Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Plant penetration by feeding aphids (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea): a review

  • D. G. Pollard (a1)
Extract

The factors responsible for determining the host-plants and feeding sites of aphids, and the various probing activities (the role of the labium, stylet insertion, surface saliva deposition, the behaviour of the aphid, virus transmission) are examined. There is a brief review of stylet structure and movement and the possible sensory nature of these organs, followed by a detailed review of the characteristics of aphid stylet paths in plant tissues. The penetration of epidermis and vascular tissues is treated separately while that within the intermediate tissues is covered in relation to leaves and stems, roots, trees, galls and excised tissue as well as in separate sections on Aphis fabaeScopoli and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Stylet destinations and behaviour in the sieve tubes are discussed together with general features such as rate and depth of penetration, guidance to the feeding site, effects of tissue hardness and stylet withdrawal. The ingestion rate of plant sap is reviewed and its constitution and importance examined together with the significance of artificial diets. The salivary secretions including sheaths and tracks, their functions and their role in the transference of material between aphid and host are dealt with. The nature of the physical and internal damage resulting from aphid feeding is briefly covered, and also some plant-insect interrelations. The aphid species whose stylets have been examined in plant tissue are listed.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Abernathy, C. O. & Thurston, R. (1969). Plant age in relation to the resistance of Nicotiana to the green peach aphid.—J. econ. Ent. 61, 13561359.
Adams, J. B. (1967). A physiologic difference in aphids (Homoptera) raised on excised leaves and on intact plants.—Can. J. Zool. 45, 588590.
Adams, J. B. & Drew, M. E. (1963). A cellulose-hydrolyzing factor in aphids.—Can. J. Zool. 41, 12051212.
Adams, J. B. & Drew, M. E. (1965). A cellulose-hydrolyzing factor in aphid saliva.—Can. J. Zool. 43, 489496.
Adams, J. B. & Fyfe, F. W. (1970). Stereoscan views of some aphid mouthparts.—Can. J. Zool. 48, 10331034.
Adams, J. B. & McAllan, J. W. (1956). Pectinase in the saliva of Myzus persicae (Sulz.) (Homoptera: Aphididae).—Can. J. Zool. 43, 541543.
Adams, J. B. & McAllan, J. W. (1958). Pectinase in certain insects.—Can. J. Zool. 36, 305308.
Adlerz, W. C. (1971). A reservoir-equipped Moericke trap for collecting aphids.—J. econ. Ent. 64, 966967.
Aikman, D. P. & Anderson, W. P. (1971). A quantitative investigation of a peristaltic model for phloem translocation.—Ann. Bot. 35, 761772.
Akey, D. H. & Beck, S. D. (1971). Continuous rearing of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, on a holidic diet.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 64, 353356.
Allen, T. C. (1947). Suppression of insect damage by means of plant hormones.—J. econ. Ent. 40, 814817.
Alonso, C. (1971). The effects of gibberellic acid upon developmental processes in Drosophila hydei.—Entomologia exp. appl. 14, 7382.
Amman, G. D. (1970). Phenomena of Adelges piceae populations (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae) in North Carolina.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 63, 17271734.
Anders, F. (1958). Aminosäuren als gallenerregende Stoffe der Reblaus (Viteus (Phylloxera) vitifolii Shimer).—Experientia 14, 6263.
Anders, F. (1960). Untersuchungen über das cecidogene Prinzip der Reblaus (Viteus vitifolii Shimer). II. Biologische Untersuchungen über das galleninduzierende Sekret der Reblaus.—Biol. Zbl. 79, 679700.
Anderson, J. M. & Bradley, R. H. E. (1963). Attempts to obtain electrophysiological activity from aphid stylets.—Can. J. Zool. 41, 705709.
Arn, H. & Cleere, J. S. (1971). A double-label choice-test for the simultaneous determination of diet preference and ingestion by the aphid Amphorophora agathonica.—Entomologia exp. appl. 14, 377387.
Arnaud, G. (1918). Les Astérinées.—Annls Éc. natn. Agric. Montpellier. 1918, 5265.
Arriaga, H. O. (1954). Resistencia a la toxemia de Schizaphis graminum (Rond.) en cereales finos.—Revta. Fac. Agron. Eva Perón. 30, 65101.
Arya, H. C., Hildebrandt, A. C.Riker, A. J. (1962). Nucleic acids in callus tissues from grape stem and Phylloxera gall.—Phyton, B. Aires 19, 2729.
Asahina, E. & Tanno, K. (1964). A large amount of trehalose in a frost-resistant insect.—Nature, Lond. 204, 1222.
Atkins, M. D. & Woods, T. A. D. (1968). Survival of the balsam woolly aphid on Abies logs.—Can. Ent. 100, 412420.
Auclair, J. L. (1958). Honeydew excretion in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harr.) (Homoptera: Aphididae).—J. Insect Physiol. 2, 330337.
Auclair, J. L. (1959). Feeding and excretion by the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harr.) (Homoptera: Aphididae), reared on different varieties of peas.—Entomologia exp. appl. 2, 279286.
Auclair, J. L. (1963). Aphid feeding and nutrition.—A. Rev. Ent. 8, 439490.
Auclair, J. L. (1964). Recent advances in the feeding and nutrition of aphids.—Can. Ent. 96, 241249.
Auclair, J. L. (1965). Feeding and nutrition of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Homoptera: Aphidae), on chemically defined diets of various pH and nutrient levels.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 58, 855875.
Auclair, J. L. (1967 a). Effects of pH and sucrose on rearing the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, on a germ-free and holidic diet.—J. Insect Physiol. 13, 431446.
Auclair, J. L. (1967 b). Effects of light and sugars on rearing the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, on a germ-free and holidic diet.—J. Insect Physiol. 13, 12471268.
Auclair, J. L. (1969). Nutrition of plant-sucking insects on chemically defined diets.—Entomologia exp. appl. 12, 623641.
Auclair, J. L. & Cartier, J. J. (1960). Effets comparés de jeûnes intermittents et de périodes équivalentes de subsistance sur des variétés résistantes ou sensibles de pois, Pisum sativum L., sur la croissance, la reproduction et l'excrétion du puceron du pois, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harr.) (Homopteres: Aphidides).—Entomologia exp. appl. 3. 315326.
Auclair, J. L. & Cartier, J. J. (1963). Pea aphid: rearing on a chemically defined diet.—Science, N.Y. 142, 10681069.
Auclair, J. L. & Maltais, J. B. (1950). Studies on the resistance of plants to aphids by the method of paper partition chromatography.—Can. Ent. 82, 175176.
Auclair, J. L. & Maltais, J. B. (1952). Occurrence of gamma-amino-butyric acid in extracts of Pisum sativum (L.) and in the honeydew of Myzus circumflexus (Buck.).—Nature, Lond. 170, 11141115.
Auclair, J. L., Maltais, J. B. & Cartier, J. J. (1957). Factors in resistance of peas to the pea aphid, Acyrihosiphon pisum (Harr.) (Homoptera: Aphididae). II. Amino acids.—Can. Ent. 89, 457464.
Auclair, J. L. & Raulston, J. R. (1966). Feeding of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) on a chemically defined diet.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 59, 10161017.
Auclair, J. L. & Srivastava, P. N. (1972). Some mineral requirements of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Homoptera: Aphididae).—Can. Ent. 104, 927936.
Avery, D. J. & Briggs, J. B. (1968 a). The aetiology and development of damage in young fruit trees infested with fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch).—Ann. appl. Biol. 61, 277288.
Avery, D. J. & Briggs, J. B. (1968 b). Damage to leaves caused by fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch).—J. hort. Sci. 43, 463473.
Bacon, J. S. D. & Dickinson, B. (1957). The origin of melezitose: a biochemical relationship between the lime tree (Tilia spp.) and an aphis (Eucallipterus tiliae L.).—Biochem. J. 66, 289297.
Baker, E. A. & Honeyborne, C. H. B. (1971). Insect studies.—Rep. agric. hort. Res. Stn. Univ. Bristol. 1970, 89.
Baker, P. F. (1960). Aphid behaviour on healthy and on yellows-virus-infected sugar beet.—Ann. appl. Biol. 48, 384391.
Balch, R. E. (1952). Studies of the balsam woolly aphid, Adelges piceae (Ratz.) (Homoptera:Phylloxeridae) and its effects on balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.—Publs Can. Dep. Agric. no. 867, 176.
Balch, R. E., Clark, J. & Bonga, J. M. (1964). Hormonal action in production of tumours and compression wood by an aphid.—Nature, Lond. 202, 721722.
Balch, R. E. & Underwood, G. R. (1950). The life-history of Pineus pinifoliae (Fitch) (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae) and its effect on white pine.—Can. Ent. 82, 117123.
Banks, C. J. (1958). Effects of the ant Lasius niger (L.) on the behaviour and reproduction of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scop.—Bull. ent. Res. 49, 701714.
Banks, C. J. (1962). Effects of the ant Lasius niger (L.) on insects preying on small populations of Aphis fabae Scop. on bean plants.—Ann. appl. Biol. 50, 669679.
Banks, C. J. (1963). Feeding and excretion behaviour of aphids.—Anim. Behav. 11, 604.
Banks, C. J. (1965). Aphid nutrition and reproduction.—Rep. Rothamsted exp. Stn. 1964, 299309.
Banks, C. J. & Macaulay, E. D. M. (1964). The feeding, growth and reproduction of Aphis fabae Scop. on Vicia faba under experimental conditions.—Ann. appl. Biol. 53, 229242.
Banks, C. J. & Macaulay, E. D. M. (1965). The ingestion of nitrogen and solid matter from Vicia fabae by Aphis fabae Scop.—Ann. appl. Biol. 55, 207218.
Banks, C. J. & Macaulay, E. D. M. (1970). Effects of varying the hostplant and environmental conditions on the feeding and reproduction of Aphis fabae.—Entomologia exp. appl. 13, 8596.
Banks, C. J., Macaulay, E. D. M. & Holman, J. (1968). Cannibalism and predation by aphids.—Nature, Lond. 218, 491.
Banks, C. J. & Nixon, H. L. (1958). Effects of the ant, Lasius niger L., on the feeding and excretion of the bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scop.—J. exp. Biol. 35, 703711.
Banks, C. J. & Nixon, H. L. (1959). The feeding and excretion rates of Aphis fabae Scop. on Vicia faba L.—Entomologia exp. appl. 2, 7781.
Bänziger, H. (1970). The piercing mechanism of the fruit-piercing moth Calpe (Calyptra) thalictri Bkh. (Noctuidae) with reference to the skin-piercing blood-sucking moth C. eustrigata Hmps.—Acta trop. 27, 5488.
Bänziger, H. (1971). Bloodsucking moths of Malaya.—Fauna Calif. 1, 316.
Baranyovits, F. (1953). Some aspects of the biology of armoured scale insects.—Endeavour 12, 202209.
Barker, J. S. & Tauber, O. E. (1951 a).Development of green peach aphid as affected by nutrient deficiencies in a host, nasturtium.—J. econ. Ent. 44, 125.
Barker, J. S. & Tauber, O. E. (1951 b).Fecundity of and plant injury by the pea aphid as influenced by nutritional changes in the garden pea.—J. econ. Ent. 44, 10101012.
Barnett, C. B. & Pirone, T. P. (1966).Stylet-borne virus: active probing by aphids not required for acquisition.—Science, N.Y. 154, 291292.
Baron, R. L. & Guthrie, F. E. (1960).A quantitative and qualitative study of sugars found in tobacco as affected by the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, and its honeydew.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 53, 220228.
Baron, W. M. M. (1967).Physiological aspects of water and plant life.—146 pp. London, Heinemann.
Bar-Zeev, M. & Sterneberg, S. (1962).Factors affecting the feeding of fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis Rothsch.) through a membrane.—Entomologia exp. appl. 5, 6068.
Basden, R. (1968).The occurrence and composition of the sugars in the honeydew of Eriococcus coriaceus (Mask.).—Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 92, 222226.
Bath, J. E. & Chapman, R. K. (1966).Efficiency of three aphid species in the transmission of pea enation mosaic virus.—J. econ. Ent. 59, 631634.
Baurant, R. (1968).Quelques observations dans la nature sur l'évolution printanière du Chermes tardus Dreyf.—Bull. Rech. Agron. Gembloux (N.S.) 3, 226233.
Behrendt, K. (1968).Das Abwandern parasitierter Aphiden von ihren Wirtspflanzen und eine Methode zu ihrer Erfassung.—Beitr. Ent. 18, 293298.
Beirne, B. P. (1970).Effects of precipitation on crop insects.—Can. Ent. 102, 13601373.
Bennettt, C. W. (1960). Sugar beet yellows disease in the United States.—Tech. Bull. U.S. Dep. Agr. no. 1218, 13.
Bennet-Clark, H. C. (1963 a).Negative pressures produced in the pharyngeal pump of the blood-sucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus.—J. exp. Biol. 40, 223229.
Bennet-Clark, H. C. (1963 b).The control of meal size in the blood-sucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus.—J. exp. Biol. 40, 741750.
Benwitz, G. (1956).Der Kopf von Corixa punctata Ill. (geoffroyi Leach) (Hemiptera Heteroptera).—Zool. Jb. (Anat.) 75, 311378.
Berlinski, K. (1965).Badania nad pobieranien pokarmu i wplywem roslin żywicielskich na mszycę trzmie1inowo-burakową-Aphis fabae Scop. (Homopt., Aphididae). (Studies on food intake and the effects of food plants on the bean aphid.—Aphis fabae).—Polskie Pismo ent. (B). 1965, 163168.
Bernardo, E. N. (1969).Effects of six host plants on the biology of the black bean aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch.—Philipp. Ent. 1, 287292.
Bhalla, O. P. & Robinson, A. G. (1966).Effect of three chemosterilants on the pea aphid fed on an artificial diet.—J. econ. Ent. 59, 378379.
Bhalla, O. P. & Robinson, A. G. (1968).Effects of chemosterilants and growth regulators on the pea aphid fed an artificial diet.—J. econ. Ent. 61, 552555.
Black, L. M. (1962). Some recent advances on leafhopper-borne viruses, pp. 19. In Maramorosch, K. (Ed.) Biological transmission of disease agents.—192 pp. New York, Academic Press.
Bliss, M. (1970). The feeding behavior and development of several forms of Eulachnus agilis (Kaltenbach) (Homoptera, Aphididae).—114 pp. Doctoral Thesis, Pennsylvania State Univ.—[Diss. Abstr. int. (B). 31, 5406–5407 (1971).]
Bodenheimer, F. S. & Swirski, E. (1957).The Aphidoidea of the Middle East.—378 pp. Jerusalem, Weizmann.
Bongers, J. (1969).Saugverhalten und Nahrungsaufnahme von Oncopeltus fasciatus Dallas (Heteroptera, Lygaeidae).—Oecologia. 3, 374389.
Bonnemaison, L. (1971).Action de la maturité de la plante-hôte et de l'effet de groupe sur la production des virginopares ailées chez le puceron du pois Acyrthosiphon pisum.—Ann. Soc. ent. Fr. (N.S.) 7, 889913.
Bonner, A. B. & Ford, J. B. (1972).Some effects of crowding on the biology of Megoura viciae.—Ann. appl. Biol. 71, 9198.
Bournoville, R. (1971).Données biologiques d'un biotype du puceron du pois, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Homoptera: Aphididae).—Can. Ent. 103, 876881.
Bradley, R. H. E. (1952).Studies on the aphid transmission of a strain of henbane mosaic virus.—Ann. appl. Biol. 39, 7897.
Bradley, R. H. E. (1953).Infectivity of aphids after several hours on tobacco infected with potato virus Y.—Nature, Lond. 171, 755756.
Bradley, R. H. E. (1954). Studies of the mechanism of transmission of potato virus Y by the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulz.) (Homoptera: Aphidae).—Can. J. Zool. 32, 6473.
Bradley, R. H. E. (1956). Effects of depth of stylet penetration on aphid transmission of potato virus Y.—Can. J. Microbiol. 2, 539547.
Bradley, R. H. E. (1959). Loss of virus from the stylets of aphids.—Virology 8, 308318.
Bradley, R. H. E. (1960). Effect of amputating stylets of mature apterous viviparae of Myzus persicae.—Nature, Lond. 188, 337338.
