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St. Euthymius The Georgian And The Barlaam And Ioasaph Romance

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 December 2009


IN the literary world of medieval Christendom, few works rival the popularity of the edifying tale of Barlaam and Ioasaph. As is well known, the work purports to relate the conversion of the Indians by the Christian sage and ascetic Barlaam. In reality, it is a Christianized version of episodes from the life of Buddha. In its Western form, it consists of a set of apologues or fables woven into a narrative framework, and interspersed with quotations from the Scriptures and from the Greek Fathers. All versions in European languages derive from the Greek Barlaam, which became well-known from the 11th century onwards.

Copyright © School of Oriental and African Studies 1955

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page 306 note 1 Damascene, St. John, Barlaam and Ioasaph, ed. and trans. Woodward, G. R. and Mattingly, H., London (Loeb Classical Library), 1914, p. 3.Google Scholar

page 306 note 2 Zotenberg, H., Notice sur le livre de Barlaam et Joasaph, Paris, 1886 (Notices et extraits des mss. de la Bibliothëque Nationale, xxviii).Google Scholar

page 306 note 3 Bibliography in,Wolff, R. L., ‘Barlaam and Ioasaph’, Harvard Theological Review, 1939, p. 136; Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur (2nd suppl. series), i, 1943, p. 153; Baralâm and Yewâsef, Ethiopic Text edit, with translation by Sir E. A. Wallis Budge, Cambridge, 1923.Google Scholar

page 307 note 1 See Zapiski Vostochnogo Otdeleniya Imp. Russkogo Arkheologicheskogo Obshchestva, Petersburg, St., for the years 1887, 1888, and 1897–8;Google Scholar also Khakhanov, A., Balhvar i Iodasaf: gruzinsky tekst po nikopisyam XI-XII vv., Moscow, 1902.Google Scholar

page 307 note 2 Peeters, P., ‘ Histoires monastiques géorgiennes ’, in Analecta Bollandiana, 1923, p. 15;Google Scholar Georgian original text in S.Qubaneishvili, Dzveli k'art'uli literaturis k'restomat'ia, Tiflis, 1946, p. 178.

page 307 note 3 Wolff, in Harvard Theol. Rev., p. 133; Peeters, P., ‘La première traduction latine de “ Barlaam et Joasaph ” et son original grec ’, Analecta Bollandiana, 1931, pp. 282–3.Google Scholar On St.Euthymius's connexion with the Laura of St. Athanasius, seeKarst, J., Litérature géorgienne chrétienne, Paris, 1934, p. 25.Google Scholar

page 308 note 1 Naples MS., fol. 501r, col. 2501v, col. 1. This extract trans, from the text printed by Wolff, ‘Barlaam and Ioasaph ’, p. 137.

page 308 note 2 cf.Latyshev, Jzvestiya drevnilch pisateley o Skifii i o Kavkaze, passim; Thomson, J. O., History of Ancient Geography, Cambridge, 1948, p. 126.Google Scholar

page 309 note 1 Dölger, F., Der griechische Barlaam-Roman ein Werk des H. Johannes von Damaskos, Ettal, 1953 (Stvdia Patristica et Byzantina, Heft i).Google Scholar

page 309 note 2 See also Dölger, F., ‘ Die Johannes-Damaskenos-Ausgabe des Byzantinisehen Instituts Scheyern’, Byzantion, 1950, p. 310.Google Scholar

page 310 note 1 Analecta Bollandiana,,1953, p. 477. cf. Dölger, p. 20.Google Scholar

page 312 note 1 Dölger pp. 23–4.Google Scholar

page 312 note 2 cf. M.Tarchnišvili (T'arklinishvili), ‘ Die Anfänge der schriftstellerischen Tätigkeit des hi. Euthymius und der Aufstand von Bardas Skleros ’, in Oriens Christianus, 1954, p. 119.Google Scholar

page 313 note 1 Zapishi Vostochnogo Otdeleniya, II, 1887, 166–174.

page 313 note 2 JRAS New Series, XXii, 1890, 119–155. cf. Peeters, ‘La première traduetion latine’, pp. 304–7.

page 314 note 1 Peeters, ‘ Histoires monastiques géorgiennes ‘, pp. 34–6.

page 314 note 2 Kekelidze, K., ‘Foreign authors in Ancient Georgian Literature ’, in the Bulletin de I'Université de Tifiis, viii, 1927 (in Georgian); translated and edited by G. P'eradze, ‘Die alt-christliehe Literatur in der georgischen Überlieferung’, in Oriens Christianus, 1929–1933; also R. P. Blake, ‘ Catalogue des manuscrits georgiens de la bibliotheque de la Laure d''viron au Mont Athos ’, Revue de l'Orient Chrétien, 1932–4.Google Scholar

page 315 note 1 Kekelidze, K., K'art'uli litemturis istoria, 2nd edit., torn. I, Tiflis, 1941, 170–88;Google Scholar K.Kekelidze and A.BaramidzeK'art'uli literaturis istoriae, torn, i (v-xvm ss.), Tiflis, 1954 p. 124; Karst, Littérature géorgienne chrétienne, pp. 27–8.

