
Kanda, T.., JOO, C. Y.& Choi, D. W.. (1975). Epidemiological studies on Malayan filariasis in an inland area of Kyungpook, Korea. (2) The periodicity of the microfilariae and the bionomics of the vector. — Mosquito News. 35, 513517.
Katô, M.., Ishii, T.., Watanabe, T.& Yoshid, S.. (1966). A new dry ice trap for collecting mosquitoes. — Jap. J. sanit. Zool. 17, 8388.
Khan, A. A.., Maibach, H. I.& Strauss, W. G.. (1971). A quantitative study of variation in mosquito response and host attractiveness. — J. med. Entomol. 8, 4143.
Kloch, J. W.& Bidlingmayer, W. L.. (1953). An adult mosquito sampler. — Mosquito News. 13, 157159.
Kyi, U. K. M.. (1964). Rapid and efficient methods for sampling anopheline populations in insecticide treated huts. — Burma med. J. 12, 130134.
Lansdowne, C.& Hacker, C. S.. (1974). The effect of fluctuating temperature and humidities on the life table characteristics of five strains of Aedes aegypti. — J. med. Entomol. 11, 723733.
Lindquist, A. W.., Ikeshoji, T.., Grab, B.., Demeillon, B.& Khan, Z. H.. (1967). Dispersion studies of Culex pipiens fatigans tagged with 32P in the Kemmendine area of Rangoon, Burma. — Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 36, 2137.
Lloyd, J. E. & Pennington, R. G.. (1976). Mosquitoes collected in a CO2-baited CDC miniature light trap and a bovine-baited trap in Wyoming. — Mosquito News. 36, 457–59.
Love, G. J.& Goodwin, M. H.. (1961). Notes on the bionomics and seasonal occurrence of mosquitoes in southwestern Georgia. — Mosquito News. 21, 195215.
Love, G. J.& Smith, W. W.. (1957). Preliminary observations on the relation of light trap collections to mechanical sweep net collections in sampling mosquito populations. — Mosquito News. 17, 914.
Lowe, R. E.., Schreck, C. E.., Hobbs, J. H.., Dame, D. A.& Lofgren, C. S.. (1975). Studies on flight range and survival of Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann in El Salvador. II. Comparisons of release methods with sterile and normal adults in wet and dry seasons. — Mosquito News. 35, 160168.
Loy, V. A.., Barnhart, C. S.& Therrien, A. A.. (1968). A collapsible portable vehicle-mounted insect trap. — Mosquito News. 28, 8487.
Luedke, A. J.& Jones, R. H.. (1972). Storage of bluetongue virus infected Culicoides variipennis. — Am. J. vet. Res. 33, 18751878.
Lumsden, W. H. R.. (1958). A trap for insects biting small vertebrates. — Nature, Lond. 181, 819820.
Macdonald, W. W.., Sebastian, A.& Tun, M. M.. (1968). A mark-release-recapture experiment with Culex pipiens fatigans in the village of Okpo, Burma. — Ann. trop Med. Parasit. 62, 200209.
Maeda, M.. (1968). Ecology of Culex tritaeniorhynchus – the dispersal of adults. [In Japanese]. — Jap. J. sanit. Zool. 19, 137.
Maibach, H. I.., Khan, A. A.& Strauss, W. G.. (1966). Attraction of humans of different age groups to mosquitoes. — J. econ. Ent. 59, 3021303.
Mattingly, P. F.. (1949). Studies on West African forest mosquitos.—Part I The seasonal distribution, biting cycle and vertical distribution of four of the principal species. — Bull. ent. Res. 40, 149168.
Mcclelland, G. A. H.. (1957). Methods of collection of blood-fed females in the field. pp. 4755in Rep. E.Afr. Virus Res. Inst. (1956–1957), 61 pp.
Mccrae, A. W. R.., Boreham, P. F. L.& Ssenkubuge, Y. (1976). The behavioural ecology of host selection in Anopheles implexus (Theobald) (Diptera, Culicidae). — Bull. ent. Res. 66, 587631.
McDonald, J. L.& Savage, L. B.. (1973). Seasonal abundance of mosquito larval counts and adult light trap catches in Okinawa. — Mosquito News. 33, 105107.
