In Rhodesia from 1966 to 1970 Glossina morsitans Westw. and G. pallidipesAust. in natural and artificial refuges were studied by in situ counts or captured by a hand-net, mechanical, electric or sticky trapping, or a curtain drawn across the entrance. A modification of mechanical trapping permitted investigation of the pattern in whichtsetse vacated a refuge. Coolness and shade were features of effective refuges. Large numbers of tsetse utilised refuges only during the hot dry months of September, October and November. Entries occurred when temperatures reached 32°C in the morning and continued until mid-afternoon; exits occurred mainly in the evening. G. morsitansentering at 12.00–14.00 h were relatively abundant in fat; G. pallidipes entering at 12.00–16.00 h were relatively abundant in residual blood-meal. Greatest numbers of tsetse occupied refuges in naturally shaded situations such as riverine fringes. Few of the many tsetse marked in refuges and releasedwere found again at the refuge of marking. Artificial refuges were not used extensively for larval deposition. Comparisons between the catches from refuges, oxen, Morris traps and a fly round illustrate the problem of obtaining representative samples of tsetse populations. The application of insecticides to natural refuges is a policy of merit.
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