1 Lazear, Edward, “Economic Imperialism,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 116, no. 1 (Feb. 2000): 99–146; Fischer, Irving, “Statistics in the Service of Economics,” Journal of the American Statistical Association 28, no. 181 (Mar. 1933): 1–13; McCloskey, Deirdre N., The Rhetoric of Economics (Madison, Wisc., 1985).
2 Ford, Henry, with Crowther, Samuel, My Life and Work (Garden City, N.Y., 1922), 43–44; McLuhan, Marshall, The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (Toronto, 1962); Derrida, Jacques, De la Grammatologie (Paris, 1967).
3 Lamoreaux, Naomi R., Raff, Daniel M. G., and Temin, Peter, “Economic Theory and Business History,” in The Oxford Handbook of Business History, ed. Jones, Geoffrey and Zeitlin, Jonathan (Oxford, 2007), ch. 3; Chandler, Alfred D. Jr., Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the Industrial Enterprise (Cambridge, Mass., 1962); Wilkins, Mira, The Emergence of Multinational Enterprise (Cambridge, Mass. 1970); Hertner, Peter and Jones, Geoffrey, Multinationals: Theory and History (Aldershot, U.K., 1986); Jones, Geoffrey, Multinationals and Global Capitalism: From the Nineteenth to the Twenty-First Century (Oxford, 2005); and many others.
4 Popper, Carl, Logik der Forschung (Vienna, 1934).
5 Wilson, Edward O., Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (New York, 1998), 47.
6 Kuhn, Thomas, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago, 1962).
7 Malthus, Thomas, An Essay on the Principle of Population (London, 1798), 4.
8 Edgeworth, Francis, Mathematical Psychics: An Essay on the Application of Mathematics to the Moral Sciences (London, 1881), 77, 79.
9 Galbraith, John Kenneth, The New Industrial State (London, 1967), 36.
10 Levy, David and Peart, Sandra, “Soviet Growth and American Textbooks,” Economics Department, George Mason University working paper, 2009.
11 Krugman, Paul, The Conscience of a Liberal (New York, 2007); Sachs, Jeffrey, The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time (New York, 2005); Stiglitz, Joseph, Making Globalization Work (New York, 2006).
12 Rajan, Raghuram and Zingales, Luigi, Saving Capitalism from the Capitalists (Princeton, 2004); Feldstein, Martin, “Rethinking the Role of Fiscal Policy,” American Economic Review 99, no. 2 (2009): 556–59; James Buchanan, “Public Choice: The Origins and Development of a Research Program,” Center for the Study of Public Choice at George Mason University, 2003.
13 Kuhn, Thomas, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago, 1962).
14 Black, Fischer, “The Trouble with Econometric Models,” Financial Analysts Journal 38, no. 2 (1982): 29–37.
15 Diamond, Jared and Robinson, James A., eds., Natural Experiments of History (Cambridge Mass., 2010).
16 Godley, Andrew, Jewish Immigrant Entrepreneurship in New York and London, 1880–1914: Enterprise and Culture (New York, 2001).
17 Henry, Peter and Miller, Conrad, “Institutions versus Policies: A Tale of Two Islands,” American Economic Review 99, no. 2 (2009): 261–67.
18 King, Robert, and Levine, Ross, “Finance and Growth: Schumpeter Might Be Right,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 108, no. 3 (1993): 717–37.
19 Camerer, Colin, Behavioral Game Theory: Experiments in Strategic Interaction (Princeton, 2010); Deaton, Angus, “Instruments, Randomization, and Learning about Development,” Journal of Economic Literature 48 (June 2010): 424–55.
20 Diamond and Robinson, eds., Natural Experiments of History.
21 Tobin, James, “Money and Income: Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc?” Quarterly Journal of Economics 84, no. 2 (1970): 301–17.
22 Banerjee, Abhijit and Iver, Lakshmi, “Colonial Land Tenure, Electoral Competition and Public Goods in India,” in Natural Experiments of History, ed. Diamond, Jared and Robinson, James A. (Cambridge, Mass., 2010), ch. 6.
23 Stock, James and Watson, Mark, Introduction to Econometrics, 2nd ed. (Boston, 2007).
24 Weimer, David, “Collective Delusion in the Social Sciences: Publishing Incentives for Empirical Abuse,” Review of Policy Research 5, no. 4 (1986): 705–8.
25 Acemoglu, Daron, Johnson, Simon, and Robinson, James, “The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation,” American Economic Review 91, no. 5 (2001): 1369–401.
26 David Albouy, “The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Investigation of the Settler Mortality Data,” National Bureau of Economic Research working paper no. 14130, 2008; Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson, and James Robinson, “A Response to Albouy's ‘A Reexamination Based on Improved Settler Mortality Data,’ ” mimeo (Mar. 2005); Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson, and James Robinson, “Reply to the Revised (May 2006) version of David Albouy's ‘The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Investigation of the Settler Mortality Data’ ” (2006).
27 Hardin, Garrett, “The Tragedy of the Commons,” Science 162, no. 3859 (1968): 1243–48.
28 Logarithmic utility assumes a subject's utility (hedonic pleasure) from consuming C to be a function of the form U = a log(C), while constant elasticity of substitution utility assumes U = C 1–a/(1 – a). The two are equivalent if a is 1, but not otherwise. Economic theorists often choose a functional form to make the algebra easier; however, results based on one form often do not follow if another is used instead.