Menon, P. K. B.& Rajagopalan, P. K.. (1975). Some observations on resting and swarming behaviour of Culex pipiens fatigans in an urban situation. — 8 pp. (mimeographed). Geneva, WHO. [WHO/VBC/75.555].
Meyer, R. P.& Washino, R. K.. (1976). A comparison of northern California populations of Culiseta inornata (Williston): A progress report. — Proc. Pap. ann. Conf. California Mosq. Control Ass. 44, 116119.
Miller, D. R.., Weidhaas, D. E.& Hall, R. C.. (1973). Parameter sensitivity in insect population modeling. — J. theor. Biol. 42, 263274.
Miller, T. A.., Stryker, R. G.., Wilkinson, R. N.& Esah, S.. (1970). The influence of moonlight and other environmental factors on the abundance of certain mosquito species in light-trap collection in Thailand. — J. med. Entomol. 7, 555561.
Minéř, J.. (1959). The influence of meteorological factors to the activity of mosquitoes in south-western Bohemia. — Cslkd Parasit. 6, 5774.
Minter, D. M.. (1961). A modified Lumsden. suction-trap for biting insects. — Bull. ent. Res. 52, 233238.
Mitchell, C. J.& Chen, P. S.. (1973). Ecological studies on the mosquito vectors of Japanese encephalitis. — Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 49, 287292.
Mogi, M.., Kawai, S.., Oda, T.., Nishigaki, J.., Suenaga, O.., It, S.., Miyaga, I.., Wada, Y.& Omori, N.. (1970). Ecology of vector mosquitoes of Japanese encephalitis, especially of Culex tritaeniorhynchus. 3. Seasonal changes in the time of being attracted to dry ice in the females of Culex tritaeniorhynchus. — Trop. Med. 12, 122127.
Möhrig, W.. (1969). Die Culiciden Deutchlands. Untersuchungun zur Taxonomie, Biologie, und Ökologie der Einheimischen Stechmücken. — Parasit. SchrReihe. 18, 260 pp.
Monchadskii, A. S.& Radzivilovskaya, Z. A.. (1948). A new method of quantitative registration of the attacks of bloodsuckers. — Parazit. Sb. 9, 147166.
Moon, T. E.. (1976). A statistical model of the dynamics of a mosquito vector (Culex tarsalis) population. — Biometrics. 32, 355368.
Moorhouse, D. E.& Wharton, R. H.. (1965). Studies on Malayan vectors of malaria; methods of trapping, and observations on biting cycles. — J. med. Entomol. 1, 359370.
Morgan, N. O.& Uebel, E. C.. (1974). Efficacy of the Assateague insect trap in collecting mosquitoes and biting flies in a Maryland salt marsh. — Mosquito News. 34, 196199.
Moriya, K.. et al (1971). On the mosquitoes collected on an artificial island, No. 2 Kaiho in Tokyo Bay. Special reference to migration of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, a vector of Japanese encephalitis. [In Japanese, with English summary]. — Bull. Kanagawa publ. Hlth Lab. 1, 3338. (Original not seen; cited from Jolivet et al., 1975).
Mosby, H. S.. (1969). The influence of hunting on the population dynamics of a woodlot gray squirrel population. — J. Wildl. Mgmt. 33, 5973.
Muirhead-Thomson, R. C.. (1951). The distribution of anopheline mosquito bites among different age groups, a new factor in malaria epidemiology. — Br. Med. J. 1, 11141117.
Muirhead-Thomson, R. C.. (1954). Factors determining the true reservoir of infection of Plasmodium falciparum and Wuchereria bancrofti in a West African village. — Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg. 48, 208225.
Muirhead-Thomson, R. C.. (1958). A pit shelter for sampling outdoor mosquito populations. — Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 19, 11161118.
Muirhead-Thomson, R. C.. (1968). Ecology of insect vector populations. — 174 pp. LondonAcademic Press.
Muirhead-Thomson, R. C.& Mercier, E. C.. (1952). Factors in malaria transmission by Anopheles albimanus in Jamaica. Part 1. — Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 46, 103116.
Mulhern, T. D.. (1942). New Jersey mechanical trap for mosquito surveys. — Circ. New Jers. agric. Exp. Stn. no. 421, 8pp.
Mulhern, T. D.. (1953a). Better results with mosquito light traps through standardizing mechanical performance. — Mosquito News. 13, 130133.
