Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 18
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Obembe, Abiodun Anyaele, Okorie Okogbue and Oduola, Adedayo Olatunbosun 2014. Lessons from the implementation of LLIN distribution campaign in Ilorin Kwara State, Nigeria. BMC Public Health, Vol. 14, Issue. 1,


    Oduola, A.O. ., O.A. Otubanjo ., J.B. Olojede ., I.O. Oyewol and ., T.S. Awolola 2012. Malaria Transmission Risk Indices of Three Anopheles Species in Selected Rural Communities in Oyo State South-Western Nigeria. International Journal of Tropical Medicine, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, p. 42.


    Fornadel, Christen M. Norris, Laura C. Franco, Veronica and Norris, Douglas E. 2011. Unexpected Anthropophily in the Potential Secondary Malaria VectorsAnopheles coustanis.l. andAnopheles squamosusin Macha, Zambia. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 11, Issue. 8, p. 1173.


    Awolola, T. S. Okwa, O. Hunt, R. H. Ogunrinade, A. F. and Coetzee, M. 2002. Dynamics of the malaria-vector populations in coastal Lagos, south–western Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, Vol. 96, Issue. 1, p. 75.


    LINDSAY, S. W. SCHELLENBERG, J. R. M. ARMSTRONG ZEILER, H. A. DALY, R. J. SALUM, F. M. and WILKINS, H. A. 1995. Exposure of Gambian children to Anopheles gambiae malaria vectors in an irrigated rice production area. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Vol. 9, Issue. 1, p. 50.


    Aniedu, I. 1993. Biting activity and resting habits of malaria vectors in baringo district, kenya. Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz, Vol. 66, Issue. 4, p. 72.


    Igbinosa, I. B. 1989. Investigations on the breeding site preferences of mosquitoes in Ekpoma, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Entomology, Vol. 107, Issue. 1-5, p. 325.


    LINDSAY, S. W. SHENTON, F. C. SNOW, R. W. and GREENWOOD, B. M. 1989. Responses of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes to the use of untreated bednets in The Gambia. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Vol. 3, Issue. 3, p. 253.


    Mukiama, T.K. and Mwangi, R.W. 1989. Seasonal population changes and malaria transmission potential of Anopheles pharoensis and the minor anophelines in Mwea Irrigation Scheme, Kenya. Acta Tropica, Vol. 46, Issue. 3, p. 181.


    McCrae, A. W. R. Boreham, P. F. L. and Ssenkubuge, Y. 1976. The behavioural ecology of host selection in Anopheles implexus (Theobald) (Diptera, Culicidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, Vol. 66, Issue. 04, p. 587.


    Haddow, A. J. and Ssenkubuge, Y. 1974. The mosquitoes of Bwamba County, Uganda. X. Observations on the biting behaviour of Anopheles spp. other than A. gambiae Giles, with notes on the behaviour of these species in the Entebbe area. Bulletin of Entomological Research, Vol. 64, Issue. 01, p. 45.


    Gratz, Norman G. and Peters, R.F. 1973. Mosquito‐borne disease problems In reply to: The urbanization of tropical countries. C R C Critical Reviews in Environmental Control, Vol. 3, Issue. 1-4, p. 455.


    White, G. B. and Rosen, P. 1973. Comparative studies on sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex (Dipt., Culicidae). II. Ecology of species A and B in savanna around Kaduna, Nigeria, during transition from wet to dry season. Bulletin of Entomological Research, Vol. 62, Issue. 04, p. 613.


    Ogunba, E. O. 1971. Observations onCulex pipiens fatigansin Ibadan, western Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, Vol. 65, Issue. 3, p. 399.


    Service, M. W. 1970. Identification of theAnopheles gambiaecomplex in Nigeria by larval and adult chromosomes. Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, Vol. 64, Issue. 2, p. 131.


    Service, M.W. 1965. Some basic entomological factors concerned with the transmission and control of malaria in Northern Nigeria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 59, Issue. 3, p. 291.