Bradley, R. H. E. (1961). Aphid transmission of potato virus Y diminished by electrostatic charge.—Virology 15, 379.
Bradley, R. H. E. (1962). Response of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulz.) to some fluids applied to the mouth parts.—Can. Ent. 94, 707722.
Bradley, R. H. E. (1963 a). Are aphids apt to acquire potato virus Y, or transmit it, when probing plants through a membrane?Virology 21, 152155.
Bradley, R. H. E. (1963 b). Some ways in which a paraffin oil impedes aphid transmission of potato virus Y.—Can. J. Microbiol. 9, 369380.
Bradley, R. H. E. (1964). Aphid transmission of stylet-borne viruses. pp. 148173. In Corbett, M. K. & Sister, H. D. (Ed.) Plant virology.—527 pp. Gainesville, Florida Univ. Press.
Bradley, R. H. E. (1966). Which of an aphid's stylets carry transmissible virus?Virology 29, 396401.
Bradley, R. H. E. & Ganong, R. Y. (1955 a). Evidence that potato virus Y is carried near the tip of the stylets of the aphid vector Myzus persicae (Sulz.).—Can. J. Microbiol. 1, 775782.
Bradley, R. H. E. & Ganong, R. Y. (1955 b). Some effects of formaldehyde on potato virus Y in vitro, and ability of aphids to transmit the virus when their stylets are treated with formaldehyde.—Can. J. Microbiol. 1, 783793.
Bradley, R. H. E. & Rideout, D. W. (1953). Comparative transmission of potato virus Y by four aphid species that infest potato.—Can. J. Zool. 31, 333341.
Bradley, R. H. E., Sylvester, E. S. & Wade, C. V. (1962). Note on the movements of the mandibular and maxillary stylets of the aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer).—Can. Ent. 94, 653654.
Bradley, R. H. E., Wade, C. V. & Wood, F. A. (1962). Aphid transmission of potato virus Y inhibited by oils.—Virology 18, 327328.
Bragdon, J. C. & Mittler, T. E. (1963). Differential utilization of amino-acids by Myzus persicae (Sulzer) fed on artificial diets.—Nature, Lond. 198, 209210.
Brandes, E. W. (1923). Mechanics of inoculation with sugar-cane mosaic by insect vectors.—J. agric. Res. 23, 279283.
Branson, T. F. & Simpson, R. G. (1966). Effects of a nitrogen-deficient host and crowding on the corn leaf aphid.—J. econ. Ent. 59, 290293.
Briggs, J. B. (1965). The distribution, abundance, and genetic relationships of four strains of the rubus aphid (Amphorophora rubi (Kalt.)) in relation to raspberry breeding.—J. hort. Sci. 40, 109117.
Broadbent, L. (1949 a). Factors affecting the activity of alatae of the aphids Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Brevicoryne brassicae (L.).—Ann. appl. Biol. 36, 4062.
Broadbent, L. (1949 b). The grouping and overwintering of Myzus persicae Sulz. on Prunus species.—Ann. appl. Biol. 36, 334340.
Broadbent, L. (1951). Aphid excretion.—Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (A) 26, 97103.
Bronskill, J. F., Salkeld, E. H. & Friend, W. G. (1958). Anatomy, histology, and secretions of salivary glands of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae).—Can. J. Zool. 36, 961968.
Brown, W. (1955). On the physiology of parasitism in plants.—Ann. appl. Biol. 43, 325341.
Brusse, M. J. (1962). Alkaloid content and aphid infestation in Lupinus angustifolius L.—N. Z. Jl agric. Res. 5, 188189.
Buckley, N. G. & Pugh, G. J. F. (1971). Auxin production by phylloplane fungi.—Nature, Lond. 231, 332.
Burdon, E. R. (1908 a). The spruce-gall and larch-blight diseases caused by Chermes, and suggestions for their prevention.—J. econ. Biol. 2, 113.
Burdon, E. R. (1908 b). Some critical observations on the European species of the genus Chermes.—J. econ. Biol. 2, 119148.
Burk, L. G. & Stewart, P. A. (1969). Resistance of Nicotiana species to the green peach aphid.—J. econ. Ent. 62, 11151117.
Büsgen, M. (1891). Der Honigtau. Biologische Studien an Pflanzen und Pflanzenläusen.—Jena Z. Naturw. 25, 339428.
Butler, C. G. (1938). On the ecology of Aleurodes brassicaeü Walk. (Hemiptera).—Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 87, 291311.
Butler, G. D. (1968). Sugar for the survival of Lygus hesperus on alfalfa.—J. econ. Ent. 61, 854855.
Carle, P. & Moutous, G. (1965). Observations sur le mode de nutrition sur vigne de quatre espèces de cicadelles.—Ann. Épiphyt. 16, 333354.
Carlisle, D. B. & Ellis, P. E. (1968). Bracken and locust ecdysones: their effects on molting in the desert locust.—Science, N.Y. 159, 14721474.
Carlisle, D. B., Ellis, P. E. & Osborne, D. J. (1969). Effects of plant growth regulators on locusts and cotton stainer bugs.—J. Sci. Fd Agric. 20, 391393.
Carlson, O. V. & Hibbs, E. T. (1970). Oviposition by Empoasca fabae (Homoptera: Cicadellidae).—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 63, 516519.
Carter, W. (1939). Injuries to plants caused by insect toxins.—Bot. Rev. 5, 273326.
Carter, W. (1962). Insects in relation to plant disease.—705 pp. New York, Interscience.
Cartier, J. J. & Auclair, J. L. (1964). Pea aphid behaviour: colour preference on a chemical diet.—Can. Ent. 96, 12401243.
Cartier, J. J. & Auclair, J. L. (1965). Effets des couleurs sur le comportement de diverses races du puceron du pois, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), en élevage sur un régime nutritif de composition chimique connue.—Int. Congr. Ent. (1964), 414.
Cavalloro, R. (1961). Indagini condotte con 32P sulla nutrizione del Myzodes persicae, Sulzer.—Il Tabacco, Roma 65, 287297.
Celino, M. S. (1940). Experimental transmission of the mosaic of abacá, or manila hemp plant (Musa textilis Née).—Philipp. Agric. 29, 379403.
Chalfant, R. B. & Chapman, R. K. (1962). Transmission of cabbage viruses A and B by the cabbage aphid and the green peach aphid.—J. econ. Ent. 55, 584590.
Chapman, R. F. (1969). The insects. Structure and function.—819 pp. London, English Univ. Press.
Chatters, R. M. & Schlehuber, A. M. (1951). Mechanics of feeding of the greenbug (Toxoptera graminum Rond.) on Hordeum, Avena, and Triticum.—Tech. Bull. Okla agric. Exp. Stn. T-40, 118.
Chen, S. H. & Zia, Y. (1943). Observations on the orientation of some aphids in feeding.—Sinensia, Shanghai 14, 4143.
Chen, T. A. & Mai, W. F. (1965). The feeding of Trichodorus christiei on individually isolated corn root cells.—Phytopathology 55, 128.
Chrystal, R. N. (1925). The genus Dreyfusia (Order Hemiptera, Family Chermesidae) in Britain, and its relation to the silver fir.—Phil. Trans. R. Soc. (B) 214, 2961.
Cockbain, A. J. (1961). Low temperature thresholds for flight in Aphis fabae Scop.—Entomologia exp. appl. 4, 211219.
Cockbain, A. J. (1963). Probing and feeding behaviour of alate aphids in relation to the transmission of some plant viruses.—Anim. Behav. 11, 603.
Cockbain, A. J. & Heathcote, G. D. (1965). Transmission of sugar beet viruses in relation to the feeding, probing and flight activity of alate aphids.—Int. Congr. Ent. (1964), 521523.
Cognetti, G. (1965). Parthenogenesis in aphids.—Int. Congr. Ent. (1964), 250.
Comes, O. (1916). Prophylaxis in vegetable pathology.—Int. Rev. Sci. Pract. Agric. 7, 12051211.
Cousin, M. T. & Grison, C. (1969). Note concernant l'action d'une huile minérale sur la transmission de la mosaïque commune du pois (Pea virus 2) par Acyrthosiphum pisi.—Ann. Phytopathol. 1, 315318.
Cram, W. J. (1972). The initiation of developmental drifts in excised plant tissues.—Aust. J. biol. Sci. 25, 855859.
Crane, G. L. & Calpouzos, L. (1969). Suppression of symptoms of sugar beet virus yellows by mineral oil.—Phytopathology 59, 697698.
Crane, P. S. (1970). The feeding behavior of the blue-green sharpshooter, Hordnia circellata (Baker) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae).—Diss. Abstr. int. (B) 31, 54075408 (1971).
Cress, D. C. & Chada, H. L. (1971). Development of a synthetic diet for the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum. 2. Greenbug development as affected by zinc, iron, man ganese, and copper.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 64, 12401244.
Cunningham, V. D. & Schulz, J. T. (1963). Transmission of virus Y by instars of Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphidae).—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 56, 334336.
Dadd, R. H. (1967). Improvement of synthetic diet for the aphid Myzus persicae using plant juices, nucleic acids, or trace metals.—J. Insect Physiol. 13, 763778.
Dadd, R. H. & Krieger, D. L. (1967). Continuous rearing of aphids of the Aphis fabae complex on sterile synthetic diet.—J. econ. Ent. 60, 15121514.
Dadd, R. H. & Krieger, D. L. (1968). Dietary amino acid requirements of the aphid, Myzus persicae.—J. Insect Physiol. 14, 741764.
Dadd, R. H., Krieger, D. L. & Mittler, T. E. (1967). Studies on the artificial feeding of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer)—IV. Requirements for water-soluble vitamins and ascorbic acid.—J. Insect Physiol. 13, 249272.
Dadd, R. H. & Mittler, T. E. (1966). Permanent culture of an aphid on a totally synthetic diet.—Experientia 22, 832833.
Daniels, N. E. & Porter, K. B. (1956). Greenbug damage to winter wheat as affected by preceding crop.—J. econ. Ent. 49, 600602.
Danneel, I. (1967). Kurzzeitversuche zur Nahrungswahl von Aphis fabae Scop. (Homoptera, Aphididae).—Z. angew. Zool. 54, 181182.
Danneel, I. (1969 a). Untersuchungen zur Nahrungsaufnahme und Phosphatausscheidung durch Aphis fabae Scop. (Insecta, Homoptera, Aphididae) mit Hilfe der Tracer-Methode. I. Untersuchungen über die Faktoren, die die Nahrungsaufnahme von Aphis fabae Scop. bei künstlicher Fütterung durch Membranen beeinflussen.—Z. angew. Zool. 56, 229251.
Danneel, I. (1969 b). Untersuchungen zur Nahrungsaufnahme und Phosphatausscheidung durch Aphis fabae Scop. (Insecta, Homoptera, Aphididae) mit Hilfe der Tracer-Methode. II. Untersuchungen zur Aufnahme und Ausscheidung von Radio-phosphat durch Aphis fabae Scop. verbunden mit einer Berechnung der Strahlenbelastung.—Z. angew. Zool. 56, 465488.
Davey, K. G. (1962). The nervous pathway involved in the release by feeding of a pharmacologically active factor from the corpus cardiacum of Periplaneta.—J. Insect Physiol. 8, 579583.
Davidson, J. (1913). The structure and biology of Schizoneura lanigera Hausmann or woolly aphis of the apple tree. Part I.—The apterous viviparous female.—Q. Jl microsc. Sci. 58, 653701.
Davidson, J. (1914 a). On the mouth parts and mechanism of suction in Schizoneura lanigera Hausmann.—J. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) 32, 307329.
Davidson, J. (1914 b). The host plants and habits of Aphis rumicis Linn., with some observations on the migration of, and infestation of, plants by aphides.—Ann. appl. Biol. 1, 118141.
Davidson, J. (1921). Biological studies of Aphis rumicis Linn. 1746.—Ann. appl. Biol. 8, 5165.
Davidson, J. (1923). Biological studies of Aphis rumicis Linn. The penetration of plant tissues and the source of the food supply of aphids.—Ann. appl. Biol. 10, 3554.
Davidson, J. (1925). Biological studies of Aphis rumicis Linn. Factors affecting the infestation of Vicia faba with Aphis rumicis.—Ann. appl. Biol. 12, 472507.
Davies, W. M. (1936). Studies on the aphides infesting the potato crop. V. Laboratory experiments on the effect of wind velocity on the flight of Myzus persicae Sulz.—Ann. appl. Biol. 23, 401408.
Davis, N. T. & Usinger, R. L. (1970). The biology and relationships of the Joppeicidae (Heteroptera).—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 63, 577587.
Day, M. F. (1949). The occurrence of mucoid substances in insects.—Aust. J. sci. Res. (B) 2, 421427.
Day, M. F. (1951). The mechanism of secretion by the salivary gland of the cockroach Periplaneta americana (L.).—Aust. J. sci. Res. (B) 4, 136143.
Day, M. F. & Bennetts, M. J. (1954). A review of problems of specificity in arthropod vectors of plant and animal viruses.—172 pp. Canberra, Div. Ent., CSIRO.
Day, M. F. & Irzykiewicz, H. (1953). Feeding behaviour of the aphids Myzus persicae and Brevicoryne brassicae studied with radiophosphorus.—Aust. J. biol. Sci. 6, 98108.
Day, M. F. & Irzykiewicz, H. (1954). On the mechanism of transmission of non-persistent phytopathogenic viruses by aphids.—Aust. J. biol. Sci. 7, 251273.
Day, M. F., Irzykiewicz, H. & McKinnon, A. (1952). Observations on the feeding of the virus vector Orosius argentatus (Evans), and comparisons with certain other jassids.—Aust. J. sci. Res. (B) 5, 128142.
Day, M. F. & McKinnon, A. (1951). A study of some aspects of the feeding of the jassid Orosius.—Aust. J. sci. Res. (B) 4, 125135.
Day, M. F. & Venables, D. G. (1961). The transmission of cauliflower mosaic virus by aphids.—Aust. J. biol. Sci. 14, 187197.
Dedio, W. & Clark, K. W. (1971). Influence of cytokinins on isoflavone and anthocyanin synthesis in red clover seedlings.—Pestic. Sci. 2, 6568.
Dehn, M. von (1961). Untersuchungen zur Ernährungsphysiologie der Aphiden. Die Aminosäuren und Zucker im Siebröhrensaft einiger Krautgewächsarten und im Honigtau ihrer Schmarotzer.—Z. vergl. Physiol. 45, 88108.
DeMeillon, B. & Golding, L. (1946). Nutritional studies on blood-sucking arthropods.—Nature, Lond. 158, 269270.
Denisova, T. V. (1965). The phenolic complex of vine roots infested by Phylloxera as a factor in resistance [In Russian].—Vest. sel'khoz. Nauki Mosk. 10, 114118. (From Rev. appl. Ent. (A) 53, 626).
Dennis, C. J. (1964). Observations on treehopper behavior (Homoptera, Membracidae).—Am. Midl. Nat. 71, 452459.
Dethier, V. G. (1966). Feeding behaviour.—Symp. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 3, 4658.
Dethier, V. G. (1970). Some general considerations of insects' responses to the chemicals in food plants. pp. 2128. In Wood, D. L., Silverstein, R. M. and Nakajima, M. (Eds.) Control of insect behavior by natural products.—345 pp. New York, Academic Press.
Devine, T. L., Venard, C. E. & Myser, W. C. (1965). Measurement of salivation by Aedes aegypti (L.) feeding on a living host.—J. Insect Physiol. 11, 347353.
Dick, J. (1969). The mealybugs of sugar cane. pp. 343365. In Williams, J. R., Metcalfe, I. R., Mungomery, R. W. and Mathes, R. (Eds.) Pests of sugar cane.—568 pp. Amsterdam, Elsevier.
Dickson, R. C., Laird, E. F. & Pesho, G. R. (1956). The spotted alfalfa aphid. (Yellow clover aphid on alfalfa).—Hilgardia 24, (1955), 93118.
Dickson, R. C., Swift, J. E., Anderson, L. D. & Middleton, J. T. (1949). Insect vectors of cantaloupe mosaic in California's desert valleys.—J. econ. Ent. 42, 770774.
Diehl, S. G. & Chatters, R. M. (1956). Studies on the mechanics of feeding of the spotted alfalfa aphid on alfalfa.—J. econ. Ent. 49, 589591.