Mulhern, T. D.. (1953b). The use of mechanical traps in measuring mosquito populations. — Proc. Pap. ann. Conf. California Mosq. Control Ass. 21, 6466.
Nájera, J. A.. (1974). A critical review of the field application of a mathematical model of malarial eradication. — Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 50, 449457.
Nájera, J. A.., Shidrawi, G. R.., Story, J.& Lietart, P. E. A.. (1973). Mass drug administration and DDT indoor-spraying as antimalarial measures in the northern savanna of Nigeria. — 34 pp. (mimeographed). Geneva, WHO. [WHO/MAL/73.817].
Nelson, R. L.., Tempelis, C. H.., Reeves, W. C.& Milby, M. M.. (1976). Relation of mosquito density to bird: mammal feeding ratios of Culex tarsalis in stable traps. — Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 25, 644654.
Newhouse, V. F.., Chamberlain, R. W.., Johnston, J. G.& Sudia, W. D.. (1966). Use of dry ice to increase mosquito catches of the CDC miniature light trap. — Mosquito News. 26, 3035.
Nielsen, E. T.. (1960). A note on stationary nets. — Ecology. 41, 375376.
Nielsen, E. T.& Haeger, J. S.. (1960). Swarming and mating in mosquitoes. — Misc. Publs ent. Soc. Am. 1, 7195.
Odetoyinbo, J. A.. (1969). Preliminary investigation on the use of a light-trap for sampling malaria vectors in the Gambia. — Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 40, 547560.
Omori, N.., Wada, Y.., Kawai, S.., Ito, S.., Oda, T.., Suenaga, O..,Nishigaki, H. Jr., Hayashi, K.& Mifune, K.. (1965). Preliminary notes on the collection of hibernated females of Culex tritaeniorhynchus in Nagasaki. — Endem. Dis. Bull. Nagasaki Univ. 7, 147153.
Onishi, A.. (1959). Influence of moonlight on mosquito collection with the light trap. [In Japanese with English summary]. — Shikoku Ada med. 15, 19931998.
Panday, R. S.. (1975a). Mosquito identification studies in a savanna forest in Surinam. — Mosquito News. 35, 141146.
Panday, R. S.. (1975b). Mosquito identification studies in a typical coastal area in northern Surinam. — Mosquito News. 35, 297301.
Parsons, R. E.., Dondero, T. J.& Hooi, C. W.. (1974). Comparison of CDC miniature light traps and human biting collections for mosquito catches during malaria vector surveys in peninsular Malaysia. — Mosquito News. 34, 211213.
Pennington, R. G.& Lloyd, J.E.. (1975). Mosquitoes captured in a bovine-baited trap in a Wyoming pasture subject to river and irrigation flooding. — Mosquito News. 35, 402408.
Pillai, J. S.& Macnamara, F. N.. (1968). A portable mosquito trap for use with a bantam fowl. — Mosquito News. 28, 8790.
Pippin, W. F.. (1965). Notes of the operation of a light trap in central Luzon, Philippine islands. — Mosquito News. 25, 183187.
Pratt, H. D.. (1944). Studies on the comparative attractiveness of 25-, 50- and 100- watt bulbs for Puerto Rican Anopheles. — Mosquito News. 4, 1718.
Pratt, H. D.. (1948). Influence of the moon on light trap collections of Anopheles albimanus in Puerto Rico. — J. natn. Malar. Soc. 7, 212220.
Provost, M. W.. (1952). The dispersal of Aedes taeniorhynchus. I. Preliminary studies. — Mosquito News. 12, 174190.
Provost, M. W.. (1957). The dispersal of Aedes taeniorhynchus. II. The second experiment. — Mosquito News. 17, 233247.
Provost, M. W.. (1958). Mating and male swarming in Psorophora mosquitoes. — Proc. Int. Congr. Ent. no. 10 (1956), 2, 553561.
Provost, M. W.. (1959). The influence of moonlight on light-trap catches of mosquitoes. — Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 52, 261271.
Provost, M. W.. (1960). The dispersal of Aedes taeniorhynchus. III. Study methods for migrating exodus. — Mosquito News. 20, 148161.
Rahman, S. J.& Menon, P. K. B.. (1975). On the use of sweepnets for the collection of anopheline mosquitos resting indoors. — 3pp. (mimeographed). Geneva, WHO.[WHO/VBC/75.561].
