Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 18
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    OXBOROUGH, R. M. KITAU, J. MOSHA, F. W. and ROWLAND, M. W. 2015. Modified veranda-trap hut for improved evaluation of vector control interventions. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Vol. 29, Issue. 4, p. 371.

    QUIÑONES, M. L. LINES, J. D. THOMSON, M. C. JAWARA, M. MORRIS, J. and GREENWOOD, B. M. 1997. Anopheles gambiae gonotrophic cycle duration, biting and exiting behaviour unaffected by permethrin-impregnated bednets in The Gambia. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Vol. 11, Issue. 1, p. 71.

    Coluzzi, M. 1992. Malaria vector analysis and control. Parasitology Today, Vol. 8, Issue. 4, p. 113.

    Sharp, Brian L. and le Sueur, David 1991. Behavioural variation of Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) populations in Natal, South Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research, Vol. 81, Issue. 01, p. 107.

    Miall, Stephanie M. and Le Patourel, Geoffrey N. J. 1989. Response of the german cockroachBlattella germanica(L.) to a light source following exposure to surface deposits of insecticides. Pesticide Science, Vol. 25, Issue. 1, p. 43.

    Hudson, J. E. and Esozed, S. 1971. The effects of smoke from mosquito coils on Anopheles gambiae Giles and Mansonia uniformis (Theo.) in verandah-trap huts at Magugu, Tanzania. Bulletin of Entomological Research, Vol. 61, Issue. 02, p. 247.

    Smith, A. and Webley, D. J. 1969. A veranda-trap hut for studying the house-frequenting habits of mosquitoes and for assessing insecticides. III. The effect of DDT on behaviour and mortality. Bulletin of Entomological Research, Vol. 59, Issue. 01, p. 33.

    ZULUETA, J. DE and CULLEN, J. R. 1963. Deterrent Effect of Insecticides on Malaria Vectors. Nature, Vol. 200, Issue. 4909, p. 860.

    Reid, J. A. and Wharton, R. H. 1956. Trials of residual Insecticides in Window-trap Huts against Malayan Mosquitos. Bulletin of Entomological Research, Vol. 47, Issue. 03, p. 433.

    CHADWICK, L.E. 1955. Origins of Resistance to Toxic Agents.

    Colless, Donald H. 1953. The Effect of DDT and Kerosene upon Adult Behaviour inAnopheles BalabacensisBaisas (=A.LeucosphyrusAuct.). Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, Vol. 47, Issue. 3, p. 261.

    Reid, J. A. 1951. A Laboratory Method for testing Residual Insecticides against Anopheline Mosquitos. Bulletin of Entomological Research, Vol. 41, Issue. 04, p. 761.

    Wharton, R. H. 1951. The Behaviour and Mortality of Anopheles maculatus and Culex fatigans in experimental Huts treated with DDT and BHC. Bulletin of Entomological Research, Vol. 42, Issue. 01, p. 1.

    Morris, M. G. 1950. The Persistence of Toxicity in DDT-impregnated Hessian and its Use on Tsetse Traps. Bulletin of Entomological Research, Vol. 41, Issue. 02, p. 259.

    Muirhead-Thomson, R.C. 1950. DDT and gammexane as residual insecticides against Anopheles gambiae in African houses. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 43, Issue. 4, p. 401.

    Kettle, D. S. 1949. An Attempt to ControlCulicoides ImpunctatusGoetghebuer in Scotland by Barrier-Spraying. Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, Vol. 43, Issue. 3-4, p. 284.

    Thomson, R. C. Muirhead 1948. Studies on Anopheles gambiae and A. melas in and around Lagos. Bulletin of Entomological Research, Vol. 38, Issue. 04, p. 527.

    Walton, G. A. 1947. On the Control of Malaria in Freetown, Sierra Leon. Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, Vol. 41, Issue. 3-4, p. 380.


The Effects of House Spraying with Pyrethrum and with DDT on Anopheles gambiae and A. melas in West Africa

  • R. C. Muirhead Thomson (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 July 2009

1. The behaviour of A. gambiae and A. melas in houses is described in relation to possible use of pyrethrum and DDT.


2. Mass spraying of isolated villages with pyrethrum in kerosene four times a week reduces the day-time catch of Anopheles to one-third. The sporozoite rate of mosquitos in sprayed villages remains much the same as before treatment.

3. Observations in experimental huts with window traps attached show that pyrethrum exerts a repellent effect on many hungry Anopheles for a day or two after spraying, provided blood meals can be obtained easily in adjacent untreated houses.

4. Where all available huts occupied by man are sprayed, there is no great repellence to hungry mosquitos, which continue to feed in large numbers even in huts sprayed every day.

5. In untreated huts about 20 per cent. of the blood-fed females leave the house at dawn after feeding. In huts sprayed daily the proportion increases to about 80 per cent.

6. The fall in the house catch in villages sprayed 4–6 times a week is not due to any great reduction in the mosquito population, but to a shift from indoor to outside resting places.

7. As intense house spraying with pyrethrum fails to bring about any substantial reduction either in the mosquito population or in their infectivity, it is not likely to be of great anti-malaria value in West Africa.


8. Mass spraying of village houses with 5 per cent. DDT in kerosene produces a dramatic fall in the day catch of resting Anopheles in houses. The catch remains very low for 4 weeks after treatment and it is still fairly low after 2 months.

9. Observations in experimental huts (fitted with window traps) treated with DDT in kerosene show that mosquitos may enter and feed within a few days of treatment. By the second week after treatment large numbers of Anopheles may feed every night in treated huts.

10. There is no evidence of mosquitos succumbing to the effects of DDT in kerosene inside the hut. Nearly all the Anopheles feeding in such huts leave after feeding and show no appreciable mortality in the following 48 hours.

11. The DDT in kerosene has a marked residual irritant effect on Anopheles, driving them out of the house after they have fed, and preventing mosquitos resting long enough on treated surfaces to absorb a lethal dose of DDT.

12. The few days complete protection from biting mosquitos which follows spraying inside the house with DDT in kerosene, is shown to be due mainly, if not entirely, to the repellent effect of the heavy dose of kerosene which accompanies the DDT.

13. Treatment of all rooms in an isolated village reduced the day catch to nil during 5 weeks after treatment. In outside resting places beside the village, bloodfed and gravid Anopheles, of which 2 per cent. had sporozoites in the salivary glands, Were taken regularly during this period.

14. The apparent elimination of mosquitos from houses following treatment of rooms with DDT in kerosene is due to a complete shift from inside to outside resting places, on account of the residual irritant, but not lethal, effect of DDT-in-kerosene treated surfaces.

15. The sharp fall in the house catch of Anopheles following treatment Of West African village houses with DDT in kerosene can not, therefore, be accepted as evidence of mosquito reduction or effective control.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

L. G. Eddey (1944). Trans. R. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg., 38, p. 167.

J. B. Gahan , B. V. Travis & A. W. Lindquist (1945). J. econ. Ent., 38, p. 236.

F. L. Knowles & C. S. Smith (1945). Publ. Hlth Rep., 60, p. 1274.

R. L. Metcalf , A. D. Hess , G. E. Smith , G. M. Jeffery & G. W. Ludwig (1945). Publ. Hlth Rep., 60, p. 753.

C. R. Ribbands (1946). Bull. ent. Res., 37, p. 163.

S. W. Simmons (1945). Publ. Hlth Rep., 60 p. 917.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bulletin of Entomological Research
  • ISSN: 0007-4853
  • EISSN: 1475-2670
  • URL: /core/journals/bulletin-of-entomological-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *