Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Occupying and transcending a provincial see: the career of Euthymios Malakes

  • Hannah Ewing (a1)
Abstract

Despite a distinguished reputation as an orator and bishop in his own time, comparatively little scholarship focuses upon Euthymios Malakes, metropolitan of Neopatras during the later twelfth century. Using his extant works and contemporary sources, this article reconstructs elements of Malakes’ career in both Constantinople and Hellas. He was active in each, balancing his intellectual credentials, participation in synods, and elite connections to the capital, with immersion in more local contests. This combination allowed him to expand his pursuits and reputation beyond his minor see, in the capital and also in the province of his see.

Copyright
References
Hide All

1 Angold, M., The Byzantine Empire, 1025–1204: a political history, 2nd edn (London 1997) 260–93, 311–16; Angold, , Church and Society in Byzantium under the Comneni, 1081–1261 (Cambridge 1995) 139262 .

2 Harvey, A., Economic expansion in the Byzantine Empire, 900–1200 (Cambridge 1989) 120–97.

3 Kaldellis, A., Hellenism in Byzantium: the transformations of Greek identity and the reception of the classical tradition (Cambridge 2007) 225316 .

4 Kazhdan, A. and Epstein, A. Wharton, Change in Byzantine Culture in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries (Berkeley 1985); Kazhdan, and Franklin, S., Studies on Byzantine literature of the eleventh and twelfth centuries (Cambridge 1984) 115–95.

5 Magdalino, The empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143-1180 (Cambridge 1993).

6 E.g., Thallon, I. C., A medieval humanist: Michael Akominatos (New Haven 1923); Stadtmüller, G., Michael Choniate: Metropolit von Athen (ca. 1138-ca. 1222) (Rome 1934); Hussey, J., Church and Learning in the Byzantine Empire, 867–1185 (London 1937) 103–16; Angold, Church and Society, 197–212; A. Kaldellis, Hellenism in Byzantium, 217–33; Shawcross, T., ‘Golden Athens: episcopal wealth and power in Greece at the time of the crusades’, in Chrissis, N. (ed.) Contact and Conflict in Frankish Greece and the Aegean, 1204–1453 (Aldershot 2014) 6595 .

7 Angold, Church and Society, 158–262. He profiles Theophylact of Ohrid, Michael Italikos, George Tornikes, Eustathios of Thessalonike, Michael Choniates, John Apokaukos, George Bardanes, and Demetrius Chomatenos.

8 Angold, Church and Society, 252–6.

9 E.g., Magdalino, Empire of Manuel I, 465-9 (Manuel), 454-8 (rhetoric); Stone, A., ‘Dorylaion revisited: Manuel I Komnenos and the refortification of Dorylaion and Soublaion in 1175’, Revue des études byzantines 61 (2003) 183–99, Kazhdan and Epstein, Change in Byzantine Culture, 171, 257 (Turks).

10 Angold, Church and Society, 193-5; Kazhdan and Franklin, Studies on Byzantine Literature, 115, 121, 138, 140-1; Kaldellis, Hellenism in Byzantium, 315.

11 Angold, Church and Society, 201-3; Stadtmüller, Michael Choniates, 161-4.

12 Stadtmüller, Michael Choniates, 306-12.

13 Malakes, Euthymios, Εὐθυμίου τοῦ Μαλάκη μητροπολίτου Νέων Πατρῶν (Ὑπάτης): τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, K., 2 vols. (Athens 1937, 1949).

14 Bonis, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, I, 7-23.

15 Bonis, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, II, 55-91.

16 Darrouzès, J., ‘Notes sur Euthyme Tornikès, Euthyme Malakès et Georges Tornikès’, Revue des études byzantines 23 (1965) 148-67; Darrouzès, ‘Les discours d'Euthyme Tornikès (1200-1205)’, Revue des études byzantines 26 (1968) 73-75.

17 Sakkos, S., ‘Ο Πατήρ μου μείζων μου εστίν’: έριδες και σύνοδοι κατά τον ιβ' αιώνα (Thessalonike 1968) 32, 63-4, 69, 73-4.

18 Angold, Church and Society, 201-3.

19 Stone, A., ‘Euthymios Malakes in theatron’, Byzantina 30 (2010) 5566 and continuing work.

20 Herrin, J., Margins and Metropolis: authority across the Byzantine Empire (Princeton 2013) 5974, 88-91.

21 For parallels, Angold, Church and Society, 156-262; Magdalino, Empire of Manuel I, 177, 316-412.

22 Shawcross, ‘Golden Athens’, 68-93.

23 Choniates, Michael, Michaelis Choniatae epistulae, ed. Kolovou, F. (Berlin 2001) 31 .

24 For Euripos, Darrouzès, ‘Les discours d'Euthyme Tornikès’, 50; the evidence for the Theban connection is limited, but historians have found it suggestive: Darrouzès, ‘Notes sur Euthyme Tornikès’, 159-60; Angold, Church and society, 201; Magdalino, Empire of Manuel I, 154.

25 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, I, 83. All translations of Malakes’ writings are my own.

26 Stadtmüller, Michael Choniates, 307; Kazhdan and Franklin, Studies on Byzantine literature, 115-21; Browning, R., ‘Eustathios of Thessaloniki revisited’, Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 40 (1995) 84–5.

27 Choniates, Niketas, Historia, ed. van Dieten, J.-L. (Berlin 1975) 331 ; O City of Byzantium! trans. H. Magoulias (Detroit 1984) 183.

28 Malakes, Noctes Petropolitanae, ed. A. K. Papadopoulos-Kerameus (St Petersburg 1913) 162-87. Manuscript tradition attributes the oration to Euthymios Tornikes, Malakes’ nephew and namesake, but Darrouzès makes a compelling argument, based on historical context, internal biographical clues, and rhetorical style, that the author was Malakes himself (‘Notes sur Euthyme Tornikès’, 155-8).

29 Magdalino, Empire of Manuel I, 454-5.

30 Darrouzès, ‘Notes sur Euthyme Tornikès’, 157.

31 Τὰ πρακτικά τῆς ἐν Κωσταντινουπὀλει συνόδου τοῦ 1166, ed. Sakkos in ‘Ο Πατήρ μου’, 146, 152, 164; Choniates, Niketas, Thesaurus orthodoxae fidei, in Migne, Patrologia graeca CXL (Paris 1865) 241C, 252A, 269A.

32 Kinnamos, Ioannes, Ioannis Cinnami epitome rerum ab Ioanne et Alexio Comnenis gestarum, ed. Meineke, A. (Bonn 1836) 254 ; The deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus, trans. C. Brand (New York 1976) 191.

33 Petit, L., ‘Documents inédits sur la Council de 1166 et ses derniers adversaires’, Vizantīĭskīĭ vremennik 11 (1904) 479–93, esp. 488.

34 Malakes, ed. Papadopoulos-Kerameus, 154-62. Also see Darrouzès, ‘Notes sur Euthyme Tornikès’, 158.

35 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, II, 20-46. Also see Magdalino, Empire of Manuel I, 95-8 (historical context), 455-8, 466-8 (rhetorical context).

36 Malakes, ed. Papadopoulos-Kerameus, 142-54; Darrouzès, ‘Notes sur Euthyme Tornikès’, 158-60. More on Kontostephanos below.

37 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, I, 78-83.

38 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, II, 47-54.

39 Magdalino, Empire of Manuel I, 466-8.

40 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, 1:67-70. More on these men below.

41 Niketas Choniates, Historia, ed. van Dieten, 331.

42 Stadtmüller, Michael Choniates, 312; Bonis, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, 22-3; Euthymios Tornikes, ‘Μονωδία εἰς τὸν ὑπέρτιμον Νέων Πατρῶν᾽, ‘Les discours d'Euthyme Tornikès (1200-1205)’, ed. J. Darrouzès, Revue des études byzantines 26 (1968) 76-89.

43 Bonis, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, I, 5-7; Gregory, T., ‘Neopatras’ in Kazhdan, A. (ed.), Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (Oxford 2005).