Rainey, M. B.., Warren, G. V.., Hess, A. D.& Blackmore, J. S.. (1962). A sentinel chicken shed and mosquito trap for use in encephalitis field studies. — Mosquito News. 22, 337342.
Rajagopalan, P. K.., Menon, P. K. B.& Brooks, G. B.. (1975a). A study of some aspects of C. pipiens fatigans populations in an urban area, Faridabad, northern India. — 13 pp. (mimeographed). Geneva, WHO. [WHO/VBC/75.539].
Rajagopalan, P. K.., Brooks, G. D.., Menon, P. K. B.& Mani, T. R.. (1975ft). Observations on the biting activity and flight periodicity of Culex pipiens fatigans in an urban area. — 15 pp. (mimeographed). Geneva, WHO.[WHO/VBC/75.544].
Ree, H. I.., Chen, Y. K.& Chow, C. Y.. (1969). Methods of sampling populations of the Japanese encephalitis vector mosquitoes–A preliminary report. — Med. J. Malaya. 23, 293295.
Ree, H. I.., Wada, Y.., Jolivet, P. H. A.., Hong, H. K.., Self, L. S.& Lee, K. W.. (1976). Studies on over-wintering of Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles in the Republic of Korea. — Cah. ORSTOM sér. Ent. méd. Parasit. 14, 105109.
Reeves, W. C.. (1953). Quantitative field studies on a carbon dioxide chemotropism of mosquitoes. — Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 2, 325331.
Reeves, W. C., Tempelis, C. H.., Bellamy, R. E.& Lofy, M. F.. (1963). Observations on the feeding habits of Culex tarsalis in Kern County, California, using precipitating antisera produced in birds. — Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 12, 929935.
Rehn, J. W. H.., Maldonadocapriles, J.& Henderson, J. M.. (1950). Field studies on the bionomics of Anopheles albimanus. Parts II and III: diurnal resting places – Progress report. — J. natn. Malar. Soc. 9, 268279.
Reid, J. A.. (1961). The attraction of mosquitos by human or animal bait in relation to the transmission of disease. — Bull. ent. Res. 52, 4362.
Reuben, R.. (1971). Studies on the mosquitoes of North Arcot district, Madras State, India. Part 2. Biting cycles and behaviour on human and bovine baits at two villages. — J. med. Entomol. 8, 127134.
Reuben, R.., Panicker, K. N.., Brooks, G. D.& Ansari, M. A.. (1975). Studies on dispersal and loss rates of male Aedes aegypli (L.) in different seasons at Sonepat, India.— J.communbl. Dis. 7. 301312
Reuben, R.., Yasuno, M.., Panicker, K. N.& Labrecque, G. C.. (1973). The estimation of adult populations of Aedes aegypti at two localities in Delhi, India. — J. communbl. Dis. 5, 154162.
Ribbands, C. R.. (1946). Moonlight and house-haunting habits of female anophelines in West Africa. — Bull. ent. Res. 36, 395417.
Roberts, R. H.. (1970). Color of Malaise trap and the collection of Tabanidae. — Mosquito News. 30, 567571.
Roberts, R. H.. (1972). Relative attractiveness of CO2 and a steer to Tabanidae, Culicidae and Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). — Mosquito News. 32, 208211.
Roberts, R. H.. (1975a). Relationship between the amount of CO2 and the collection of Tabanidae in Malaise traps. — Mosquito News. 35, 150154.
Roberts, R. H.. (1975b). Influence of trap screen age on collections of tabanids in Malaise traps. — Mosquito News. 35, 538539.
Roberts, R. H.. (1976). The comparative efficiency of six trap types for the collection of Tabanidae (Diptera). — Mosquito News. 36, 530535.
Roeder, K. D.. (1953). Insect physiology. — 1100 pp. New York, Wiley.
Ross, R.. (1902). Mosquito brigades and how to organise them. — 98 pp. London, George Philip.
Russell, P. F.., Knipe, F. W.., Rao, T. R.& Putnam, P.. (1944). Some experiments on flight range of Anopheles culicifacies.— J. exp. Zool. 97, 135163.
Sasa, M.& Sabin, A. B.. (1950). Ecological studies on the mosquitoes of Okayama in relation to the epidemiology of Japanese B encephalitis. — Am. J. Hyg. 51, 2135.
