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The Anglo-Ethiopian treaty of 19021

  • Edwakd Ullendorff


The Anglo-Ethiopian Treaty of 1902 was designed to determine the frontier between the Sudan and Ethiopia. In an annex to this treaty the British, Italian, and Ethiopian Governments embodied a number of agreed modifications to the frontier between the Sudan and Eritrea (Italy's colonia primogenita) as well as to that between Ethiopia and Eritrea. While the latter survived until the Italo-Ethiopian war of 1935–6 (and was re-established, in substance, by the British Military Administration in 1941 subsisting until the Ethiopian-Eritrean federation in 1952), the Sudan-Ethiopian frontier has remained substantially unchanged to the present day. The treaty was the culmination of protracted negotiations between the Emperor Menelik and the British Agent in Ethiopia, Lt.-Col. J. L. Harrington.



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2 Marcus, H. G., ‘Ethio-British negotiations concerning the western border with Sudan, 1896–1902’, Journal of African History, IV, 1, 1963, 8194.

3 For the treaty of friendship and commerce, negotiated by the Rodd mission to the Emperor Menelik in 1897 and intended to regulate the eastern frontiers of Ethiopia and to prevent the passage of arms to the Mandists, see my article in Rassegna di Studi Etiopici for 1966 (forthcoming).

1 FO 93/2/4/5. This unpublished Crown-copyright material in the Public Record Office has been reproduced by kind permission of the Controller of H.M. Stationery Office.

The Anglo-Ethiopian treaty of 19021

  • Edwakd Ullendorff


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