Dieuzeide, R. (1928). Contribution a l'étude des néoplasmes végétaux. Le role des pucerons en phytopathologie.—Act. Soc. Linn. Bordeaux 81, 1243.
Dixon, A. F. G. (1966). The effect of population density and nutritive status of the host on the summer reproductive activity of the sycamore aphid, Drepanosiphum platanoides (Schr.)J. Anim. Ecol. 35, 105112.
Dixon, A. F. G. (1969). Population dynamics of the sycamore aphid Drepanosiphum platanoides (Schr.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae): migratory and trivial flight activity.—J. Anim. Ecol. 38, 585606.
Dixon, A. F. G. (1970). Quality and availability of food for a sycamore aphid population.—Symp. Br. Ecol. Soc. 10, 271287.
Dixon, A. F. G. (1971 a). The role of aphids in wood formation. I. The effect of the sycamore aphid, Drepanosiphum platanoides (Schr.) (Aphididae), on the growth of sycamore, Acer pseudoplatanus (L.).—J. appl. Ecol. 8, 165179.
Dixon, A. F. G. (1971 b). The role of aphids in wood formation. II. The effect of the lime aphid, Eucallipterus tiliae L. (Aphididae), on the growth of lime, Tilia × vulgaris Hayne.—J. appl. Ecol. 8, 393399.
Dixon, A. F. G. (1971 c). The “interval timer” and photoperiod in the determination of parthenogenetic and sexual morphs in the aphid, Drepanosiphum platanoides.—J. Insect Physiol. 17, 251260.
Dixon, A. F. G. (1971 d). The life-cycle and host preferences of the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L., and their bearing on the theories of host-alternation in aphids.—Ann. appl. Biol. 68, 135147.
Dixon, A. F. G. (1972 a). The “interval timer ”, photoperiod and temperature in the seasonal development of parthenogenetic and sexual morphs in the lime aphid, Eucallipterus tiliae L.—Oecologia 9, 301310.
Dixon, A. F. G. (1972 b). Crowding and nutrition in the induction of macropterous alatae in Drepanosiphum dixoni.—J. Insect Physiol. 18, 459464.
Dixon, A. F. G., Burns, M. D. & Wangboonkong, S. (1968). Migration in aphids: response to current adversity.—Nature, Lond. 220, 13371338.
Dixon, A. F. G. & McKay, S. (1970). Aggregation in the sycamore aphid Drepanosiphum platanoides (Schr.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its relevance to the regulation of population growth.—J. Anim. Ecol. 39, 439454.
Doke, N. & Hirai, T. (1970). Effects of tobacco mosaic virus infection on photosynthetic CO 2 fixation and 14CO 2 incorporation into protein in tobacco leaves.—Virology 42, 6877.
Dry, W. W. & Taylor, L. R. (1970). Light and temperature thresholds for take-off by aphids.—J. Anim. Ecol. 39, 493504.
Duffus, J. E. (1969). Membrane feeding used in determining the properties of beet western yellows virus.—Phytopathology 59, 16681669.
Duffus, J. E. & Gold, A. H. (1965). Transmission of beet western yellows virus by aphids feeding through a membrane.—Virology 27, 388390.
Duffus, J. E. & Gold, A. H. (1967). Relationship of tracer-measured aphid feeding to acquisition of beet western yellows virus and to feeding inhibitors in plant extracts.—Phytopathology 57, 12371241.
Dunn, J. A. (1960). Varietal resistance of lettuce to attack by the lettuce root aphid, Pemphigus bursarius (L.).—Ann. appl. Biol. 48, 764770.
Dunn, J. A. (1970). The susceptibility of varieties of carrot to attack by the aphid, Cavariella aegopodii (Scop.).—Ann. appl. Biol. 66, 301312.
Duspiva, F. (1954). Weitere Untersuchungen über stoffwechsel-physiologische Beziehungen zwischen Rhynchoten und ihren Wirtspflanzen.—Mitt. biol. Reichsanst. Ld- u. Forstw. 80, 155162.
Dutrecq, A. & Vanderveken, J. (1969). Rémanence de l'effet inhibiteur d'une huile minérale a l'égard de la transmission aphidienne du virus de la jaunisse de la betterave.—Bull. Rech. agron. Gembloux (N.S.) 4, 6675.
Dykstra, T. P. & Whitaker, W. C. (1938). Experiments on the transmission of potato viruses by vectors.—J. agric. Res. 57, 319334.
Dyte, C. E. (1967). Possible new approach to the chemical control of plant feeding insects.—Nature, Lond. 216, 298
Dyte, C. E. (1969). Evolutionary aspects of insecticide selectivity.—Proceedings 5th British Insecticide and Fungicide Conference,393397.
Eastop, V. F. & Banks, C. J. (1970). Suspected insecticide resistance mechanism in the peach-potato aphid.—Nature, Lond. 225, 970971.
Edwards, J. S. (1962). Observations on the development and predatory habit of two Reduviid Heteroptera, Rhinocoris carmelita Stål. and Platymeris rhadamanthus Gerst.—Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (A) 37, 8998.
Edwards, J. S. (1965). Some observations on the solid components of the gut contents of aphids.—Int. Congr. Ent. 1964, 173.
Edwards, J. S. (1966). Defence by smear: supercooling in the cornicle wax of aphids.—Nature, Lond. 211, 7374.
Ehrenhardt, H. (1939). Experimentelle Untersuchungen und Freilandbeobachtungen über den Einfluss von Kälte und Eis auf die Blutlaus.—Arb. physiol. angew. Ent. Berl. 6, 257285.
Ehrhardt, P. (1961). Zur Nahrungsaufnahme von Megoura viciae Buckt., einer phloemsaugenden Aphide (Homoptera, Rhynchota).—Experientia 17, 461462.
Ehrhardt, P. (1963). Zum Problem der Nahrungspflanzenwahl der Aphiden.—Experientia 19, 204205.
Ehrhardt, P. (1965). Speicherung anorganischer Substanzen in den Mitteldarmzellen von Aphis fabae Scop. und ihre Bedeutung für die Ernährung.—Z. vergl. Physiol. 50, 293312.
Ehrhardt, P. (1969). Die Rolle von Methionin, Cystein, Cystin und Sulfat bei der künstlichen Ernährung von Neomyzus (Aulacorthum) circumflexus Buckt. (Aphidae, Homoptera, Insecta).—Biol. Zbl. 88, 335348.
Eichhorn, O. (1969). Natürliche Verbreitungsareale und Einschleppungsgebiete der Weisstannen-Wolläuse (Gattung Dreyfusia) und die Möglichkeiten ihrer biologischen Bekämpfung.—Z. angew. Ent. 63, 113131.
Eidt, D. C. & Little, C. H. A. (1968). Insect control by artificially prolonging plant dormancy —a new approach.—Can. Ent. 100, 12781279.
Eidt, D. C. & Little, C. H. A. (1970). Insect control through induced host-insect asynchrony: a progress report.—J. econ. Ent. 63, 19661968.
Ekblom, T. (1926). Morphological and biological studies of the Swedish families of Hemiptera Heteroptera. Part 1.—Zool. Bidr. Upps. 10, 31177.
Ekblom, T. (1930). Morphological and biological studies of the Swedish families of Hemiptera Heteroptera. Part 2.—Zool. Bidr. Upps. 12, 113150.
Elson, J. A. (1937). A comparative study of Hemiptera.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 30, 579597.
Emden, H. F. van (1967). An increase in the longevity of adult Aphis fabae fed artificially through parafilm membranes on liquids under pressure.—Entomologia exp. appl. 10, 166170.
Emden, H. F. van (1969). Plant resistance to Myzus persicae induced by a plant regulator and measured by aphid relative growth rate.—Entomologia exp. appl. 12, 125131.
Emden, H. F.van (1971). Plant insect relationships in relation to control.—PANS Pest. Artic. News Summ. 17, 251252.
Emden, H. F.van (1972). Aphid technology.—344 pp. London, Academic Press.
Emden, H. F.van & Bashford, M. A. (1969). A comparison of the reproduction of Brevicoryne brassicae and Myzus persicae in relation to soluble nitrogen concentration and leaf age (leaf position) in the brussels sprout plant.—Entomologia exp. appl. 12, 351364.
Emden, H. F. van, Eastop, V. F., Hughes, R. D. & Way, M. J. (1969). The ecology of Myzus persicae.—A. Rev. Ent. 14, 197270.
Emery, W. T. (1946). Temporary immunity in alfalfa ordinarily susceptible to attack by the pea aphid.—J. agric. Res. 73, 3343.
Entwistle, P. F. & Longworth, J. F. (1963). The relationships between cacao viruses and their vectors: the feeding behaviour of three mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) species.—Ann. appl. Biol. 52, 387391.
Esau, C. (1961). Plants, viruses, and insects.—110 pp. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard Univ. Press.
Esau, K., Namba, R. & Rasa, E. A. (1961). Studies on penetration of sugar beet leaves by stylets of Myzus persicae.—Hilgardia 30, 517529.
Essig, E. O. (1942). College entomology.—900 pp. New York, Macmillan.
Evans, J. W. (1938). The morphology of the head of Homoptera.—Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 1, 120.
Evans, J. W. (1963). The phylogeny of the Homoptera.—A. Rev. Ent. 8, 7194.
Feir, D. & Beck, S. D. (1963). Feeding behavior of the large milkweed bug, Oncopelius fasciatus.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 56, 224229.
Feir, D. & Suen, J. S. (1971). Cardenolides in the milkweed plant and feeding by the milkweed bug.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 64, 11731174.
Fennah, R. G. (1969). Damage to sugar cane by Fulgoroidea and related insects in relation to the metabolic state of the host plant. pp. 367389. In Williams, J. R., Metcalfe, J. R., Mungomery, R. W. & Mathes, R. (Eds.) Pests of sugar cane.—568 pp. Amsterdam, Elsevier.
Fife, J. M. (1956). Changes in the concentration of amino acids in the leaves of sugar beet plants affected with curly top.—J. Am. Soc. Sug. Beet Technol. 9, 207211.
Fife, J. M. (1961). Changes in the concentration of amino acids in sugar beet plants induced by virus yellows.—J. Am. Soc. Sug. Beet Technol. 11, 327333.
Fife, J. M. & Frampton, V. L. (1936). The pH gradient extending from the phloem into the parenchyma of the sugar beet and its relation to the feeding behavior of Eutettix tenellus.—J. agric. Res. 53, 581593.
Flemion, F., Miller, L. P. & Weed, R. M. (1952). An estimate of the quantity of oral secretion deposited by Lygus when feeding on bean tissue.—Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst. Pl. Res. 16, 429433.
Flutter, H. J. de & Ankersmit, G. W. (1948). Gegevens betreffende de aantasting van bonen (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) door de zwarte bonenluis (Aphis (Doralis) fabae Scop.).—Tijdschr. PlZiekt. 54, 113 (Observations on the infestation of beans by A. fabae).
Forbes, A. R. (1966). Electron microscope evidence for nerves in the mandibular stylets of the green peach aphid.—Nature, Lond. 212, 726.
Forbes, A. R. (1969). The stylets of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. (Homoptera: Aphididae.).—Can. Ent. 101, 3141.
Forbes, A. R. (1972). Innervation of the stylets of the pear psylla, Psylla pyricola (Homoptera: Psyllidae), and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).—J. ent. Soc. Br. Columbia 69, 2730.
Forbes, A. R. & MacCarthy, H. R. (1969). Morphology of the Homoptera, with emphasis on virus vectors. pp.211234. In Maramorosch, K. (Ed.) Viruses, vectors, and vegetation.—666 pp. New York, Interscience.
Forbes, A. R. & Mullick, D. B. (1970). The stylets of the balsam woolly aphid, Adelges piceae (Homoptera: Adelgidae).—Can. Ent. 102, 10741082.
Forrest, J. M. S. (1970). The effect of maternal and larval experience on morph determination in Dysaphis devecta.—J. Insect Physiol. 16, 22812292.
Forrest, J. M. S. (1971). The growth of Aphis fabae as an indicator of the nutritional advantage of galling to the apple aphid Dysaphis devecta.—Entomologia exp. appl. 14, 477483.
Forrest, J. M. S. & Noordink, J. P. W. (1971). Translocation and subsequent uptake by aphids of 32P introduced into plants by radioactive aphids.—Entomologia exp. appl. 14, 133134.
Franke, W. (1969). Ectodesmata in relation to binding sites for inorganic ions and urea on isolated cuticular membrane surfaces.—Am. J. Bot. 56, 432435.
Franke, W. (1970). Ectodesmata and the cuticular penetration of leaves.—Pestic. Sci. 1. 164167.
Friend, W. G. (1958). Nutritional requirements of phytophagous insects.—A. Rev. Ent. 3, 5774.
Friend, W. G. & Smith, J. J. B. (1971 a). Feeding in Rhodnius prolixus: mouthpart activity and salivation, and their correlation with changes of electrical resistance.—J. Insect Physiol. 17, 233243.
Friend, W. G. & Smith, J. J. B. (1971 b). Feeding in Rhodnius prolixus: potencies of nucleoside phosphates in initiating gorging.—J. Insect Physiol. 17, 13151320.
Galun, R., Avi-dor, Y. & Bar-Zeev, M. (1963). Feeding response in Aëdes aegypti: stimulation by adenosine triphosphate.—Science, N.Y. 142, 16741675.
Gamez, R. & Watson, M. (1964). Failure of anaesthetized aphids to acquire or transmit henbane mosaic virus when their stylets were artificially inserted into leaves of infected or healthy tobacco plants.—Virology 22, 292295.
Geiger, H. R. & Mitchell, H. K. (1966). Salivary gland function in phenol oxidase production in Drosophila melanogaster.—J. Insect Physiol. 12, 747754.
Gelperin, A. (1971). Abdominal sensory neurons providing negative feedback to the feeding behavior of the blowfly.—Z. vergl. Physiol. 72, 1731.
Gelperin, A. (1972). Neural control systems underlying insect feeding behavior.—Am. Zool. 12, 489496.
Gibbs, A. J. (1960). Studies on the importance of wild beet as a source of pathogens for the sugar-beet crop.—Ann. appl. Biol. 48, 771779.
Gibson, R. W. (1971 a). Factors influencing the distribution of aphids on potato plants.—Rep. agric. hort. Res. Stn Univ. Bristol 1970, 103104.
Gibson, R. W. (1971 b). Glandular hairs providing resistance to aphids in certain wild potato species.—Ann. appl. Biol. 68, 113119.
Gibson, R. W. (1971 c). The resistance of three Solanum species to Myzus persicae, Macro siphum euphorbiae and Aulacorthum solani (Aphididae: Homoptera).—Ann. appl. Biol. 68, 245251.
Gibson, R. W. (1971 d). Climatic factors restricting the distribution of the aphid Rhopalosiphoninus latysiphon to the subterranean parts of field potato plants.—Ann. appl. Biol. 69, 8996.
Gibson, R. W. (1972). The distribution of aphids on potato leaves in relation to vein size.—Entomologia exp. appl. 15, 213223.
Gill, C. C. (1970). Aphid nymphs transmit an isolate of barley yellow dwarf virus more efficiently than do adults.—Phytopathology 60, 17471752.
Gillett, J. D. & Wiggleworth, V. B. (1932). The climbing organ of an insect, Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).—Proc. R. Soc. (B) 111, 364376.
Gilmour, D. (1965). The metabolism of insects.—195 pp. Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd.
Gollmick, F. & Schilder, F. A. (1941). Histologie und Morphologie der Rebenblätter in ihren Beziehungen zum Reblausbefall.—Mitt. biol. Reichsanst. Ld-u. Forstw. 65, 5759.
Goodchild, A. J. P. (1966). Evolution of the alimentary canal in the Hemiptera.—Biol. Rev. 41, 97140.
Goyal, S. P. & Goyal, A. N. (1970). On the growth patterns of Phylloxera gall and normal grape stem single cell clones in tissue culture (Part II).—Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. 36B, 305310.
Greenbank, D.O. (1970). Climate and the ecology of the balsam woolly aphid.—Can. Ent. 102, 546578.
Guss, P. L. & Branson, T. F. (1972). The use of 75Se in feeding studies with the corn leaf aphid (Hemiptera (Homoptera) Aphididae).—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 65, 303306.