Scanlon, J. E.& Sandihand, U.. (1965). The distribution and ecology of Anopheles balaba-censis in Thailand (Diptera: Culcidae). — J. med. Entomol. 2, 6169.
Scherer, W. F.., Buescher, E. L.., Flemings, M. B.., Noguchi, A.& Scanlon, J.. (1959). Ecologic studies of Japanese encephalitis virus in Japan. III. Mosquito factors. Zootropism and vertical flight of Culex tritaeniorhynchus with observations on variations in collections from animal-baited traps in different habitats. — Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 8, 665677.
Schoof, H. F.. (1944). Adult observation stations to determine effectiveness of the control of Anopheles quadrimaculatus. — J. econ. Ent. 37, 770779.
Schreck, C. E.., Gouck, H. K.& Posey, K. H.. (1970). An experimental plexiglass mosquito trap utilizing carbon dioxide. — Mosquito News. 30, 641645.
Schreck, C. E.., Gouck, H. K.& Posey, K. H.. (1972). The range of effectiveness and trapping efficiency of a plexiglass mosquito trap baited with carbon dioxide. — Mosquito News. 32, 496501.
Seber, G. A. F.. (1973). The estimation of animal abundance and related parameters.— 506pp. London, Griffin.
Self, L. S.., Nelson, M. J.., Pant, C. P.., Saroso, J. S.& Usman, S.. (1975). Ecological studies on vectors of malaria, Japanese encephalitis and filariasis in rural areas of West Africa. — 21 pp. (mimeographed). Geneva, WHO. [WHO/VBC/75.598].
Self, L. S.., Shin, H. K.., Kim, K. H.., Lee, K. W.., Chow, C. Y.& Hong, H. K.. (1973). Ecological studies on Culex tritaeniorhynchus as a vector of Japanese encephalitis. — Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 49, 4147.
Senior White, R. A.. (1952). Studies on the bionomics of A. aquasalis Curry, 1932 (concld.) Part III. — IndianJ Malar. 6, 2972.
Senior White, R. A.., Ghosh, A. R.., Rao, J. V. V.. (1945). On the adult bionomics of some Indian anophelines: with special reference to malaria control by pyrethrum-spraying. — J. Malar. Inst. India. 6, 129245.
Senior White, R. A. & Rao, V. V.. (1946). On the relative efficiency of hand and spray catching of mosquitoes. — J. Malar. Inst. India. 6, 411416.
Service, M. W.. (1963). The ecology of the mosquitoes of the northern Guinea savannah of Nigeria. — Bull. ent. Res. 54, 601632.
Service, M. W.. (1969a). Observations on the ecology of some British mosquitoes. — Bull. ent. Res. 59, 161194.
Service, M. W.. (1969b). The use of traps in sampling mosquito populations. — Entomologia exp. appl. 12, 403–112.
Service, M. W.. (1970). A battery-operated light-trap for sampling mosquito populations. — Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 43, 635641.
Service, M. W.. (1971a). The daytime distribution of mosquitoes resting amongst vegetation. — J. med. Entomol. 8, 271278.
Service, M. W.. (1971b). A reappraisal of the role of mosquitoes in the transmission of myxomatosis in Britain. — J. Hyg., Camb. 69, 105111.
Service, M. W.. (1971C). Feeding behaviour and host preferences of British mosquitoes. — Bull. ent. Res. 60, 653661.
Service, M. W.. (1971a). Flight periodicities and vertical distribution of Aedes cantans (Mg.), Ae. geniculatus (Ol.), Anopheles plumbeus Steph. and Culex pipiens L. (Dipt.. Culicidae) in southern England. — Bull. ent. Res. 60, 639651.
Service, M. W.. (1973). Flight activities of mosquitoes with emphasis on host seeking behaviour, pp. 125132 in Hudson, A.. (Ed.). Biting fly control and environmental quality. Proceedings of a symposium held at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, May 16–18, 1972.—162 pp. Ottawa, Information Canada.
Service, M. W.. (1974). Further results of catches of Culicoides and mosquitoes from suction traps. — J. med. Entomol. 11, 471479.
Service, M. W.. (1976). Mosquito ecology. Field sampling methods. — 544 pp. London, Applied Science Publishers.