44 Herrin, Margins and Metropolis, 68, 93 n.13. For comparison, Neopatras ranked below Corinth (27th), Athens (28th), and Naupaktos (35th), though above Thebes (57th).

45 On the manuscripts: Sakkos, ‘‘Ο Πατήρ μου’, 107-14; for a critical edition: Τὰ πρακτικά, ed. Sakkos, 120-80.

46 Classen, P., ‘Das Konzil von Konstantinopel 1166 und die Lateiner’, Byzantinische Zeitschrift 48.2 (1955) 339–68; Sideris, G., ‘ Ces gens ont raison: La controverse christologique de 1165-1166, la question des échanges doctrinaux entre l'Occident latin et Byzance et leur portée politique’, Cahiers de recherches médiévales et humanistes 24 (2012) 174–6, 180-1.

47 Sideris, ‘Ces gens ont raison’, 182-90.

48 Sideris, ‘Ces gens ont raison’, 188-90, which draws on Magdalino's ‘guardians of orthodoxy’ (Empire of Manuel I, 316-412).

49 Magdalino, Empire of Manuel I, 290. The minutes for the 1166 synod (Migne, Patrologia graeca CXL 201B-81B; Τα πρακτικά, ed. Sakkos, 120-80) do not mention Demetrios by name, but they clearly address the spread of his ideas. Also see Kinnamos, ed. Meineke, 251-52; Thetford, G., ‘The christological councils of 1166 and 1170 in Constantinople’, St Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 31 (1987) 143–6.

50 Thetford, ‘The christological councils’, 144; Dondaine, A., ‘Hugues Etherien et le concile de Constantinople de 1166’, Historisches Jahrbuch 77 (1958) 477–83.

51 Niketas Choniates, Historia, ed. van Dieten, 211-3; trans. Magoulias, 120-1. For discussion of Choniates’ hostile historical treatment of the 1166 controversy (in contrast to his milder theological treatment in the Dogmatike Panoplia), see Simpson, A., Niketas Choniates: a historiographical study (Oxford 2013) 42–5.

52 Kinnamos, ed. Meineke, 252-6; trans. Brand, 189-92.

53 Kinnamos, ed. Meineke, 253; trans. Brand, 190-1.

54 Sideris, ‘Ces gens ont raison’, 190; Sakkos, ‘‘Ο Πατήρ μου’, 30-2.

55 Kinnamos, ed. Meineke, 253-4; trans. Brand, 190-1; Angold, Church and Society, 83-5.

56 Kinnamos, ed. Meineke, 254; trans. Brand, 191.

57 Niketas Choniates, Thesaurus orthodoxae fidei, Migne, Patrologia graeca CXL 236A-7B; Τα πρακτικά, ed. Sakkos, 141-3.

58 Sakkos, ‘‘Ο Πατήρ μου’, 60-1, 63-4, 69; for kenosis also see Simpson, Niketas Choniates, 43.

59 Niketas Choniates, Thesaurus orthodoxae fidei, Migne, Patrologia graeca CXL 241C; Τα πρακτικά, ed. Sakkos, 146. Translations of the synod texts are my own.

60 Niketas Choniates, Thesaurus orthodoxae fidei, Migne, Patrologia graeca CXL 241C-9D; Τα πρακτικά, ed. Sakkos, 146-52. See also Petit, ‘Documents inédits’, 468-72.

61 Niketas Choniates, Thesaurus orthodoxae fidei, Migne, Patrologia graeca CXL 252A; Τα πρακτικά, ed. Sakkos, 152.

62 Sakkos, ‘‘Ο Πατήρ μου’, 69.

63 Niketas Choniates, Thesaurus orthodoxae fidei, Migne, Patrologia graeca CXL 251C-61B; Τα πρακτικά, ed. Sakkos, 153-9.

64 Niketas Choniates, Thesaurus orthodoxae fidei, Migne, Patrologia graeca CXL 255A, 260B; Τα πρακτικά, ed. Sakkos, 155, 158.