Guthrie, F. E., Campbell, W. V. & Baron, R. L. (1962). Feeding sites of the green peach aphid with respect to its adaptation to tobacco.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 55, 4246.
Gutierrez, A. P. (1970). Studies on host selection and host specificity of the aphid hyperparasite Charips victrix (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). 6. Description of sensory structures and a synopsis of host selection and host specificity.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 63, 17051709.
Gutierrez, A. P., Morgan, D. J. & Havenstein, D. E. (1971). The ecology of Aphis craccivora Koch and subterranean clover stunt virus I. The phenology of aphid populations and the epidemiology of virus in pastures in south east Australia.—J. appl. Ecol. 8, 699721.
Hackerott, H. L., Harvey, T. L. & Ross, W. M. (1969). Greenbug resistance in sorghums.—Crop Sci. 9, 656658.
Hagen, K. S., Sawall, E. F. Jr & Tassan, R. L. (1971). The use of food sprays to increase effectiveness of entomophagous insects.—Proceedings 2nd Tall Timbers ConferenceTallahassee.Tall Timbers Res. Stn, 5981.
Halgren, L. A. (1970). Flight behavior of the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Homoptera: Aphididae) in the laboratory.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 63, 938942.
Halimie, M. A. & Ford, J. B. (1972). Feeding and the uptake of phosphamidon by two strains of Myzus persicae (Sulz.) on radish plants.—Ann. appl. Biol. 70, 169174.
Hamilton, M. A. (1935). Further experiments on the artificial feeding of Myzus persicae (Sulz.).—Ann. appl. Biol. 22, 243258.
Hamlyn, B. M. G. (1953). Quantitative studies on the transmission of cabbage black ring spot virus by Myzus persicae (Sulz.).—Ann. appl. Biol. 40, 393402.
Hanna, A. D. (1950). The effect of rainfall on the cotton jassid, Empoasca lybica (De Berg.) in the Gezira, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.—Bull. ent. Res. 41, 359369.
Harrewijn, P. (1970). Reproduction of the aphid Myzus persicae related to the mineral nutrition of potato plants.—Entomologia exp. appl. 13, 307319.
Harrewijn, P. & Noordink, J. P. W. (1971). Taste perception of Myzus persicae in relation to food uptake and developmental processes.—Entomologia exp. appl. 14, 413419.
Harvey, T. L. & Hackerott, H. L. (1969). Recognition of a greenbug biotype injurious to sorghum.—J. econ. Ent. 62, 776779.
Harvey, T. L., Hackerott, H. L. & Sorensen, E. L. (1971). Pea aphid injury to resistant and susceptible alfalfa in the field.—J. econ. Ent. 64, 513517.
Heathcote, G. D. (1968). Protection of sugar beet seedlings against aphids and viruses by cover crops and aluminium foil.—Pl. Path. 17, 158161.
Heathcote, G. D. & Cockbain, A. J. (1964). Transmission of beet yellows virus by alate and apterous aphids.—Ann. appl. Biol. 53, 259266.
Heathcote, G. D., Dunning, R. A. & Wolfe, M. D. (1965). Aphids on sugar beet and some weeds in England, and notes on weeds as a source of beet viruses.—Pl. Path. 14, 110.
Heinze, K. (1959). Über das Verhalten unbeständiger phytopathogener Viren bei der Über tragung durch Blattläuse.—Phytopath. Z. 36, 131145.
Heinze, K. (1963). Über Virusübertragungen mit Blattläusen auf landwirtschaftliche Kulturpflanzen unter Berücksichtigung verschiedener Stadien des Entwicklungszyklus.—NachrBl. dt. PflSchutzdienst, Berl. 15, 59.
Hennig, E. (1959). Untersuchungen am Saugakt von Aphis fabae Scop. mit 32P. senschaf ten 46, 410411.
Hennig, E. (1962). Neuere Untersuchungen über die Bedeutung der sogenannten Probesaugstiche bei Aphiden.—Z. PflKrankh.PflPath. PflSchutz. 69, 321330.
Hennig, E. (1963). Zum Probieren oder sogenannten Probesaugen der schwarzen Bohnenlaus (Aphis fabae Scop.).—Entomologia exp. appl. 6, 326336.
Hennig, E. (1966). Zur Histologie und Funktion von Einstichen der schwarzen Bohnenlaus (Aphis fabae Scop.) in Vicia faba-Pflanzen.—J. Insect Physiol. 12, 6576.
Hennig, E. (1968). Über Beziehungen zwischen dem “Probieren” der schwarzen Bohnenblattlaus (Aphis fabae Scop.) und dem Stofftransport bei Vicia faba L.—Arch. Pflanzenschutz. 4, 7576.
Hepburn, H. R. (1971). Proboscis extension and recoil in Lepidoptera.—J. Insect Physiol. 17, 637656.
Heriot, A. D. (1934). The renewal and replacement of the stylets of sucking insects during each stadium, and the method of penetration.—Can. J. Res. 11, 602612.
Heriot, A. D. (1937). The crumena of the Coccidae and the Adelges.—Proc. ent. Soc. Br. Columb. 33, 2224.
Heriot, A. D. (1944). Comparison of the injury to apple caused by scales and aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae & Coccidae).—Proc. ent. Soc. Br. Columb. 41, 1315.
Hildebrand, E. M. (1961). Relations between whitefly and sweet potato tissue in transmission of yellow dwarf virus.—Science, N.Y. 133, 282284.
Hill, A. R. (1971). The reproductive behavior of Metopolophium festucae (Theobald) at different temperatures and on different host plants.—Ann. appl. Biol. 67, 289295.
Hille Ris Lambers, D. (1966). Polymorphism in Aphididae.—A. Rev. Ent. 11, 4778.
Hodges, L. R. & McLean, D. L. (1969). Correlation of transmission of bean yellow mosaic virus with salivation activity of Acyrthosiphon pisum (Homoptera: Aphididae).—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 62, 13981401.
Hodgson, E., Self, L. S. & Guthrie, F. E. (1965). Adaptation of insects to toxic plants.—Int. Congr. Ent. 1964, 210.
Holloway, P. J. & Baker, E. A. (1970). The cuticles of some Angiosperm leaves and fruits.—Ann. appl. Biol. 66, 145154.
Honeyborne, C. H. B. (1969). Performance of Aphis fabae and Brevicoryne brassicae on plants treated with growth regulators.—J. Sci. Fd Agric. 20, 388390.
Honeyborne, C. H. B. (1971). Plants and insect waxes.—Rep. agric. hort. Res. Stn Univ. Bristol. 1970, 104105.
Honeyborne, C. H. B., Emden, H. F. van, & Hoad, G. V. (1971). Collection and analysis of phloem sap.—Rep. agric. hort. Res. Stn Univ. Bristol 1970, 104.
Hoof, H. A. van (1957). On the mechanism of transmission of some plant viruses.—Proc. K. ned. Akad. Wet. (C) 60, 314317.
Hoof, H. A. van (1958 a). An investigation of the biological transmission of a non-persistent virus.—Meded. Inst. Phytopath. 161, 196.
Hoof, H. A. van (1958 b). Some considerations on the transmission of non-persistent viruses by aphids.—Meded. Inst. plziektenk. Onderz. no. 177, 114116.
Hoof, H. A. van (1959). Betrachtung über die Übertragung nichtpersistenter Viren.—Int. Congr. Crop Prot., 267269.
Hori, K. (1967). Preliminary observation on the salivary glands of cabbage stink bug, Eurydema rugosa Motschulsky (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).—Appl. Ent. Zool. 2, 187194.
Hori, K. (1969). Some properties of salivary amylases of Adelphocoris suturalis (Miridae), Dolycoris baccarum (Pentatomidae), and several other Heteropteran species.—Entomologia exp. appl. 12, 454466.
Hori, K. (1970). Some variations in the activities of salivary amylase and protease of Lygus disponsi Linnavuori (Hemiptera: Miridae).—Appl. Ent. Zool. 5, 5161.
Horne, A. S. & Lefroy, H. M. (1915). Effects produced by sucking insects and red spider upon potato foliage.—Ann. appl. Biol. 1, 370386.
Horsfall, J. L. (1923). The effects of feeding punctures of aphids on certain plant tissues.—Bull. Pa agric. Exp. Stn. no. 182, 122.
Hottes, F. C. (1954). Some observations on the rostrum of Cinara puerca Hottes (Aphidae).—Gt Basin Nat. 14, 8386.
House, H. L. (1962). Insect nutrition.—A. Rev. Biochem. 31, 653672.
Hovanitz, W. (1947). Physiological factors which influence the infection of Aedes aegypti with Plasmodium gallinaceum.—Am. J. Hyg. 45, 6781.
Hovasse, R. (1930). Marchalina hellenica (Gennadius). Essai de monographie d'une cochenille.—Bull. biol. Fr. Belg. 64, 389449.
Hudson, A., Bowman, L. & Orr, C. W. M. (1960). Effects of absence of saliva on blood feeding by mosquitoes.—Science, N.Y. 131, 17301731.
Hukusima, S. (1963). The reproductive capacity of the apple leaf-curling aphids (Myzus malisuctus Matsumura) reared on gibberellin-treated apple trees.—Jap. J. appl. Ent. Zool. 7, 343347.
Ibbotson, A. & Kennedy, J. S. (1959). Interaction between walking and probing in Aphis fabae Scop.—J. exp. Biol. 36, 377390.
Imms, A. D. (1957). A general textbook of entomology.—886 pp. London, Methuen.
Isely, D. (1946). The cotton aphid.—Bull. Ark. agric. Exp. Stn. no. 462, 129.
Ishikawa, S. (1963). Responses of maxillary chemoreceptors in the larva of the silkworm Bombyx mori to stimulation by carbohydrates.—J. cell. comp. Physiol. 61, 99107.
Jarvis, J. L. (1970). Relative injury to some cruciferous oilseeds by the turnip aphid.—J. econ. Ent. 63, 14981502.
Jensen, D. D. (1954). The effect of aphid toxins on Cymbidium orchid flowers.—Phytopathology 44, 493494.
Jensen, D. D. (1969). Insect diseases induced by plant-pathogenic viruses. pp. 505525.In Maramorosch, K. (Ed.) Viruses, vectors and vegetation.—666 pp. New York, Interscience.
Jermy, T. (1965). The role of rejective stimuli in the host selection of phytophagous insects.—Int. Congr. Ent. 1964, 547.
Johnson, B. (1955). The flight capacity of aphids in relation to the spread of viruses.—Proceedings, Conference on Potato Virus Disease, 2nd meeting (Lisse-Wageningen)1954,7074.
Johnson, B. (1966). Wing polymorphism in aphids III. The influence of the host plant.—Entomologia exp. appl. 9, 213222.
Johnson, B. & Birks, P. R. (1960). Studies on wing polymorphism in aphids I. The developmental process involved in the production of the different forms.—Entomologia exp. appl. 3, 327339.
Joyce, R. J. V. (1938). On certain aspects of the feeding mechanism, feeding habits and ecology of the potato aphids Myzus persicae Sulz. and Macrosiphum gei Koch in relation to the dissemination of virus diseases of potatoes.—200 pp. M.Sc. Thesis, Univ. Wales.
Juneja, P. S., Gholson, R. K., Burton, R. L. & Starks, K. J. (1972). The chemical basis for greenbug resistance in small grains. I. Benzyl alcohol as a possible resistance factor.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 65, 961964.
Kantack, E. J. & Dahms, R. G. (1957). A comparison of injury caused by the apple grain aphid and greenbug to small grains.—J. econ. Ent. 50, 156158.
Kashin, P. (1966). Electronic recording of the mosquito bite.—J. Insect Physiol. 12, 281286.
Kazda, V. (1966). Untersuchungen über die phytotoxisch wirkenden Stoffe aus dem Extract von Blattläusen.—Meded. Rijksfac. LandbWet. Gent 31, 10051010.
Kennedy, J. S. (1951). Benefits to aphids from feeding on galled and virus-infected leaves.—Nature, Lond. 168, 825826.
Kennedy, J. S. (1958). Physiological condition of the host plant and susceptibility to aphid attack.—Entomologia exp. appl. 1, 5065.
Kennedy, J. S. & Booth, C. O. (1951). Host alternation in Aphis fabae Scop. I. Feeding preferences and fecundity in relation to the age and kind of leaves.—Ann. appl. Biol. 38, 2564.
Kennedy, J. S. & Booth, C. O. (1954). Host alternation in Aphis fabae Scop. II. Changes in the aphids.—Ann. appl. Biol. 41, 88106.
Kennedy, J. S., Booth, C. O. & Kershaw, W. J. S. (1961). Host finding by aphids in the field III. Visual attraction.—Ann. appl. Biol. 49, 121.
Kennedy, J. S., Day, M. F. & Eastop, V. F. (1962). A conspectus of aphids as vectors of plant viruses.—London, Commonw. Inst. Ent., 1114.
Kennedy, J. S., Lamb, K. P. & Booth, C. O. (1958). Responses of Aphis fabae Scop. to water shortage in host plants in pots.—Entomologia exp. appl. 1, 274290.
Kennedy, J. S. & Mittler, T. E. (1953). A method of obtaining phloem sap via the mouth-parts of aphids.—Nature, Lond. 171, 528.
Kennedy, J. S. & Stroyan, H. L. G. (1959). Biology of aphids.—A. Rev. Ent. 4, 139160.
Kieckhefer, R. W. & Derr, R. F. (1967). Rearing three species of cereal aphids on artificial diets.—J. econ. Ent. 60, 663665.
Kilian, L. & Nielson, M. W. (1971). Differential effects of temperature on the biological activity of four biotypes of the pea aphid.—J. econ. Ent. 64, 153155.
Kindler, S. D. & Staples, R. (1970). Nutrients and the reaction of two alfalfa clones to the spotted alfalfa aphid.—J. econ. Ent. 63, 938940.
Kinsey, M. G. & Mclean, D. L. (1967). Additional evidence that aphids ingest through an open stylet sheath.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 60, 12631265.
Kirby, W. & Spence, W. (1870). An introduction to entomology.—607 pp. London, Longmans.
Kislow, C., Barbosa, P. & Edwards, L. J. (1971). An embedding procedure for the study of aphid feeding and insect tissues.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 64, 296297.
Kislow, C. J. & Edwards, L. J. (1972). Repellent odour in aphids.—Nature, Lond. 235, 108109.
Klingauf, F. & Nöcker-Wenzal, K. (1972). Einfluss von Aminosäuren auf das Wirtswahlverhalten von Acyrthosiphon pisum (Homoptera: Aphididae) unter besonderer Berück-sichtigung ihres chemischen Aufbaus.—Entomologia exp. appl. 15, 274286.
Kloft, W. (1955). Untersuchungen an der Rinde von Weisstannen (Abies pectinata) bei Befall durch Dreyfusia (Adelges) piceae Ratz. Vorläufige Mitteilung.—Z. angew. Ent. 37, 340348.
Kloft, W. (1957). Further investigations concerning the interrelationship between bark condition of Abies alba and infestation by Adelges piceae typica and A. nüsslini sclzneideri.—Z. angew. Ent. 41, 438442.
Kloft, W. (1960 a). Wechselwirkungen zwischen pflanzensaugenden Insekten und den von ihnen besogenen Pflanzengeweben. Pt. 1.—Z. angew. Ent. 45, 337381.
Kloft, W. (1960 b). Wechselwirkungen zwischen pflanzensaugenden Insekten und den von ihnen besogenen Pflanzengewehen. Pt. 2.—Z. angew. Ent. 46, 4270.
Kloft, W. & Ehrhardt, P. (1959 a). Zur Sitkalauskalamität in Nordwestdeutschland.—Wald-hygiene 3, 4749.
Kloft, W. & Ehrhardt, P. (1959 b). Untersuchungen über Saugtätigkeit und Schadwirkung der Sitkafichtenlaus, Lisomaphis abietina (Walk.), (Neomyzaphis abietina Walk.).—Phytopath. Z. 35, 401410.
Kloft, W. & Kunkel, H. (1969). Die Bedeutung des Ortes der Nahrungsaufnahme pflanzensaugender Insekten für die Anwendbarkeit von lnsektiziden mit systemischer Wirkung.—Z. PflKrankh. PflPath. PflSchutz. 76, 18.
Kolesova, D. A. (1967). The pear phylloxera. (In Russian).—Zashch. Rast. 1967, (9), 58. (From Rev. appl. Ent. (A) 58, 43).
Kolkaila, A. M. & Soliman, A. A. (1954). A study of the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coq. (Hemiptera Homoptera: Aphididae).—Bull. Soc. Fouad I. Ent. 38, 231250.
Krieger, D. L. (1971). Rearing several aphid species on synthetic diet.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 64, 11761177.
Kring, J. B. (1969). Behavioral responses of winged bean aphids to colored fluorescent lamps.—J. econ. Ent. 62, 14501455.
Kring, J. B. (1972). Flight behavior of aphids.—A. Rev. Ent. 17, 425452.
Lal, K. B. & Singh, R. N. (1945). Control of woolly aphis by Coccinella septempunctata Linn.—Indian Fmg 6, 2425.
Lal, O. P. (1972). Sterility in black bean aphid through terramycin, likuden and flavomycin.—Curr. Sci. 41, 7476.
Lamarck, J. B. P. A. De M. De (1801). Systême des animaux sans vertèbres.—432 pp. Paris.
Lamb, K. P. (1963). Water loss from aphids at moderate temperatures.—J. Insect Physiol. 9, 703711.
Laurema, S. & Nuorteva, P. (1961). On the occurrence of pectin polygalacturonase in the salivary glands of Heteroptera and Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha.—Suom. hyönt. Aikak. 27, 8993.
Lawson, F. R., Lucas, G. B. & Hall, N. S. (1954). Translocation of radioactive phosphorus injected by the green peach aphid into tobacco plants.—J. econ. Ent. 47, 749752.
Leach, J. G. (1940). Insect transmission of plant diseases.—615 pp. New York, McGraw-Hill.
Leclant, F. (1968). Connaissances actuelles sur les pucerons dans leurs relations avec les maladies à virus des plantes.—Ann. Épiphyt. 19, 455482.
Lees, A. D. (1967). The production of the apterous and alate forms in the aphid Megoura viciae Buckton, with special reference to the role of crowding.—J. Insect Physiol. 13, 289318.
Leonhardt, H. (1940). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Lachniden, der wichtigsten Tannenhonigtauerzeuger.—Z. angew. Ent. 27, 208272.
Levin, D. A. (1971). Plant-phenolics: an ecological perspective.—Am. Nat. 105, 157182.
Lindemann, C. (1948). Beitrag zur Ernährungsphysiologie der Blattläuse.—Z. vergl. Physiol. 31, 112133.
Linder, H. J. (1956). Structure and histochemistry of the maxillary glands in the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Hem.).—J. Morph. 99, 575612.
Lindquist, R. K. & Sorensen, E. L. (1970). Interrelationships among aphids, tarnished plant bugs, and alfalfas.—J. econ. Ent. 63, 192195.
Lipke, H. & Fraenkel, G. (1956). Insect nutrition.—A. Rev. Ent. 1, 1744.
List, G. & Sylvester, E. S. (1954). The relationship of aphids to a toxicogenic disease known as aphid-yellows of celery.—Tech. Bull. Colo. agric. Exp. Stn. no. 50, 115.
Llewellyn, M. (1972). The effects of the lime aphid, Eucallipterus tiliae L. (Aphididae) on the growth of the lime Tilia × vulgaris Hayne. I. Energy requirements of the aphid population.—J. appl. Ecol. 9, 261282.
Loebenstein, G., Alper, M. & Deutsch, M. (1964). Preventing aphid-spread cucumber mosaic virus with oils.—Phytopathology 54, 960962.
López-Abella, D. & Bradley, R. H. E. (1969). Aphids may not acquire and transmit stylet-borne viruses while probing intercellularly.—Virology 39, 338342.
Lowe, H. J. B. (1967 a). Interspecific differences in the biology of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) on leaves of Vicia faba. I. Feeding behaviour.—Entomologia exp. appl. 10, 347357.
Lowe, H. J. B. (1967 b). Interspecific differences in the biology of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) on leaves of Vicia faba. II. Growth and excretion.—Entomologia exp. appl. 10, 413420.
Lowe, H. J. B. (1969). Susceptibility of aphids to vamidothion, a systemic insecticide, in relation to their feeding behaviour on broad beansBull. ent. Res. 58, 829831.
Lowe, H. J. B. (1971 a). Alterations of the expression of varietal differences in resistance to aphids under differing environmental conditions.—PANS Pest. Artic. News Summ. 17, 253255.
Lowe, H. J. B. (1971 b). Relationship of the movements of aphids over the host-plant to their spatial distribution.—Bull. ent. Res. 60, 599605.
Lowe, S. & Strong, F. E. (1963). The unsuitability of some viruliferous plants as hosts for the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae.—J. econ. Ent. 56, 307309.
MacGibbon, D. B. & Allison, R. M. (1971). An electrophoretic separation of cabbage aphid and plant glucosinolases.—N.Z.Jl Sci. 14, 134140.
MacGill, E. I. (1947). The anatomy of the head and mouth-parts of Dysdercus iniermedius Dist.—Proc. zool. Soc. Lond. 117, 115128.
Macias, W. & Mink, G. I. (1969). Preference of green peach aphids for virus-infected sugar-beet leaves.—J. econ. Ent. 62, 2829.
MacKinnon, J. P. (1961). Preference of aphids for excised leaves to whole plants.—Can. J. Zool. 39, 445447.
MacRobbie, E. A. C. (1971). Phloem translocation. Facts and mechanisms: a comparative survey.—Biol. Rev. 46, 429481.
Maddrell, S. H. P. (1963). Control of ingestion in Rhodnius prolixus Stål.—Nature, Land. 198, 210.
Madsen, H. F. & Williams, K. (1969). The effect of petroleum oils on Anjou pears and on pear psylla, Psylla pyricola.—Can. Ent. 101, 584588.
Maltais, J. B. (1959). Feeding the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harr.) (Homoptera: Aphididae) on plant cuttings in organic nutrient solutions.—Can. Ent. 91, 336340.
Maltais, J. B. & Auclair, J. L. (1952). Occurrence of amino acids in the honeydew of the crescent-marked lily aphid, Myzus circumfiexus (Buck.).—Can. J. Zool. 30, 191193.
Maltais, J. B. & Auclair, J. L. (1957). Factors in resistance of peas to the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harr.) (Homoptera: Aphididae). I. The sugar-nitrogen ratio.—Can. Ent. 89, 365370.
Maltais, J. B. & Auclair, J. L. (1962). Free amino acid and amide composition of pea leaf juice, pea aphid haemolymph, and honeydew, following the rearing of aphids on single pea leaves treated with amino compounds.—J. Insect Physiol. 8, 391399.
Maramorosch, K. (1962). Biological transmission of disease agents.—192 pp. New York, Academic Press.
Maramorosch, K. (1969). Viruses, vectors, and vegetation.—666 pp. New York, Interscience.
Marchal, P. (1928). Etude biologique et morphologique du puceron lanigère du pommier (Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann)).—Ann. Epiphyt. 14, 1106.
Marek, J. (1961 a). Die Wirkung von Aphidenstichen auf Pflanzliche Zellen.—Entomologia exp. appl. 4, 2034.
Marek, J. (1961 b). Über das Einstich- und Saugverhalten der Zwiebellaus, Myzus ascalonicus Doncaster.—Z. PflKrankh. PflPath. PflSchutz. 68, 155165.
Markkula, M. & Laurema, S. (1967). The effect of amino acids, vitamins, and trace elements on the development of Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Hom., Aphididae).—Ann. agric. Fenn. 6, 7780.
Markkula, M. & Roukka, K. (1970 a). Resistance of plants to the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Hom., Aphididae). I. Fecundity of the biotypes on different host plants.—Ann. agric. Fenn. 9, 127132.
Markkula, M. & Roukka, K. (1970b). Resistance of plants to the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Hom., Aphididae). II. Fecundity on different red clover varieties.—Ann. agric. Fenn. 9, 304308.
Markicula, M. & Roukka, K. (1971). Resistance of plants to the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Horn., Aphididae). III. Fecundity on different pea varieties.—Ann. agric. Fenn. 10, 3337.
Markkula, M. & Tiittanen, K. (1969). Effect of fertilizers on the reproduction of Tetranychus telarius (L.), Myzus persicae (Sulz.) and Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris.—Ann. agric. Fenn. 8, 914.
Martini, C. (1958). Beobachtungen über das Saugen bei Blattläusen (Homoptera Aphi didae).—Z. PflKrankh. PflPath. PflSchutz 65, 9092.
Maxwell, F. G. & Painter, R. H. (1959). Factors affecting rate of honeydew deposition by Therioaphis maculata (Buck.) and Toxoptera graminum (Rond.).—J. econ. Ent. 52, 368373.
Maxwell, F. G. & Painter, R. H. (1962 a). Auxin content of extracts of certain tolerant and susceptible host plants of Toxoptera graminum, Macrosiphum pisi, and Therioaphis maculata and relation to host plant resistance.—J. econ. Ent. 55, 4656.
Maxwell, F. G. & Painter, R. H. (1962 b). Plant growth hormones in ether extracts of the greenbug, Toxoptera graminum, and the pea aphid, Macrosiphum pisi, fed on selected tolerant and susceptible host plants.—J. econ. Ent. 55, 5762.
Maxwell, F. G. & Painter, R. H. (1962 c). Auxins in honeydew of Toxoptera graminum, Therioaphis maculata, and Macrosiphum pisi, and their relation to degree of tolerance in host plants.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 55, 229233.
Mayo, Z. B. & Starks, K. J. (1972). Chromosome comparisons of biotypes of Schizaphis graminum to one another and to Rhopalosiphum maidis, R. padi, and Sipha flava.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 65, 925928.
McAllan, J. W. & Adams, J. B. (1961). The significance of pectinase in plant penetration by aphids.—Can. J. Zool. 39, 305310.
McAllan, J. W. & Cameron, M. L. (1956). Determination of pectin polygalacturonase in four species of aphids.—Can. J. Zool. 34, 559564.
McKay, R. (1934). Injury to apple trees due to paraffin oil used for the control of woolly aphis.—J. Pomol. 12, 167176.
McLean, D. L (1964). An attempt to relate depth of stylet penetration to the transmission frequency of two aphid vectors.—J. econ. Ent. 57, 955957.
McLean, D. L. (1971). Probing behavior of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. V. Com parison of Vicia faba, Pisum sativum, and a chemically defined diet as food sources.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 64, 499503.
McLean, D. L. & Kinsey, M. G. (1964). A technique for electronically recording aphid feeding and salivation.—Nature, Lond. 202, 13581359.
McLean, D. L. & Kinsey, M. G. (1965). Identification of electrically recorded curve patterns associated with aphid salivation and ingestion.—Nature, Lond. 205, 11301131.
McLean, D. L. & Kinsey, M. G. (1967). Probing behavior of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. I. Definitive correlation of electronically recorded waveforms with aphid probing activities.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 60, 400406.
McLean, D. L. & Kinsey, M. G. (1968 a). Probing behavior of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. II. Comparisons of salivation and ingestion in host and non-host plant leaves.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 61, 730739.
McLean, D. L. & Kinsey, M. G. (1968 b). Probing behavior of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. III. Effect of temperature differences on certain probing activities.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 61, 927933.
McLean, D. L. & Kinsey, M. G. (1969). Probing behavior of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. IV. Effects of starvation on certain probing activities.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 62, 987994.
McLean, D. L. & Weight, W. A. (1968). An electronic measuring system to record aphid salivation and ingestion.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 61, 180185.
McMurthy, J. A. & Stanford, E. H. (1960). Observations of feeding habits of the spotted alfalfa aphid on resistant and susceptible alfalfa plants.—J. econ. Ent. 53, 714717.
McWhirter, N. & McWhirter, R. (1971). The Guinness book of records. 18th edn.317 pp. London, Guinness.
Metcalf, C. L. & Flint, W. P. (1962). Destructive and useful insects.—1087 pp. New York, McGraw-Hill.
Miles, P. W. (1958 a). Contact chemoreception in some Heteroptera, including chemo reception internal to the stylet food canal.—J. Insect Physiol. 2, 338347.
Miles, P. W. (1958 b). The stylet movements of a plant-sucking bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus Dall. (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae).—Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (A) 33, 1520.
Miles, P. W. (1959 a). Secretion of two types of saliva by an aphid.—Nature, Lond. 183, 756.
Miles, P. W. (1959 b). The salivary secretions of a plant-sucking bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dall.) (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae)—I. The types of secretion and their roles during feeding.—J. Insect Physiol. 3, 243255.
Miles, P. W. (1960). A simple apparatus demonstrating the stylet action of a plant bug.—Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (A) 35, 4748.
Miles, P. W. (1964 a). Studies on the salivary physiology of plant bugs: oxidase activity in the salivary apparatus and saliva.—J. Insect Physiol. 10, 121129.
Miles, P. W. (1964 b). Studies on the salivary physiology of plant bugs: the chemistry of formation of the sheath material.—J. Insect Physiol. 10, 147160.
Miles, P. W. (1965). Studies on the salivary physiology of plant-bugs: the salivary secretions of aphids.—J. Insect Physiol. 11, 12611268.
Miles, P. W. (1967). Studies on the salivary physiology of plant-bugs: transport from haemolymph to saliva.—J. Insect Physiol. 13, 17871801.
Miles, P. W. (1968 a). Studies on the salivary physiology of plant-bugs: experimental induction of galls.—J. Insect Physiol. 14, 97106.
Miles, P. W. (1968 b). Insect secretions in plants.—A. Rev. Phytopath. 6, 137164.
Miles, P. W. (1969 a). Interaction of plant phenols and salivary phenolases in the relationship between plants and Hemiptera.—Entomologia exp. appl. 12, 736744.
Miles, P. W. (1969 b). Incorporation and metabolism of cysteine in the haemolymph and saliva of a plant bug.—Aust. J. biol. Sci. 22. 12711276.
Miles, P. W. (1972). The saliva of Hemiptera.—Adv. insect Physiol. 9, 183255.
Miles, P. W., McLean, D. L. & Kinsey, M. G. (1964). Evidence that two species of aphid ingest food through an open stylet sheath.—Experientia 20, 582.
Miles, P. W. & Sloviak, D. (1970). Transport of whole protein molecules from blood to saliva of a plant-bug.—Experienzia 26, 611.
Millardet, P. M. A. (1885). Histoire des principales variétés et espèces de vignes d'origine américaine qui résistent au Phylloxera.—240 pp. Paris.
Misawa, T. & Hashiba, T. (1967). Studies on the mechanism of aphid transmission of styletborne viruses (l).—Tohoku J. agric. Res. 18, 87105.
Miskimen, G. W. (1970). Population dynamics of the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava, in Puerto Rico. as affected by heavy rains.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 63, 642645.
Mittler, T. E. (1953). Amino-acids in phloem sap and their excretion by aphids.—Nature, Lond. 172. 207.
Mittler, T. E. (1954). The feeding and nutrition of aphids.—234 pp. Doctoral Thesis, Univ. Cambridge.
Mittler, T. E. (1957). Studies on the feeding and nutrition of Tuberolachnus salignus (Gmelin) (Homoptera, Aphididae). I. The uptake of phloem sap.—J. exp. Biol. 34, 334341.
Mittler, T. E. (1958 a). Studies on the feeding and nutrition of Tuberolachnus salignus (Gmelin) (Homoptera, Aphididae). II. The nitrogen and sugar composition of ingested phloem sap and excreted honeydew.—J. exp. Biol. 35, 7484.
Mittler, T. E. (1958 b). Studies on the feeding and nutrition of Tuberolachnus salignus (Gmelin) (Homoptera, Aphididae). III. The nitrogen economy.—J. exp. Biol. 35, 626638.
Mittler, T. E. (1967). Effect of amino acid and sugar concentrations on the food uptake of the aphid Myzus persicae.—Entomologia exp. appl. 10, 3951.
Mittler, T. E. (1970 a). Uptake rates of plant sap and synthetic diet by the aphid Myzus persicae.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 63, 17011705.
Mittler, T. E. (1970 b). Effects of dietary amino-acids on the feeding rate of the aphid Myzus persicae.—Entomologia exp. appl. 13, 432437.
Mittler, T. E. (1971 a). Some effects on the aphid Myzus persicae of ingesting antibiotics incorporated into artificial diets.—J. Insect Physiol. 17, 13331347.