Service, M. W.. (1977).Ecological and biological studies on Aedes cantans (Meig.) (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern England. — J. appl. Ecol.
Shalaby, A. M.. (1971). Sampling of outdoor resting populations of Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles fluviatilis in Gujarat State, India. — Mosquito News 31, 6873.
Shalaby, A. M.. (1972). A study of the outdoor population of anopheline mosquitoes in Gujarat State of India. — Bull. Soc. ent. Egypte. 56, 369388.
Shemanchuk, J. A.. (1965). On the hibernation of Culex tarsalts Coquillett, Culiseta inornata Williston and Anopheles earlei Vargas, (Diptera, Culicidae). — Mosquito News. 25, 456462.
Sheppard, P. M.., Macdonald, W. W.., Tonn, R. J.& Grab, B.. (1969). The dynamics of an adult population of Aedes aegypti in relation to dengue haemorrhagic fever in Bangkok. — J. Anim. Ecol. 38, 661702.
Shimizu, Y.., Takahashi, M.& Yabe, S.. (1969). Use of the truck trap for the survey of mosquito population and the physiological age composition. [In Japanese with English summary]. — Jap. J. sanit. Zool. 20, 7680.
Siverley, R. E.., Defoliart, G. R.. (1968). Mosquito studies in Northern Wisconsin. II Light trapping studies. — Mosquito News. 28, 162167.
Snow, W. E.. (1949). Studies on portable resting stations for Anopheles quadrimaculatus in the Tennessee valley. — J. natn. Malar. Soc. 8, 336343.
Snow, W. E.& Pickard, E.. (1957). Correlation of vertical and horizontal flight activity of Mansonia perturbans with reference to marked changes in light intensity (Diptera, Culicidae). — Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 50, 306311.
Snow, W. F.. (1970). The effect of a reduction in expired carbon dioxide on the attractiveness of human subjects to mosquitoes. — Bull. ent. Res. 60, 4348.
Snow, W. F.. (1975). The vertical distribution of flying mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in West African savanna. — Bull. ent. Res. 65, 269277.
Snow, W. F.. (1976). The direction of flight of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) near the ground in West African savanna in relation to wind direction, in the presence and absence of bait. — Bull. ent. Res. 65 (1975), 555562.
Sommerman, K. M.& Simmet, R. P.. (1965). Car-top insect trap with terminal cage in auto. — Mosquito News. 25, 172182.
Sommerman, K. M.& Simmet, R. P.. (1967). Versatile mosquito trap. — Mosquito News. 27, 412–117.
Spencer, M.. (1967). Anopheline attack on mother and infant pairs, Fergusson Island. — Papua New Guin. med. J. 10, 75.
Steelman, C. D.., Richardson, C. G.., Schaefer, R. E.& Wilson, B. H.. (1968). A collapsible truck-boat trap for collecting blood-fed mosquitoes and tabanids. — Mosquito News. 28, 6467.
Stewart, W. W. A.. (1970). A modified CDC light trap. — Mosquito News. 30, 188191.
Sudia, W. D.& Chamberlain, R. W.. (1962). Battery-operated light trap, an improved model. — Mosquito News. 22, 126129.
Sun, W. K. C.. (1962). A study of the seasonal succession of some medically important insects in the Taipei area. — Biol. Bull. Tunghai Univ. 10, 119.
Takahashi, M.., Yabe, S.& Shimizu, Y.. (1971). Observations on the feeding habits of some mosquitoes in Gunma prefecture, Japan. — Jap. J. med. Sci. Biol. 24, 163169.
Takeda, U.., Kurihara, T.., Suzuki, T.., Sasa, M.., Miura, A.., Matsumoto, K.& Tanaka, H.. (1962). Studies on a collection method of mosquitoes by dry ice and a mosquito net. [In Japanese with English summary.]Jap. J. sanit. Zool. 13, 3135.
Taylor, L. R.. (1951). An improved suction trap for insects. — Ann. appl. Biol. 38, 582591.
Taylor, L. R.. (1962). The absolute efficiency of insect suction traps. — Ann. appl. Biol. 50, 405–21.
Taylor, L. R.& Brown, E. S.. (1972). Effects of light-trap design and illumination on samples of moths in the Kenya highlands. — Bull. ent. Res. 62, 91112.