    Gillies, M. T. and Furlong, M. 1964. An investigation into the behaviour of Anopheles parensis Gillies at Malindi on the Kenya coast. Bulletin of Entomological Research, Vol. 55, Issue. 01, p. 1.


    Service, M. W. 1963. The ecology of the mosquitos of the Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria. Bulletin of Entomological Research, Vol. 54, Issue. 03, p. 601.


    ×

The mosquitos of Zaria Province, Northern Nigeria

Abstract

A general survey of the species of Anopheles in Zaria Province, Northern Nigeria, carried out between June 1957 and December 1958, was designed primarily to ascertain the bionomics of actual and potential vectors of malaria there. The studies, which were centred upon the four principal domestic Anophelines, A. gambiae Giles, A. funestus Giles, A. nili (Theo.) and A. wellcomei Theo., were carried out by making regular floor-sheet collections and entranceand exit-trap catches in native huts, together with biting catches inside and outside huts. Data on other Anophelines and Culicines, taken at the same time, were also recorded.

The studies show that in this region, where malaria is holoendemic, all four species are endophagous to a greater or lesser extent although both A. gambiae and A. nili prefer to feed outside if a host is available. Only two species have been incriminated as vectors, A. gambiae, which had a sporozoite rate of between 4 and 7 per cent., and A. funestus with between 3 and 8 per cent., according to the season.

Collections by floor-sheets and by catches at human bait showed that A. gambiae, A funestus and A. nili were predominantly wet-season species, although in one village area studied A. funestus also occurred in fairly high numbers throughout the dry season. A. wellcomei, on the other hand, was shown to be a predominantly dry-season species.

By using traps and making collections with human bait, the entrance, exit and biting times of A. gambiae, A. funestus and A. nili were ascertained. The largest numbers of A. gambiae and A. funestus entered huts between 9.0 and 11.0 p.m. and left between 3.0 and 5.0 a.m., the maximum biting activity for A. gambiae being between midnight and 5.0 a.m., and for A. funestus between 11.0 p.m. and dawn. A. nili differed considerably from the other two species, having two peaks of maximum entry, between 9.0 and 11.0 p.m. and 1.0 and 3.0 a.m., the period of maximum exodus being between 1.0 and 5.0 a.m., with a peak of biting activity between 10.0 p.m. and 1.0 a.m. It was found that a very high proportion of the mosquitos caught leaving the huts was unfed; between 1.0 and 5.0 a.m., 64 per cent, of A. gambiae leaving, 63 per cent, of A. funestus and 30 per cent, of A. nili were unfed.

Apart from the four domestic species of Anopheles mentioned above, the only other anthropophilous species which could be described as common in the vicinity of Kaduna were A. coustani Lav., A. theileri Edw., A. flavicosta Edw. and A. rufipes (Gough). A. implexus (Theo.) is recorded from Nigeria for the first time.

The commonest species of Culicines taken at human bait during outside night collections were Mansonia africana (Theo.), M. uniformis (Theo.), M. cristata (Theo.), Aëdes lineatopennis (Ludl.) and Culex poicilipes (Theo.). Of these, M. uniformis was by far the most regular and persistent biter throughout the year. M. africana, on the other hand, was only taken in any numbers during October.

In an appendix, a list of 17 species of Anopheles (including 3 varieties), 65 of the CUlicinae and two of the TOxorhynchitinae known to occur in Zaria Province is given, with notes on their distribution and bionomics.

Copyright
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

P. F. Mattingly (1944). New keys to the West African Anophelini.—Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 38 pp. 189200.

P. F. Mattingly (1947). Notes on the early stages of certain Ethiopian mosquitoes, with some locality records from British West Africa.—Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 41 pp. 239252.

R. H. Wharton (1951). The habits of adult mosquitoes in Malaya. I–II.—Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 45 pp. 141160.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bulletin of Entomological Research
  • ISSN: 0007-4853
  • EISSN: 1475-2670
  • URL: /core/journals/bulletin-of-entomological-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×