Mittler, T. E. (1971 b). Dietary amino-acid requirements of the aphid Myzus persicae affected by antibiotic uptake.—J. Nutr. 101, 10231028.
Mittler, T. E. & Dadd, R. H. (1963 a). Studies on the artificial feeding of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer)—I. Relative uptake of water and sucrose solutions.—J. Insect Physiol. 9, 623645.
Mittler, T. E. & Dadd, R. H. (1963 b). Studies on the artificial feeding of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer)—II. Relative survival, development, and Larviposition on different dietsJ. Insect Physiol. 9, 741757.
Mittler, T. E. & Dadd, R. H. (1964). Gustatory discrimination between liquids by the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer).—Entomologia exp. appl. 7, 315328.
Mittler, T. E. & Dadd, R. H. (1965 a). Feeding behaviour of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) in relation to the suitability of host plants.—Int. Congr. Ent. 1964, 548.
Mittler, T. E. & Dadd, R. H. (1965 b). Differences in the probing responses of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) elicited by different feeding solutions behind a Parafllm membrane.—Entomologia exp. appl. 8, 107122.
Mittler, T. E., Dadd, R. H. & Daniels, S. C. Jr (1970). Utilization of different sugars by the aphid Myzus persicae.—J. Insect Physiol. 16, 18731890.
Mittler, T. E., Kleinjan, J. E. & Kunkel, H. (1970) Apteriform development induced by radish seedlings in larvae of the aphid Myzus persicae reared on artificial diet.—J. Insect Physiol. 16, 21192125.
Mittler, T. E. & Kunkel, H. (1971). Wing production by grouped and isolated apterae of the aphid Myzus persicae on artificial diet.—Entomologia exp. appl. 14, 8392.
Mittler, T. E. & Pennell, J. T. (1964). Simple screening test for systemic aphicides.—J. econ. Ent. 57, 302303.
Mittler, T. E. & Sutherland, O. R. W. (1969). Dietary influences on aphid polymorphism.—Eniomologia exp. appl. 12, 703713.
Mittler, T. E. & Sylvester, E. S. (1961). A comparison of the injury to alfalfa by the aphids, Therioaphis maculata and Macrosiphum pisi.—J. econ. Ent. 54, 615622.
Mittler, T. E., Tsitsipis, J. A. & Kleinjan, J. E. (1970). Utilization of dehydroascorbic acid and some related compounds by the aphid Myzus persicae feeding on an improved diet.—J. Insect Physiol. 16, 23152326.
Moericke, V. (1951). Eine Farbfalle zur Kontrolle des Fluges von Blattläusen, insbesondere der Pfirsichblattlaus, Myzodes persicae (Sulz.).—NachrBl. dt. PflSchurzdienst, Stuttg. 3, 2324.
Moericke, V. (1960). Die Magengrösse von Myzus persicae (Sulz.) und Doralis fabae (Scop.) in Abhängigkeit von der Wirtspflanze.—Z. angew. Ent. 47, 137142.
Moericke, V. (1969). Hostplant specific colour behaviour by Hyalopterus pruni (Aphididae).—Entomologia exp. appl. 12, 524534.
Moericke, V. & Mittler, T. E. (1965). Schlucken Blattläuse ihren eigenen Speichel?Z. PflKrankh. PflPath. PflSchutz. 72, 513515.
Moericke, V. & Mittler, T. E. (1966). Oesophageal and stomach inclusions of aphids feeding on various Cruciferae.—Entomologia exp. appl. 9, 287297.
MöllerströM, G. (1963). Different kinds of injury to leaves of the sugar beets and their effect on yield.—Meddn. St. VäxtskAnst. 12, 299309.
Moreau, J. P. (1966). Comportement de piqûre de certains Homoptères suceurs de sève.—Annls. Nutr. Aliment. 20, 325330.
Moreau, J. P. & Loon, L. C. van (1966). Le comportement de piqûre chez Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Homoptères, Aphididés).—C.r. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci., Paris 262, 904907.
Morstatt, H. (1908). Untersuchungen an der roten austernförmigen Schildlaus, Diaspis fallax nov. nom. Horvath.—Zbl. Bakt. 21, 349379, 408424.
Mosbacher, G. C. (1963). Gesteigerte Saugfrequenz von Dactynolus jaceae L. (Homoptera, Aphididae) bei Erhöhung des Aminosäurengehaltes in der Wirtspflanze.—Experientia 19, 411412.
Mound, L. A. (1971). The feeding apparatus of thrips.—Bull. ent. Res. 60, 547548.
Muir, F. & Kershaw, J. C. (1911). On the homologies and mechanism of the mouth parts of Hemiptera.—Psyche 18, 112.
Müller, F. P. (1969). Eine bionomische Rasse von Aphis nasturtii Kaltenbach, weiche die Kartoffel meidet.—Arch. PflSchutz 5, 179188.
Müller, F. P. (1971). Vorläufige Ergebnisse nach langjähriger zwangsweiser parthenogenetischer Dauerzuchthaltung von Aphiden.—Beitr. Ent. 21, 165178.
Müller, H. J. (1958). The behaviour of Aphis fabae in selecting its host plants, especially different varieties of Vicia faba.—Entomologia exp. appl. 1, 6672.
Müller, H. J. (1962). Über die Ursachen der unterschiedlichen Resistenz von Vicia faba L. gegenüber der Bohnenblattlaus, Aphis (Doralis) fabae Scop. VIII. Das Verhalten geflügelter Bohnenläuse nach der Landung auf Wirten und Nichtwirten.—Entomologia exp. appl. 5, 189210.
Müller, H. J. (1968). Über die Ursachen der unterschiedlichen Resistenz von Vicia faba L. gegenüber der Bohnenblattlaus, Aphis (Doralis) fabae Scop. X. Vermehrung und Wachstum verschiedener Aphidenarten auf Rastatter und Schlanstedter Ackerbohnen.—Entomologia exp. appl. 11, 355371.
Munakata, K. (1970). Insect antifeedants in plants. pp. 179187. In Wood, D. L., Silverstein, R. M. & Nakajima, M. (Eds.) Control of insect behavior by natural products.— 345 pp. New York, Academic Press.
Muniappan, R. & Starks, K. J. (1971). Effects of antibiotics on greenbugs on small grains.—J. econ. Ent. 64, 333335.
Murdie, G. (1969 a). Some causes of size variation in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris.—Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 121, 423442.
Murdie, G. (1969 b). The biological consequences of decreased size caused by crowding or rearing temperatures in apterae of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris.—Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 121, 443455.
Murray, J. S. & Parry, W. H. (1969). The association of Pineus pini and Cucurbitaria pithyophila on Scots pine in northern Scotland.—Scott. For. 23, 813.
Myers, J. G. (1929). Facultative blood-sucking in phytophagous Hemiptera.—Parasitology 21, 472480.
Naito, A. (1965). On relation between the feeding behaviour of Laodelphax striatellus Fallèn (Delphacidae) and the ovarial maturation.—Jap. J. appl. Ent. Zool. 9, 305306.
Naito, A. & Masaki, J. (1967). Studies on the feeding behavior of green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler. II. Probing frequency of the adult leafhopper.—Jap. J. appl. Ent. Zool. 11, 150156.
Namba, R. (1962). Aphid transmission of plant viruses from the epidermis and subepidermal tissue: Myzus persicae (Sulzer) cucumber mosaic virus.—Virology 16, 267271.
Namba, R. & Higa, S. Y. (1970). Transmission of watermelon mosaic virus by green peach aphids subjected to light or darkness.—J. econ. Ent. 63, 98101.
Naude, T. J. (1926). Insects in relation to plant disease.—S. Afr. J. Sci. 23, 644649.
Nault, L. R. & Bradley, R. H. E. (1969). Acquisition of maize dwarf mosaic virus by the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 62, 403406.
Nault, L. R. & Gyrisco, G. G. (1966). Relation of the feeding process of the pea aphid to the inoculation of pea enation mosaic virus.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 59, 11851197.
Nelson, H. D. (1943). The position of the rostralis of the California red scale feeding on lemons.—J. econ. Ent. 36, 750751.
Nickel, J. L. & Sylvester, E. S. (1959). Influence of feeding time, stylet penetration, and developmental instar on the toxic effect of the spotted alfalfa aphid.—J. econ. Ent. 52, 249254.
Nishi, Y. (1969). Inhibition of viruses by vector saliva. pp. 579591. In Maramorosch, K. (Ed.) Viruses, vectors, and vegetation.—666 pp. New York, Interscience.
Norris, D. M., Ferkovich, S. M., Baker, J. E., Rozental, J. M. & Borg, T. K. (1971). Energy transduction in quinone inhibition of insect feeding.—J. Insect Physiol. 17, 8597.
North, P. (1967). Poisonous plants and fungi.—161 pp. London, Blandford.
Nuorteva, P. (1952). Die Nahrungspflanzenwahl der Insekten im Lichte von Untersuchungen an Zikaden.—Suomal. Tiedeakat Toim. IV, 19, 190.
Nuorteva, P. (1957). Cinara piceae (Panz.) (Hom., Aphididae) found in Finland.—Suom. hyönt. Aikak. 23, 3536.
Nuorteva, P. (1958 a). On the occurrence of proteases and amylases in the salivary glands of Cinara piceae (Panz.) (Hom. Aphididae).—Suom. hyönr. Aikak. 24, 89.
Nuorteva, P. (1958 b). Die Rolle der Speichelsekrete im wechselverhältnis zwischen Tier und Nahrungspflanze bei Hornopteren und Heteropteren.—Entomologia exp. appl. 1, 4149.
Nuorteva, P. & Laurema, S. (1961). The effect of diet on the amino acids in the haemolymph and salivary glands of Heteroptera.—Suom. hyönt. Aikak. 27, 5765.
Nuorteva, P. & Reinius, L. (1953). Incorporation and spread of C14-labelled oral secretions of wheat bugs in wheat kernels.—Suom. hyönt. Aikak. 19, 95104.
Ocfemia, G. O., Celino, M. S. & Garcia, F. J. (1947). Further studies on transmission of bunchy-top and mosaic of abacá (manila hernp plant), separation of the two diseases, and mechanics of inoculation by Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel.—Philipp. Agric. 31, 8797.
Ochs, G. (1960). Quantitativer Nachweis eines Abbaus von Zellulose und Lignin in der roll kranken Rebe.—Experientia 16, 361.
Oechssler, G. (1962). Studien über die Saugschäden mitteleuropäischer Tannenläuse im Gewebe einheimischer und ausländischer Tannen.—Z. angew. Ent. 50, 408454.
O' Loughlin, G. T. & Chambers, T. C. (1969). The feeding sites in Sonchus oleraceus of Hyperomyzus lactucae, the aphid vector of lettuce necrotic yellows virus.—Aust. J. biol. Sci. 20, 629637.
Oman, P. (1969). Criteria of specificity in virus-vector relationships. pp. 122. In Maramorosch, K. (Ed.) Viruses, vectors, and vegetation.—666 pp. New York, Interscience.
Orlob, G. B. (1961). Host plant preference of cereal aphids in the field in relation to the ecology of barley yellow dwarf virus.—Entomologia exp. appl. 4, 6772.
Orlob, G. B. (1963). Reappraisal of transmission of tobacco mosaic virus by insects.—Phyropathology 53, 822830.
Orlob, G. B. & Bradley, R. H. E. (1960 a). Drei weitere Blattlausarten, die das Y-virus der Kartoffel mit den Stechborstenspitzen ürbertragen.—Z. PflKrankh. PflPath. PflSchutz. 67, 407409.
Orlob, G. B. & Bradley, R. H. E. (1960 b). Does the cabbage aphid carry cabbage virus B both on its mouthparts and at some other site?Phytopathology 50, 649.
Orlob, G. B. & Bradley, R. H. E. (1961). Where cabbage aphids carry transmissible virus B. phytophathology 51, 397399.
Ortman, E. E. &Painter, R. H. (1960). Quantitative measurements of damage by the green-bug, Toxoptera graminum, to four wheat varieties.—J. econ. Ent. 53, 798802.
Ossiannilsson, F. (1966). Insects in the epidemiology of plant viruses.—A. Rev. Ent. 11, 213232.
Owen, W. B. (1965). Structure and function of the gustatory organs of the mosquito.—Int. Congr. Ent. 1964, 793.
Painter, R. H. (1928). Notes on the injury to plant cells by chinch bug feeding.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 21, 232242.
Paliwal, Y. C. & Sinha, R. C. (1970). On the mechanism of persistence and distribution of barley yellow dwarf virus in an aphid vector.—Virology 42, 668680.
Parkhurst, D. F. (1972). Conductive capacities of veins in expanding leaves of Quercus.—Aust. J. biol. Sci. 25, 425428.
Parrish, W. B. (1967). The origin, morphology, and innervation of aphid stylets (Homoptera).—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 60, 273276.
Parrott, D. M. (1971). Altering the resistance of plants to infection and colonisation by nematodes.—PANS Pest. Artic. News Summ. 17, 249251.
Parry, W. H. (1971). Differences in the probing behaviour of Elatobium abietinum feeding on Sitka and Norway spruces.—Ann. appl. Biol. 69, 177185.
Parry, W. H. & Ford, J. B. (1967). The artificial feeding of phosphamidon to Myzus persicae. I. Intraspecific differences exhibited by this aphid on feeding through a Parafilm membrane.—Entomologia exp. appl. 10, 437452.
Parry, W. H. & Ford, J. B. (1969). The artificial feeding of phosphamidon to Myzus persicae. II. The effects of phosphamidon on liquid uptake through a Paraflim membrane.—Entomologia exp. appl. 12, 118.
Parry, W.H. & Ford, J.B. (1971). The artificial feeding of phosphamidon to Myzus persicae. III. Effects of phosphamidon on the longevity, fecundity and liquid uptake.—Entomologia exp. appl. 14, 389398.
Parsons, M. C. (1964). The origin and development of the hemipteran cranium.—Can. J. Zool. 42, 409432.
Parsons, M. C. (1965). Cranial development in the Hemiptera.—Int. Congr. Ent. 1964, 135.
Paschke, J. D. & Sylvester, E. S. (1957). Laboratory studies on the toxic effects of Therioaphis maculata (Buckton).—J. econ. Ent. 50, 742748.
Pathak, M. D. & Painter, R. H. (1958). Differential amounts of material taken up by four biotypes of corn leaf aphids from resistant and susceptible sorghums.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 51, 250254.
Paxton, W. A. & Burkhardt, C. C. (1970). Response of alfalfa seed chalcid ovipositor to chemicals occurring naturally in alfalfa.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 63, 16171620.
Pelet, F., Hildebrandt, A. C., Riker, A. J. & Skoog, F. (1960). Growth in vitro of tissues isolated from normal stems and insect galls.—Am. I. Bot. 47, 186195.
Perttunen, V., Kangas, E. & Oksanen, H. (1968). The mechanisms by which Blastophagus piniperda L. (Col., Scolytidae) reacts to the odour of an attractant fraction isolated from pine phloem.—Suom. hyönt. Aikak. 34, 205222.
Pesson, P. (1944). Contribution à l'étude morphologique et fonctionnelle de la tête, de l'appareil buccal et du tube digestif des femelles de coccides.—266 pp. Paris, Imprimerie Nationale /CNRA. (Monographies publidés par les Stations et Laboratoires de Recherches Agronomiques.)
Pesson, P. (1951). Ordre des Homoptères. In Grassé, P. P.. Traité de Zoologie 10, 13901656. Paris, Masson.
Petri, L. (1907). Studi sul marciume delle radici nelle viti fillocericate.—Memorie R. Staz. Patol. veget. 5665.
Petri, L. (1908). Einige Bemerkungen über die Rolle der Milben bei der Dactylopiuskrankheit der Reben.—Zbl. Bakt. 21, 375379.
Pinet, J. M. (1963). L'innervation sensorielle des stylets mandibulaires et maxillaires de Rhodnius prolixus Stål (Insecte Hemiptère Hétéroptère).—C. r. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci., Paris 257, 36663668.
Pinet, J. M. (1968). Données ultrastructurales sur l'innervation sensorielle des stylets maxillaires de Rhodinus prolixus (Heteroptera Reduviidae).—C. r. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci., Paris 267, 634637.