Taylor, L. R.& Palmer, J. M. P.. (1972). Aerial sampling, pp. 189234 in HF, vanEmden (Ed.). Aphid technology with special reference to the study of aphids in the field. — 344 pp. London, Academic Press.
Teesdale, C.. (1955). Studies on the bionomics of Aedes aegypti (L.) in its natural habitats in a coastal region of Kenya. — Bull. ent. Res. 46, 711742.
Teesdale, C.. (1959). Observations on the mosquito fauna of Mombasa. — Bull. ent. Res. 50, 191208.
Tempelis, C. H.., Hayes, R. O.., Hess, A. D.& Reeves, W. C.. (1970). Blood-feeding habits of four species of mosquitoes found in Hawaii. — Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 19, 335341.
Tempelis, C. H.., Reeves, W. C., Bellamy, R. E.& Lofy, M. F.. (1965). A three-year study of the feeding habits of Culex tarsalis in Kern County, California. — Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 14, 170177.
Thomas, T. C. E.. (1951). Biting activity of Anopheles gambiae. — Brit. med. J. 2, 1402.
Thompson, B. H.. (1976). Studies on the attraction of Simulium damnosum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) to its hosts. I. The relative importance of sight, exhaled breath, and smell. — Z. Tropenmed. Parasit. 27, 455473.
Tonn, R. J.., Bang, Y. H.. Pwele, A.. (1973). Studies on Aedes simpsoni and Aedes aegypti in three rural coastal areas of Tanzania. — 16 pp. (mimeographed). Geneva, WHO. [(WHO/VBC/73.442)].
Trpis, M.. (1962). Neue Erkenntnisse über eine Forschungsmethodik der Bestimmung der Aktivität von Stechmücken. — Biologia, Bratisl. 17, 123129.
Trpis, M.. (1971). Seasonal variation in adult populations of Aedes aegypti in the Dar es Salaam area, Tanzania. — 29 pp. (mimeographed). Geneva, WHO. [WHO/VBC/71.291].
Trpis, M.& Hausermann, W.. (1975). Demonstration of differential domesticity of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera, Culicidae) in Africa by mark-release-recapture. — Bull. ent. Res. 65, 199208.
Trpis, M.., Mcclelland, G. A. H.., Gillett, J. D.., Teesdale, C.& Rao, T. R.. (1973). Diel periodicity in the landing of Aedes aegypti on man. — Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 48, 623629.
Vale, G. A.. (1974a). New field methods for studying the responses of tsetse flies (Diptera, Glossinidae) to hosts. — Bull. ent. Res. 64, 199208.
Vale, G. A.. (19746). The responses of tsetse flies (Diptera, Glossinidae) to mobile and stationary baits. — Bull. ent. Res. 64, 545588.
Van Peenen, P. F. D.., Atmosoedjono, S.., Lien, J. C.& Saroso, S.. (1972). Seasonal abundance of Aedes aegypti in Djakarta, Indonesia. — Mosquito News. 32, 176179.
Van Someren, E. C. C., Heisch, R. B.& Furlong, M.. (1958). Observations on the behaviour of some mosquitos of the Kenya coast. — Bull. ent. Res. 49, 643660.
Verheijen, F. J.. (1960). The mechanism of the trapping effect of artificial light sources upon animals. — Arch. need. Zool. 13, 1107.
Viswanathan, D. K.., Rao, T. R.& Bhatia, S. C.. (1952). The validity of estimation of Anopheles densities on the basis of hand collection on a timed basis from fixed catching stations. — Indian J. Malar. 6, 199213.
Viswanathan, D. K.., Rao, T. R.., Halgeri, A. V.& Karandikar, V. S.. (1950). Observations on Anopheles densities in indoor shelters during the forenoon, afternoon and night. — Indian J. Malar. 4, 533547.
Wada, Y.., Kawai, S.., Oda, T.., Miyagi, I.., Suenaga, O.., Nishigaki, J.., Omori, N.., Takahashi, K.., Matsuo, R.., Itoh, T.& Takatsuki, Y.. (1969). Dispersal experiments of Culex tritaeniorhynchus in Nagasaki area (preliminary report). — Trop. Med. 11, 3744.
Wada, Y.., Miura, T.., Kamiya, M.& Tayokawa, K.. (1968). Mosquitoes overwintering in Izu Peninsula and Mt. Nokogiri. — Jap. J. sanit. Zool. 19, 8283.