29 Campbell, John, Lo, Andrew, and MacKinlay, A. Craig, The Econometrics of Financial Markets (Princeton, 1997), ch. 4.
30 Nelson, C. R., “The Prediction Performance of the F.R.B.-M.I.T.-Penn. Model of the U.S. Economy,” American Economic Review 62 (1972): 902–17; Roll, Richard, “R-Squared,” Journal of Finance 43, no. 3 (1988): 541–66; Diebold, Francis, “The Past, Present and Future of Macroeconomic Forecasting,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 12, no. 2 (1998): 175–92; Ricardo Caballero, “Macroeconomics after the Crisis: Time to Deal with the Pretence-of-Knowledge Syndrome,” MIT Department of Economics Working Paper No. 10-16, 2010; and others.
31 Granger, Clive, “Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-spectral Methods,” Econometrica 37 (1969): 424–38; Wiener, Norbert, “The Theory of Prediction,” in Modern Mathematics for Engineers I, ed. Beckenbach, E. F. (New York, 1956).
32 Muth, John, “Rational Expectations and the Theory of Price Movements,” Econometrica 29 (1961): 315–35.
33 Summers, Lawrence and Stambaugh, Robert, “Does the Stock Market Rationally Reflect Fundamental Values?” Journal of Finance 41, no. 3 (1986): 591–603.
34 Jones, Geoffrey and Khanna, Tarun, “Bringing History (Back) into International Business,” Journal of International Business Studies 37 (2006): 453–68.
35 Fohlin, Caroline, “The History of Corporate Ownership and Control in Germany,” in A History of Corporate Governance around the World: Family Business Groups to Professional Managers, ed. Morck, Randall K. (Chicago, 2005), 223–77; Morck, Randall K. and Nakamura, Masao, “Business Groups and the Big Push: Meiji Japan's Mass Privatization and Subsequent Growth,” Enterprise and Society 8, no. 3 (2007): 543–601.
36 Michie, Ranald, The Global Securities Market: A History (Oxford, 2008).
37 See Rajan, Raghuram and Zingales, Luigi, “The Great Reversals: The Politics of Financial Development in the Twentieth Century,” Journal of Financial Economics 69, no. 1 (2003): 5–50.Even communist China has established stock markets. Their contribution toward that country's further development remains to be seen.
38 Haber, Stephen H., “Politics Banking, and Economic Development: Evidence from New World Economies,” in Natural Experiments of History, ed. Diamond, Jared and Robinson, James A. (Cambridge Mass., 2010), ch. 3.
39 Jones, and Khanna, , “Bringing History (Back) into International Business,” 453–68; Morck, Randall K. and Yeung, Bernard, “History in Perspective: Comment on Jones and Khanna, ‘Bringing History (Back) into International Business,’” Journal of International Business Studies 38 (2007): 357–60.
40 Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.
41 Quoted in Wilson, Consilience: the Unity of Knowledge, 52.
42 Kragh, Helge, Quantum Generations: A History of Physics in the Twentieth Century (Princeton, 2002).
43 Larson, Edward, Evolution: The Remarkable History of a Scientific Theory (New York, 2004).
44 Wilkins, The Emergence of Multinational Enterprise; Hertner and Jones, Multinationals; Jones, Multinationals and Global Capitalism; and others.
45 Scranton, Philip, Endless Novelty: Specialty Production and American Industrialization, 1865–1925 (Princeton, 1997).
46 Morck, Randall, ed., A History of Corporate Governance around the World: Family Business Groups to Professional Managers (Chicago, 2005).
47 Tolliday, Steven and Zeitlin, Jonathan, eds., The Automobile Industry and Its Workers: Between Fordism and Flexibility—Comparative Analysis of Developments in Europe, Asia, and the United States from the Late Nineteenth Century to the Mid-1980s (New York, 1987).
48 Engerman, Stanley and Fogel, Robert, Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery (Boston, 1974).
49 Fogel, Robert, The Slavery Debates, 1952–1990: A Retrospective (Baton Rouge, 2003); Gutman, Herbert, Slavery and the Numbers Game: A Critique of Time on the Cross (Champaign, Ill., 2003).
50 Kindleberger, Charles, Manias, Panics and Crashes (New York, 1978).
51 Lal, Deepak, The Poverty of “Development Economics” (Cambridge, Mass., 1985).
52 Haber, Stephen H., How Latin America Fell Behind: Essays on the Economic Histories of Brazil and Mexico, 1800–1914 (Stanford, 1997).
53 Haber, Stephen, North, Douglass, and Weingast, Barry, Political Institutions and Financial Development (Stanford, 2008); North, Douglass, Wallis, John, and Weingast, Barry, Violence and Social Orders (Cambridge, U.K., 2009).
54 Laplace, Pierre-Simon, Essai philosophique sur les probabilités (1814), transl. by Truscott, Frederick and Emory, Frederick, A Philosophical Essay on Probabilities (Dover, U.K., 1951).
55 Mirowski, Philip, More Heat than Light: Economics as Social Physics, Physics as Nature's Economics (Cambridge, U.K., 1991).
56 Casson, Mark, Yeung, Bernard, Basu, Anuradha, and Wadeson, Nigel, eds., Oxford Handbook of Entrepreneurship (Oxford, 2006); Casson, Mark, “Entrepreneurship,” in The Fortune Encyclopedia of Economics, ed. Henderson, D. R. (New York, 1993).
57 Cox, Richard and Wallace, David, eds., Archives and the Public Good: Accountability and Records in Modern Society (Westport, Conn., 2002).
58 Tufte, Edward, The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint (Cheshire, Conn., 2003).
59 Lakatos, Imre, Proofs and Refutations (Cambridge, U.K., 1976).
60 Feyerabend, Paul, Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge (London, 1975); Jones and Khanna, “Bringing History (Back) into International Business,” 453–68.
61 Smith, Adam, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (London, 1776).
62 Lazear, “Economic Imperialism,” 99–146; Lamoreaux, Raff, and Temin, “Economic Theory and Business History,” in The Oxford Handbook of Business History, ed. Jones and Zeitlin, ch. 3.