Pintera, A. (1965). The effect of various substances on the development of aphids.—Int. Congr. Ent. 1964, 546.
Pirone, T. P. (1969). Mechanism of transmission of stylet-borne viruses. pp. 199210. In Maramorosch, K. (Ed.) Viruses, vectors, and vegetation.—666 pp. New York, Interscience.
Pirone, T. P. (1970). Effect of aphid saliva and extracts of aphid-infested leaves on the infectivity of tobacco mosaic virus and some stylet-borne viruses.—Phytopathology 60, 16571659.
Pirone, T. P. (1971). Ability of stylet-borne and non-aphid transmissible viruses to infect plants through wounds produced by aphid stylets.—Virology, 45, 374380.
Pollard, D. G. (1954). The melon stem-borer, Apomecyna binubila Pascoe (Coleoptera: Lamiinae), in the Sudan.—Bull. ent. Res. 45, 553561.
Pollard, D. G. (1955). Feeding habits of the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).—Ann. appl. Biol. 43, 664671.
Pollard, D. G. (1958). Feeding of the cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover).—Emp. Cott. Gr. Rev. 35, 244253.
Pollard, D. G. (1959). Feeding habits of the lace-bug Urentius aegyptiacus Bergevin (Hemiptera: Tingidae).—Ann. appl. Biol. 47, 778782.
Pollard, D. G. (1968). Stylet penetration and feeding damage of Eupteryx melissae Curtis (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) on sage.—Bull. ent. Res. 58, 5571.
Pollard, D. G. (1969). Directional control of the stylets in phytophagous Hemiptera.—Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (A) 44, 173185.
Pollard, D. G. (1970 a). Simulated cannibalism in an aphid.—Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (A) 45, 98103.
Pollard, D. G. (1970 b). The mechanism of stylet movement in Psylla mali Schmidberger (Homoptera: Psyllidae).—Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 49, 295307.
Pollard, D. G. (1971 a). Some aspects of plant penetration by Myzus persicae (Sulz.) nymphs (Homoptera, Aphididae).—Bull. ent. Res. 61, 315324.
Pollard, D. G. (1971 b). The use of polyporus for the investigation of stylet behaviour in the Hemiptera.—Entomologia exp. appl. 14, 283296.
Pollard, D. G. (1971 c). Some observations on the mouth-parts of whiteflies (Hem., Aleyrodidae).—Entomoiogist's mon. Mag. 107, 8188.
Pollard, D. G. (1972). The stylet structure of a leafhopper (Eupteryx melissae Curtis: Homoptera, Cicadellidae).—J. nat. Hist. 6, 261271.
Pollard, D. G. & Saunders, J. H. (1956). Relations of some cotton pests to jassid resistant sakel.—Emp. Cott. Gr. Rev. 33, 197202.
Ponsen, M. B. (1969). The effect of potato leafroll virus on the biology of Myzus persicae.—Neth. J. Pl. Path. 75, 360368.
Potter, C. & Gillham, E. M. (1957). Effect of host-plant on the resistance of Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) to insecticides.—Bull. ent. Res. 48, 317322.
Prillieux, E. (1879). Étude des altérations produites dans le bois du pommier par les piqûres du puceron lanigère.—Annls inst. natn. agron., Paris (1877–78), 3949.
Puchkov, V. G. (1956). Principal trophic groups of Heteroptera and the change of their feeding during their life history.—Zool. Zh. 35, 3244. (In Russian, English summary on pp. 56).
Quoilin, J. (1966). Relations existant entre le potentiel de multiplication de Myzus persicae Sulz. (Homoptera-Aphididae) et la nutrition minérale de la plant-hôte par des solutions ioniquement équilibrées.—Bull. Rech. agron. Gembloux N.S. 1, 140152.
Quoilin, J. (1967). Nutrition minérale de la plant-hôte et fécondité de Myzus persicae Sulz. (Homoptera-Aphididae).—Meded. Rijksfak. LandbWet. Gent. 32, 365386.
Raccah, B. & Tahori, A. S. (1971). Wing dimorphism influencing resistance or toxicity tests and food uptake in Myzus persicae.—Entomologia exp. appl. 14, 310314.
Raccah, B., Tahori, A. S. & Applebaum, S. W. (1971). Effect of nutritional factors in synthetic diet on increase of alate forms in Myzus persicae.—J. Insect Physiol. 17, 13851390.
Ramanatha Menon, M. & Christudas, S. P. (1967). Studies on the population of the aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa Coq. on banana plants in Kerala.—Agric. Res. J. Kerala 5, 8486.
Rautapää, J. (1967). Studies on the host plant relationships of Aphis idaei v.d.Goot and Amphorophora rubi (Kalt.) (Horn., Aphididae).—Ann. agric. fenn. 6, 174190.
Rawitscher, F. (1933). Wohin stechen die Pflanzenläuse?Z. Bot. 26, 145168.
Roach, W. A. & Massee, A. M. (1931). Preliminary experiments on the physiology of the resistance of certain rootstocks to attack by woolly aphis.—Rep. E. Mailing Res. Stn. 1928–30, 111120.
Robert, Y., Maury, Y. & Quéméner, J. (1969). Transmission du virus de l'enroulement de la pomme de terre par différentes formes et stades d'une souche de Myzus persicae (Sulz.) (Homoptera: Aphididae): résultats comparés sur Physalis floridana Rydberget Solanum tuberosum L. var. Claudia.—Ann Phytopathol. 1, 167179.
Roberts, F. M. (1940). Studies on the feeding methods and penetration rates of Myzus persicae Sulz., Myzus circumflexus Buckt., and Macrosiphum gei Koch.—Ann. appl. Biol. 27, 348358.
Romell, L.-G. (1935). Savhonung.—Svensk. bot. Tidskr. 29, 391406.
Root, R. B. & Olson, A. M. (1969). Population increase of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae, on different host plants.—Can. Ent. 101, 768773.
Rosen, H. R. (1916). The development of the Phylloxera vastatrix leaf gall. Am. J. Bot. 3, 337360.
Rothschild, M. & Hinton, H. E. (1968). Holding organs on the antennae of male fleas.—Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. (A) 43, 105107.
Russell, G. E. (1969). Effects of sucrose sprays and darkness on aphid colonization of sugar beet and on aphid transmission of yellowing viruses.—Ann. appl. Biol. 63, 351356.
Russell, G. E. (1970). Effects of mineral oil on Myzus persicae (Sulz.) and its transmission of beet yellows virus.—Bull. ent. Res. 59, 691694.
Russell, G. E. (1971). Effects on Myzus persicae (Sulz.) and transmission of beet yellows virus of applying certain trace elements to sugar beet.—Ann. appl. Biol. 68, 6770.
Russell, S. L. & Kimmins, W. C. (1971). Growth regulators and the effect of barley yellow dwarf virus on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).—Ann. Bot. 35, 10371043.
Savary, A. (1953). Le puceron cendré du poirier (Sappaphis pyri Fonsc.) en Suisse romande. —Landw. Jb. Schweiz. 67, 247314.
Saxena, K. N. (1954 a). Alimentary canal and associated structures of the Jassidae (Homoptera).—Curr. Sci. 23, 198199.
Saxena, K. N. (1954 b). Feeding habits and physiology of digestion of certain leafhoppers Homoptera: Jassidae.—Experientia 10, 383384.
Saxena, K. N. (1965). Control of the orientation and feeding behaviour of red cotton bug, Dysdercus koenigii (F.), by chemical constituents of plants.—Int. Congr. Ent. 1964,294.
Saxena, P. N. & Chada, H. L. (1971 a). The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum. 1. Mouth parts and feeding habits.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 64, 897904.
Saxena, P. N. & Chada, H. L. (1971 b). The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum 2. The salivary gland complex.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 64, 904912.
Schaefers, G. A. (1966). The use of direct current for electronically recording aphid feeding and salivation.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 59, 10221024.
Schaefers, G. A. & Judge, F. D. (1971). Effects of temperature, photoperiod, and host plant on alary polymorphism in the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii.—J. Insect. Physiol. 17, 365379.
Schalk, J. M., Kindler, S. D. & Manglitz, G. R. (1969). Temperature and the preference of the spotted alfalfa aphid for resistant and susceptible alfalfa plants.—J. econ. Ent. 62, 10001003.
Schäller, G. (1961). Aminosäuren im Speichel und Honigtau der grünen Apfelblattlaus Aphis pomi Deg.—Homoptera.—Entomologia exp. appl. 4, 7385.
Schäller, G. (1963). Papierchromatographische Analyse der Aminosäuren und Amide des Speichels und Honigtaues von 10 Aphidenarten mit unterschiedlicher Phytopathogenität.—Zool. Jb. (Abt. Allgem. Zool. Physiol. Tiere) 70, 399406.
Schäller, G. (1965). Untersuchungen über den β-indolylessigsäure-Gehalt des Speichels von Aphidenarten mit untersehiedlicher Phytopathogenität.—Zool. Jb. (Abt. Allgem. Zool., Physiol. Tiere) 71, 385392.
Scheel, C. A., Beck, S. D. & Medler, J. T. (1957). Nutrition of plant-sucking Hemiptera.—Science, N.Y. 125, 444445.
Scheel, C. A., Beck, S. D. & Medler, J. T. (1958). Feeding and nutrition of certain Hemiptera.—Int. Congr. Ent. 1956, 303308.
Schetters, C. (1960). Untersuchungen über die Art und die Folgewirkung des Saugvorganges bei der San José-Schildlaus (Aspidiotus perniciosus Comst.).—Z. angew. Ent. 46, 277322.
Schimitschek, E. & Wienke, E. (1967). Auswirkungen des Befalles von Dreyfusia (Adelges) nüsslini C. B. auf den Wasserhausshalt und die lebende Rinde der Tanne.—Anz. Schädlingsk. 40, 166171.
Schmutterer, H. (1969). Versuche zur Übertragung des Erbsenenationenvirus durch Injektion virushaltiger Hämolymphe von einer Blattlausart oder -form in die andere.—Z. PflKrankh. PflPath. PflSchutz 76, 257263.
Schneider, F. (1944). Eine Ursache der raschen Blattlausverrnehrung an Bohnen.—Forsch-Ergebn. Geb. Gartenb. eidg. VersAnsr. 1944, 14.
Schoonhoven, L. M. (1967). Loss of hostplant specificity by Manduca sexta after rearing on an artificial diet.—Entomologia exp. appl. 10, 270272.
Severin, H. H. P. (1931). Modes of curly-top transmission by the beet-leafhopper Eutettix tenellus (Baker).—Hilgardia 6, 253276.
Severin, H. H. P. & Tompkins, C. M. (1948). Aphid transmission of mild mosaic virus of annual stock.—Hilgardia 18, 539552.
Shanks, C. H. & Finnigan, B. F. (1969). Behavior, survival, and reproduction of the straw-berry aphid on holidic diets and host and nonhost plants.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 62, 14901492.
Shanks, C. H. & Finnigan, B. (1970). Probing behavior of the strawberry aphid.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 63, 734737.
Sharma, G. D. & Kevan, D. K. McE. (1965). The mouthparts of Collembola.—Int. Congr. Ent. 1964, 142.
Siencka, A. (1959). Zmiany anatomiczne i cytologiczne wywołane przez Myzus ribis L. w lisciach porzeczek (Ribes) i próby powiazania ich ze zbiorem owoców.—(In Polish with English summary).—Zesz. nauk. wyższ. Szk. roln. Szczec. 2, 91117. (Anatomical and cytological changes brought about by M. ribis on the leaves of currants (Ribes) and their effect on fruit yields.)
Simons, J. N. (1955). Some plant-vector-virus relationships of southern cucumber mosaic virus.—Phytopathology 45, 217219.
Simons, J. N. (1966). Effects of temperature and length of acquisition feeding time on transmission of nonpersistent viruses by aphids.—J. econ. Ent. 59, 10561062.
Simons, J. N. (1969). Differential transmission of closely related strains of potato virus Y by the green peach aphid and the potato aphid.—J. econ. Ent. 62, 10881096.
Simons, J. N. & Eastop, V. F. (1970). Temperature effects on aphid transmission of non-persistent viruses with notes on morphological variation within clones of aphids with differing vector efficiencies.—J. econ. Ent. 63, 484490.
Sitholey, R. V. (1971). Observations on the three-dimensional structure of the leaf cuticle in certain plants.—Ann. Bot. 35, 637639.
Skene, K. G. M. (1971). Hormonal effects on sugar release from vine canes.—Ann. Bot. 35, 277286.
Skotland, C. B. & Hagedorn, D. J. (1955). Vector-feeding and plant-tissue relationships in the transmission of the Wisconsin pea streak virus.—Phytopazhology 45, 665666.
Sloan, W. J. S. (1946). The fruit spotting bug.—Qd agric. J. 62, 229233.
Smith, B. D. & Baker, E. A. (1971). Experiments on the selection of host plants by aphids.—Rep. agric. hort. Res. Stn Univ. Bristol 1970, 105.
Smith, F. F. (1933). The nature of the sheath material in the feeding punctures produced by the potato leaf hopper and the three-cornered alfalfa hopper.—J. agric. Res. 47, 475485.
Smith, F. F., Johnson, G. V., Kahn, R. P. & Bing, A. (1964). Repellency of reflective aluminium to transient aphid virus-vectors.—Phytopathology 54, 748.
Smith, F. F. & Webb, R. E. (1969). Repelling aphids by reflective surfaces, a new approach to the control of insect-transmitted viruses. pp. 631639. In Maramorosch, K. (Ed.) Viruses, vectors, and vegetation.—666 pp. New York, Interscience.
Smith, J. J. B. & Friend, W. G. (1970). Feeding in Rhodnius prolixus: responses to artificial diets as revealed by changes in electrical resistance.—J. Insect Physiol. 16, 17091720.
Smith, J. J. B. & Friend, W. G. (1971). The application of split-screen television recording and electrical resistance measurement to the study of feeding in a blood-sucking insect (Rhodnius prolixus).—Can. Ent. 103, 167172.
Smith, K. M. (1926). A comparative study of the feeding methods of certain Hemiptera and of the resulting effects upon the plant tissue, with special reference to the potato plant.—Ann. appl. Biol. 13, 109139.
Snodgrass, R. E. (1935). Principles of insect morphology.—667 pp. New York, McGraw-Hill.
Snodgrass, R. E. (1944). The feeding apparatus of biting and sucking insects affecting man and animals.—Smithson. misc. Collns 104, 1113.
Soest, W. van & Cats, V. M-M. (1956). Does the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulz.) imbibe tobacco mosaic virus?.—Virology 2, 411414.
Sogawa, K. (1967). Chemical nature of the sheath materials secreted by Ieafhoppers. (Hom-optera).—Appl. Entomol. Zool. 2, 1321.
Sogawa, K. (1968). Collecting method and preliminary analysis of the soluble salivary secretions of the planthoppers.—Appl. Entomol. Zool. 3, 152154.
Sorin, M. (1958). Life cycles of two aphids causing galls on Distylium racemosum.—Akitu 7, 8992.
Sorin, M. (1960). Insertion of stylets of aphids and plant tissues.—Jap. J. appl. Ent. Zool. 4, 3844.
Sorin, M. (1961). The mouth parts of Aphis craccivora Koch and the penetration of stylets into host plants.—Jap. J. appl. Ent. Zool. 5, 217224.
Sorin, M. (1962). The life history of Melanaphis bambusae (Fullaway), and the penetration of stylets into host plants.—Kontyû 30, 222229.
Sorin, M. (1963). The mouth parts of Myzus persicae Sulzer and the penetration of stylets into host plants.—Res. & Related Data, Junior Coll. Agric., Univ. Osaka Pref. no. 9, 3541.
Sorin, M. (1966). Physiological and morphological studies on the suction mechanism of plant juice by aphids.—Bull. Univ. Osaka Prefect. (B) 18, 95137.
Spasskiĭ, A. A. (Ed.) (1971). The immunity of the grape-vine to phylloxera and its control. [In Russian].—107 pp. Kishinev, Redak.-izdat. Otdel Akad. Nauk moldav. SSR. (From Rev. appl. Ent. (A) 59, 4153–4160.)
Spooner, C. S. (1938). The phylogeny of the Hemiptera based on a study of the head capsule.—Univ. Ill. Bull. 35, 1102.