Wagner, V. E.., Tully, G. A.., Goodman, E. D.& Newson, H. D.. (1975). A computer simulation model for population studies of woodland pool Aedes mosquitoes. — Envir. Ent. 4, 905919.
Walker, A. R.& Boreham, P. F. L.. (1976). Saline as a collecting medium for Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in blood feeding and other studies. — Mosquito News. 36, 1820.
Weidhaas, D. E.. (1974). Simplified models of population dynamics of mosquitoes related to control technology. — J. econ. Ent. 67, 620624.
Weidhaas, D. E.., Breeland, S. G.., Lofgren, C. S.., Dame, D. A.& Kaiser, R.. (1974). Release of chemosterilized males for the control of Anopheles albimanus in El Salvador. IV. Dynamics of the test population. — Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 23, 298308.
Weidhaas, D. E.., Patterson, R. S.., Lofgren, C. S.& Ford, H. R.. (1971). Bionomics of a population of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say. — Mosquito News. 31, 177182.
Wellington, W. G.. (1974). Changes in mosquito flights associated with natural changes in polarized light. — Can. Ent. 106, 941948.
Whang, C. H.. (1961). Hibernation of mosquitoes in Korea. — Mosquito News. 21, 1720.
Wharton, R. H.. (1951a.). The habits of adult mosquitoes in Malaya. I. Observations on anophelines in window-trap huts and at cattle-sheds. — Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 45, 141154.
Wharton, R. H.. (1951b). The habits of adult mosquitoes in Malaya. II. Observations on culicines in window-trap huts and at cattle-sheds. — Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 45, 155160.
Wharton, R. H.., Eyles, D. E.& Warren, M. C. W.. (1963). The development of methods for trapping the vectors of monkey malaria. — Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 57, 3246.
Wilton, D. P.. (1975). Mosquito collections in El Salvador with ultraviolet and CDC miniature light traps with and without dry ice. — Mosquito News. 35, 522525.
Wilton, D. P.& Fay, R. W.. (1972a). Air flow direction and velocity in light trap design. — Enlo– mologia exp. appl. 15, 377386.
Wilton, D. P.. & FAY, R. W.. (1972A). Responses of adult Anopheles stephensi to light of various wavelengths. — J. med. Entomol. 9, 301304.
Woke, P. A.. (1962). Observations on differential attraction among humans for Mansonia nigricans and Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae). — Proc. New Jers. Mosq.Exterm. Ass. 49, 173181.
Worth, C. B.. (1975). Sugaring for mosquitoes. — Mosquito News. 35, 8384.
Worth, C. B.& Jonkers, A. H.. (1962). Two traps for mosquitoes attracted to small vertebrates. — Mosquito News. 22, 1521.
Wright, A. H.& Kellogg, F. E.. (1964). Host size as a factor in the attraction of malaria mosquitoes. — Nature, Lond. 202, 321322.
Yamashita, Z.& Ishii, T.. (1976). Basic structure of the arboreal arthropod fauna in the forest of Japan. Ecological studies of the arboreal fauna. i. — Rept. Env. Sci. Mie Univ. 1, 81111.
Yasuno, M.& Rajagopalan, P. K.. (1973). Po.pulation estimation of Culex fatigans in Delhi villages. — 18 pp. (mimeographed). Geneva, WHO. [WHO/VBC/73.431].
Yasuno, M.., Rajagopalan, P. K.& Labrecque, G. C.. (1975). Migration patterns of Culex fatigans around Delhi, India. — Trop. Med. 17, 9196.
Yasuno, M.., Rajagopalan, P. K.., Russel, S.& Labrecque, G. C.. (1973b). Influence of seasonal changes in climate on dispersal of released Culex pipiens fatigans. A study in villages in Delhi Union Territory, India. — Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 48, 317321.
Yasuno, M.., Russel, S.& Rajagopalan, P. K.. (1973a). An application of the removal method to the population estimation of Culex fatigans resting indoors. —9 pp. (mimeographed). Geneva, WHO. [WHO/VBC/73.458].
Zukel, J. W.. (1949). A winter study of Anopheles mosquitoes in southwestern Georgia, with notes on some culicine species. — 7. natn. Malar. Soc. 8, 224233.