The times for knockdown of resistant and susceptible strains of both Anopheles stephensi Liston (DUB234 and BEECH) and A. gambiae Giles (RSP and KWA), on exposure to a permethrin impregnated net were determined to evaluate the effect of age on susceptibility to permethrin. The mean knockdown times of pyrethroid resistant strains of A. stephensi and A. gambiae were significantly shorter if they were 10 days old (either fed or unfed), as compared with those of newly emerged mosquitoes. Based on KT50 values, the resistance ratios between resistant and susceptible A. stephensi were 3.5 and 2.2 for the newly emerged and 10-day-old mosquitoes, respectively. After 1 h exposure to paper impregnated with 0.25%permethrin, mortality of newly emerged individuals of the susceptible and resistant strains of A. stephensi was significantly less than when they were 10 days old. Irritability by permethrin was less with the resistant strain of A. stephensi. In the other strains irritability declined significantly with age. Pre-exposure of susceptible mosquitoes of BEECH and IRAQ strains of A. stephensi for a short time to permethrin did not increase tolerance when the mosquitoes were re-exposed 24 h later. Because of the age effect and the possibility of an effect of pre-exposure under some circumstances, confirmatory tests on newly emerged F1 individuals reared from wild collected mosquitoes are recommended in monitoring for resistance in wild populations.
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