Srivastava, P. N. & Auclair, J. L. (1962). Characteristics of invertase from the alimentary canal of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harr.) (Homoptera, Aphididae).—J. insect Physiol. 8, 527535.
Srivastava, P. N. & Auclair, J. L. (1971 a). An improved chemically defined diet for the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 64, 474478.
Srivastava, P. N. & Auclair, J. L. (1971 b). Influence of sucrose concentration on diet uptake and performance by the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.—Ann. emt. Soc. Am. 64, 739743.
Staal, G. B. (1967). Insect hormones in plants.—Meded. Rijksfak. LandbWet. Gent 32, 393400.
Staniland, L. N. (1924). The immunity of apple stocks from attacks of woolly aphis (Eriosoma lanigerum, Hausmann). Part II. The causes of the relative resistance of the stocks.—Bull. ent. Res. 15, 157170.
Stearns, L. A. (1956). Meadow spittlebug and peach gumosis.—J. econ. Ent. 49, 382385.
Steiner, H., Immendoerfer, G. & Bosch, J. (1970). The arthropods occurring on apple-trees throughout the year and possibilities for their assessment.—European Plant Protection Organisation Publication, Series A, no. 57, 131146.
Stevenson, A. B. (1970). Strains of the grape phylloxera in Ontario with different effects onthe foliage of certain grape cultivars.—J. econ. Ent. 63, 135138.
Storey, H. H. (1939). Investigations of the mechanism of the transmission of plant viruses by insect vectors. III. The insect's saliva.—Proc. R. Soc. (B) 127, 526543.
Strong, F. E. (1965). Detection of lipids in the honeydew of an aphid.—Nature, Lond. 205,1242.
Strong, F. E. (1970). Physiology of injury caused by Lygus hesperus.—J. econ. Ent. 63, 808814.
Strong, F. E. & Kruitwagen, E. C. (1968). Polygalacturonase in the salivary apparatus of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera).—J. Insect Physiol. 14, 11131119.
Strong, F. E. & Sakamoto, S. S. (1963). Some amino acid requirements of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) determined with glucose-U-C14.—J. Insect Physiol. 9, 875879.
Sukhov, K. S. (1944). Salivary secretion of the aphis Myzus persicae Sulz. and its ability to form a filtering apparatus.—Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR. 42, 226228.
Sutherland, O. R. W. (1969). The rôle of the host plant in the production of winged forms by two strains of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.—J. Insect Physiol. 15, 21702201.
Sutherland, O. R. W. & Mittler, T. E. (1971). Influence of diet composition and crowding on wing production by the aphid Myzus persicae.—J. insect Physiol. 17, 321328.
Swenson, K. G. (1962). Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) transmission by Myzus persicae.—Aust. J. biol. Sci. 15, 468482.
Swanson, K. G. (1968). Role of aphids in the ecology of plant viruses.—A. Rev. Phytopath. 6, 351374.
Swenson, K. G. (1969). Plant susceptibility to virus infection by insect transmission. pp. 143157. In Maramorosch, K. (Ed.) Viruses, vectors, and vegetation.—666 pp. New York, Interscience.
Sylvester, E. S. (1962). Mechanism of plant virus transmission by aphids. pp. 1131. In Maramorosch, K. (Ed.) Biological transmission of disease agents.—192 pp. New York, Academic Press.
Sylvester, E. S. (1969). Virus transmission by aphids—a viewpoint. pp. 159173. In Maramorosch, K. (Ed.) Viruses, vectors, and vegetation.—666 pp. New York, Interscience.
Sylvester, E. S. & Bradley, R. H. E. (1962). Effect of treating stylets of aphids with formalin on the transmission of sugar beet yellows virus.—Virology 17, 381386.
Sylvester, E. S. & Richardson, J. (1963). Short-term probing behavior of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) as affected by fasting, anesthesia, and labial manipulation.—Virology 20, 302309.
Sylvester, E. S. & Ricualwson, J. (1964). Transmisson of cabbage mosaic virus by green peach aphids—stylet transmission studies.—Virology 22, 520538.
Tahori, A. S. & Hazan, A. (1970). Rearing of the black citrus aphid Toxoptera aurantii on chemically defined diets.—J. Insect Physiol. 16, 19751981.
Tamaki, G., Burtt, B. A. & Landis, B. J. (1970). Arrest and aggregation of male Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 63, 955960.
Tate, H. D. (1937). Method of penetration, formation of stylet sheaths and source of food supply of aphids.—Iowa St. Coll. J. Sci. 11, 185190.
Taylor, C. E. & Cadman, C. H. (1969). Nematode vectors. pp. 5594. In Maramorosch, K.(Ed.) Viruses, vectors, and vegetation.—666 pp. New York, Interscience.
Taylor, L. R. (1959). Abortive feeding behaviour in a black aphid of the Aphis fabae group.—Entomologia exp. appl. 2, 143153.
Thomas, J. G. & Sorensen, E. L. (1971). Effects of excision duration on spotted alfalfa aphid resistance in alfalfa cuttings.—J. econ. Ent. 64, 700704.
Thomas, J. G., Sorensen, E. L. & Painter, R. H. (1966). Attached vs. excised trifoliates for evaluation of resistance in alfalfa to the spotted alfalfa aphid.—J. econ. Ent. 59, 444448.
Thompson, K. F. (1963). Resistance to the cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) in Brassica plants.—Nature, Lond. 198, 209210.
Thorsteinson, A. J. (1955). The experimental study of the chemotactic basis of host specificity in phytophagous insects.—Can. Ent. 87, 4957.
Thurston, R. & Webster, J. A. (1962). Toxicity of Nicotiana gossei Domin to Myzus persicae (Sulzer).—Entomologia exp. appl. 5, 233238.
Toba, H. H. & Paschke, J. D. (1967). Crowding as the primary factor in the production of the agamic alate form of Therioaphis maculata (Homoptera: Aphididae).—J. Insect Plzysiol. 13, 381396.
Todd, G. W., Getahun, A. & Cress, D. C. (1971). Resistance in barley to the green-bug, Schizaphis graminum. 1. Toxicity of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and related substances.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 64, 718722.
Tsai, J. H. & Bath, J. E. (1970). Additional factors affecting the transmission of pea enation mosaic virus by the pea aphid.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 63, 17231727.
Vanderveken, J. (1968 a). Importance des relations vecteur-virus dans l'inhibition de la transmission aphidienne des phytovirus par des pulvérisations d'émulsions huileuses.—Ann. Épiphyt. 19, 141146.
Vanderveken, J. (1968 b). Effects of mineral oils and lipids on aphid transmission of beet mosaic and beet yellows viruses.—Virology 34, 807809.
Vanderveken, J. & Dutrecq, A. (1970). Contribution a l'édtude de l'action inhibitrice d'une huile minérale sur la transmission aphidienne des phytovirus.—Ann. Épiphyt. 2, 387402.
Vanderveken, J. & Ohn, J. C. (1968). Inhibition de la transmission du virus de la jaunisse grave de la betterave par Aphis fabae Scop. a l'aide de pulverisations d'emulsions huileuses (l).—Meded. Rijksfak. LandbWet. Gent 33, 12151221.
Vanderveken, J. & Semal, J. (1966). Aphid transmission of beet yellows virus inhibited by mineral oil.—Phytopathology 56, 12101211.
Vanderzant, E. S. (1965). Nutrition of phytophagous insects.—Int. Congr. Ent. 1964, 538.
Venables, E. P. (1929). Observations on the woolly aphis of the apple, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausm.).—Proc. ent. Soc. Br. Columb. 1929, no. 26, 2833.
Voeller, B. R. (1967). The plant cell: aspects of its form and function. pp. 245312. In Brachet, J. & Mirsky, A. E. (Eds.) The cell, vol. 4—pp. 564, New York, Academic Press.
Vos, H. C. C. A. A. (1930). De invloed van Pseudococcus citri (Risso) Fern. op de Plant.—81 pp. Thesis, Utrecht University.
Wade, C. V. (1962). An improved way of exposing the stylets of aphids to ultra-violet radiation.—Can. J. Zool. 40, 673674.
Walker, T. S. & Thaine, R. (1971). Proteins and fine structural components in exudate from sieve tubes in Cucurbita pepo stems.—Ann. Bot. 35, 773790.
Warick, R. P. & Hildebrandt, A. C. (1966). Free amino acid contents of stem and Phylloxera gall tissue cultures of grape.—Pl. Physiol., Lancaster 41, 573578.
Watson, M. A. & Nixon, H. L. (1953). Studies on the feeding of Myzus persicae (Sulz.) on radioactive plants.—Ann. appl. Biol. 40, 537545.
Watson, M. A. & Plump, R. T. (1972). Transmission of plant-pathogenic viruses by aphids.—A. Rev. Ent. 17, 425452.
Watson, M. A. & Roberts, F. M. (1940). Evidence against the hypothesis that certain plant viruses are transmitted mechanically by aphids.—Ann. appl. Biol. 27, 227233.
Way, M. J. & Cammell, M. (1970 a). Aggregation behaviour in relation to food utilization by aphids. pp. 229247. In Watson, A. (Ed.) Animal populations in relation to their food resources.—Symp. Br. Ecol. Soc. no. 10, 477 pp.
Way, M. J. & Cammell, M. E. (1970 b). Self regulation in aphid populations.—Proc. Adv. Study Inst. Dynamics Numbers Popul. (Oosterbeek) 1970, 232242.
Wearing, C. H. (1967). Studies on the relations of insect and host plant. II. The effects of water stress in host plants on the fecundity of Myzus persicae (Sulz.) and Brevi coryne brassicae (L.).—Nature, Lond. 213, 10521053.
Wearing, C. H. (1968). Responses of aphids to pressure applied to liquid diet behind Parafilm membrane. Longevity and larviposition of Myzus persicae (Sulz.) and Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) (Homoptera: Aphididae) feeding on sucrose and sinigrin solutions.—N. Z. Jl Sci. 11, 105121.
Wearing, C. H. & Emden, H. F. Van (1967). Studies on the relations of insect and host plant. I. Effects of water stress in host plants on infestation by Aphis fabae Scop.,Myzus persicae (Sulz.) and Brevicoryne brassicae (L.).—Nature, Lond. 213, 10511052.
Weatherley, P. E., Peel, A. J. & Hill, G. P. (1959). The physiology of the sieve tube. Preliminary experiments using aphid mouth parts.—J. exp. Bot. 10, 116.
Weber, H. (1928 a). Skelett, Muskulatur und Darm der schwarzen Blattlaus, Aphis fabae Scop.—Zoologica, Stuttg. 76, 1120.
Weber, H. (1928 b). Zur vergleichenden Physiologie der Saugorgane der Hemipteren. Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Pflanzenläuse.—Z. vergl. Physiol. 8, 145186.
Weber, H. (1930).Biologie der Hemipteren.543 pp. Berlin, Springer.
Weber, H. (1933). Lehrbuch der Entomologie.—726 pp. Jena.
Wedde, H. (1885). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Rhynchotenrüssels.—Arch. Naturgesch., 112143.
Wegorek, W. & Krzymańska, J. (1968). Biochemiczrie przyczyny odporności niektórycb odmian łubinu na mszycę grochową (Acyrthosiphum pisum Harris).—Pr. nauk. Inst. Ochr. Rośl. 10, 730. (The biochemical causes of resistance in some lupin varieties to the pea aphid) (From Rev. appl. Ent. (A) 60, 900).
Weidemann, H. L. (1970). Histochemische Differenzierung verschiedener Zellen in der Hauptspeicheldrüse von Myzus persicae.—Entomologia exp. appl. 13, 153161.
Weidemann, H. L. (1971 a). Karyometrische Untersuchungen an der Hauptspeicheldruse von Myzus persicae. I. Abhängigkeit der Zellkerngrösse von verschiedenen Wirtspflanzen.—Entomologia exp. appl. 14, 107114.
Weidemann, H. L. (1971 b). Karyometrische Untersuehungen an der Hauptspeicheldrüe von Myzus persicae. II. Kerngrössenänderungen nach Saugen auf Physalis floridana- Pflanzen, die mit dem Blattrollvirus der Kartoffel (Potato leaf roll virus) infiziert waren.—Entomologia exp. appl. 14, 161174.
Weismann, L. & Baran, M. (1969). Einfluss von Veränderungen des physiologischen Zustandes des Sommerrapses auf die Populationsdichte der Kohlblattlaus (Brevi-coryne brassicae L.).—Biológia, Bratisl. 24, 375384.
Weismann, L. & Halanda, S. (1968). Reaktion der schwarzen Bohnenblattlaus Aphis fabae Scop. auf qualitative Änderungen des Inhaltes von Aminosäuren in den Vegetations-organen des Spindelbaumes (Euonymus europa L.) und der Saatpflanzen der Zuckerrube.—Biológia, Bratisl. 23, 849856.
Wells, B. W. (1920). Early stages in the development of certain Pachypsylla galls on Celtis.—Am. J. Bot. 7, 275285.
Wensler, R. J. V. (1962). Mode of host selection by an aphid.—Nature, Lond. 195, 830831.
Wensler, R. & Filshie, B. K. (1969). Gustatory sense organs in the food canal of aphids.—J. Morph. 129, 473492.
West, F. T. (1946). Ecological effects of an aphid population upon weight gains of tomato plants.—J. econ. Ent. 39, 338343.
White, D. (1965). Changes in size of the corpus allatum in a polymorphic insect.—Nature, Lond. 208, 807.
Wightman, J. A. & Gibson, R. W. (1972). Comparison of the distributions of the pink and the green biotypes of the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thos.), on potato plants.—Pl. Path. 21, 6972.
Williams, M. W. & Lindner, R. C. (1965). Biochemical components of pear psylla and their relative toxicity to excised bean plants.—J. Insect Physiol. 11, 4152.
Wilson, G. F. & Becker, P. (1960). Horticultural pests.—240 pp. London, Lockwood.
Withycombe, C. L. (1926). Studies on the aetiology of sugar-cane froghopper blight in Trinidad. I. Introduction and general survey.—Ann. appl. Biol. 13, 64108.
Wolf, J. P. & Ewart, W. H. (1955). Two carbohydrases occurring in insect-produced honey-dew.—Science, N.Y. 122, 973.
Wood, E. A. (1971). Designation and reaction of three biotypes of the greenbug cultured on resistant and susceptible species of sorghum.—J. econ. Ent. 64, 183185.
Wood-Baker, C. S. (1968). A note on withdrawal of stylets by feeding aphids.—Entomologist's mon. Mag. 104, 114.
Wood-Baker, C. S. (1971). A new food-plant for Macrosiphum (Sitobion) avenae F. in Britain, with biometric data (Hem., Aphididae).—Entomologist's mon. Mug. 107, 185187.
Woods, A. F. (1900). Stigmonose: a disease of carnations and other pinks.—Bull. U. S. Dep. Agric. 19, 130.
Wynn, G. G. & Boudreaux, H. B. (1972). Structure and function of aphid cornicles.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 65, 157166.
Yust, H. R. & Fulton, R. A. (1943). An exudation associated with the feeding location of the California red scale.—J. econ. Ent. 346, 346347.
Zettler, F. W. (1964). Transmission of bean common mosaic virus and duration of probes by aphids fasted for various periods prior to single or multiple acquisition probes.—Phytopathology 54, 129.
Zettler, F. W. (1967). A comparison of species of Aphididae with species of three other aphid families regarding virus transmission and probe behavior.—Phystopathology 57, 398400.
Zettler, F. W., Edwardson, J. R. & Purcifull, D. E. (1968). Ultramicroscopic differences in inclusions of papaya mosaic virus and papaya ringspot virus correlated with differential aphid transmission.—Phytopathology 58, 332335.
Zettler, F. W., Smyly, M. C. & Evans, I. R. (1969). The repellency of mature citrus leaves to probing aphids.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 62, 399402.
Zettler, F. W. & Wilkinson, R. E. (1966). Effect of probing behavior and starvation of Myzus persicae on transmission of bean common mosaic virus.—Phytopathology 56, 10791082.
Zimmermann, M. H. (1961). Movement of organic substances in trees.—Science, N.Y. 133, 7379.
Zweigelt, F. (1914). Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Saugphänomens der Blattläuse und der Reaktionen der Pflanzenzellen.—Zentbl. Bakt. ParasitKde. (Abt. II) 42, 265355.