page 315 note 2 Peeters, ‘Histoires monastiques géorgiennes ’, p. 15. cf. Theodori Abu jKurra de cultu imaginum libdlus, ed. Arendzen, Bonn, 1897; Les osuvres arabes de Theodore Aboucara, ed. P., Constantin Bacha, Beirut, 1904; G. Graf, Geschichte der christlichen arabischen Literatur, ii, 7–21.Google Scholar

page 316 note 1 cf. P'eradze, ‘ Die alt-christliche Literatur ’, pp. 192–4; Graf, Geschichte der chr. arab. Lit., ii, 20–1.

page 316 note 2 Zapiski Vostochnogo Otdeleniya, xiii, 1901, p. 15.

page 316 note 3 The alleged ‘Widerspruche und Ungereimtheiten ’ in the Vita of Euthymius are a figment of Adontz's imagination, arising from imperfect command of Georgian and Byzantine sources (cf. Oriens Christianus,, 1954, pp. 114–15).

page 317 note 1 Anakcta Bollandiana, 1923, pp. 33, 40, 58–60.

page 317 note 2 Blake, Athos cat., No. 10, memorial printed and trans, in ROC, 1932, pp. 51–5.

page 318 note 1 Rendel Harris, J. and Armitage Robinson, J., The Apology of Aristides, Cambridge, 1891 (Texts and Studies, No. 1); Constantino Vona, L'Apologia di Aristide, Rome, 1950.Google Scholar

page 318 note 2 P'eradze, G., ‘ Georgian Monks and Monasteries in Palestine ’, in Georgica, Nos. 4–5, 1937, p. 233.Google Scholar

page 318 note 3 In addition to the detailed catalogues of Tsagareli and Marr, see Clark, Kenneth W., Checklist of Manuscripts in St. Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai, Washington, 1952. Professor G. Garitte, of the University of Louvain, is preparing a new catalogue of the Georgian manuscripts on Mt. Sinai.Google Scholar

page 318 note 4 Peeters, in Analecta Bollandiana, 1931, pp. 292–6.Google Scholar

page 319 note 1 Analecta Bollandiana, 1953, p. 479

page 319 note 2 Analecta Bollandiana, 1951, p. 476; cf. the preface to Father Delehaye's ed. of the Constantinople synaxarium, col. lv-lvi.

page 319 note 3 Henning, W. B., ‘ Sogdian Tales’, in BSOAS, xi, 3, 1945, p. 487. But cf. Peeters, ‘ La première version latine ’, pp. 290–1.Google Scholar

page 320 note 1 See Byzantion, 1950., p. 310; Der griechische Barlaam-Roman, pp. 36–Hoeck, J. M. ‘ Stand und Aufgaben der Damaskenos-Forschung ’, in Orientalia Christiana Periodica, 1951, pp. 33–4.Google Scholar

page 320 note 2 Kekelidze, K., in Khristianslcy Vostok, iii, 1914, pp. 124,167–8. Ephrem Mtsire was a member of the Georgian community on the Black Mountain near AntiochGoogle Scholar

page 320 note 3 Graf, Geschichte der chr. arab. Lit., ii, 69.

page 320 note 4 Orientalia Christiana Periodica, 1951, p. 10. m

page 320 note 5 Graf, Geschichte der chr. arab. Lit., ii, 69.

page 321 note 1 Loeb ed., p. 622.

page 321 note 2 Analecta Bollandiana, 1953, p. 478.

page 321 note 3 Zapiski Vostochnogo Otdeleniya, II, 1887, 168–172. cf. Peeters, ‘La première traduction latine’, p. 302.

page 322 note 1 Compiled from Kekelidze/P'eradze, in Oriens Christianas, 1929–1933;Google Scholar see also Kekelidze, K.‘ Tvoreniya Ioanna D. na gruzinskom yazyke’, in Khristiansky Vostok, iii, 1914.Google ScholarThe classification of the titles follows that of Father J. M.Hoeck, as given in his important article in Orientalia Christiana Periodica, 1951, pp. 18–53.

page 323 note 1 Shanidze, A., in Bulletin de l'Université de Tiflis, VII, 1927 (in Georgian); Checklist of Manuscripts in St. Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai, p. 20, No.32Google Scholar

page 323 note 2 Ok'ropiri, Ioane, Ok'ros dsqaro, ed. V., Karbelashvili, Tiflis, 1905Google Scholar

page 323 note 3 P'eradze, ‘ Die alt-christliche Literatur in der georgischen Oberlieferung ’, pp. 90–1.

page 323 note 4 P'eradze, ‘ Die alt-christliche Literatur ’, p. 86.

page 324 note 1 ibid., pp. 181–2.

page 324 note 2 Emeseli, Nemesios, Bunebisa-tvis katsisa, ed. S., Gorgadze, Tiflis, 1914Google Scholar

page 324 note 3 Blake, in ROC, 1932, p. 3.

page 325 note 1 See the analysis of this colophon by M. T'arkhnishvili, in Oriens Christianus, 1954, pp. 121–2.