65 Petit, ‘Documents inédits’, 469; Mango, C., ‘The conciliar edict of 1166’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 17 (1963) 320 . For the ecclesiastical decrees, Gouillard, J., ‘Le synodikon de l'Orthodoxie: édition et commentaire’, Travaux et mémoires 2 (1967) 75–7; trans. Thetford, ‘The christological councils’, 157-9.

66 Sakkos, ‘‘Ο Πατήρ μου’, 75; Simpson, Niketas Choniates, 44.

67 Niketas Choniates, Thesaurus orthodoxae fidei, Migne, Patrologia graeca CXL 269A; Τὰ πρακτικά, ed. Sakkos, 164; Grumel, V., Les Regestes des actes du patriarcat de Constantinople (Paris 1947) N. 1064.

68 Mango, ‘The conciliar edict of 1166’, 320-30;

69 Niketas Choniates, Thesaurus orthodoxae fidei, Migne, Patrologia graeca CXL 273A; Τα πρακτικά, ed. Sakkos, 173-4.

70 Niketas Choniates, Thesaurus orthodoxae fidei, Migne, Patrologia graeca CXL 269B, 276C, 281B; Τα πρακτικά, ed. Sakkos, 165, 175-6, 178-80; Sakkos, ‘‘Ο Πατήρ μου’, 100-1.

71 Darrouzès, ‘Listes synodales et notitiae’, Revue des études byzantines 28 (1970) 66-7.

72 Angold, ‘Church and Society’, 201. Although, as below, Malakes still remained active in wider provincial matters.

73 Petit, ‘Documents inédits’, 472-3, 477-8.

74 Sakkos, ‘‘Ο Πατήρ μου’, 64, 69, 75.

75 Choniates, Historia, ed. van Dieten, 212; trans. Magoulias, 120-1. See Simpson, Niketas Choniates, 43-4.

76 Magdalino, Empire of Manuel I, 217.

77 Niketas Choniates, Thesaurus orthodoxae fidei, PG CXL 252B; Τὰ πρακτικά, ed. Sakkos, 152.

78 Petit, ‘Documents inédits’, 474-6, 479-93; Sakkos, ‘‘Ο Πατήρ μου’, 84-94; Thetford, ‘The christological councils’, 146-8.

79 Sakkos, ‘‘Ο Πατήρ μου’, 104; Darrouzès, ‘Listes synodales’, 79; Grumel, Les Regestes, N.1112.

80 Darrouzès, ‘Listes synodales’, 75-6.

81 Sakkos, ‘‘Ο Πατήρ μου’, 60-1.

82 His interpretation of John 14.28 had been different than theirs: Sakkos, ‘‘Ο Πατήρ μου’, 60.

83 Niketas Choniates, Historia, ed. van Dieten, 331; trans. Magoulias, 183.

84 However, the date of Kinnamos’ text is unknown, so that it is unclear whether the historian maintained consistently sympathetic views on the ruling.

85 Michael Choniates, ed. Kolovou, 99, 94*.

86 Kolovou, Michaelis Choniatae epistulae, 61*.

87 Michael Choniates, ed. Kolovou, 25.

88 Malakes, ed. Papadopoulos-Kerameus, 162-87 (1161); Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, II, 20-46 (1176).

89 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, II, 46-54, especially 47-9, 53; Magdalino, Empire of Manuel I, 466-8.

90 Magdalino, Empire of Manuel I, 468.

91 Magdalino, Empire of Manuel I, 427-34, at 427.

92 Darrouzès, ‘Listes synodales’, 75-6.

93 Above, and Niketas Choniates, Historia, ed. van Dieten, 331.

94 Darrouzès, ‘Les discours d'Euthyme Tornikès’, 86 n.18.

95 Darrouzès, ‘Les discours d'Euthyme Tornikès’, 76 n.1; Kolovou, Michaelis Choniatae epistulae, 63*.

96 Phidas, V., ‘The ecclesiastical title of “hypertimos and exarch”’, The Greek Orthodox Theological Review 44 (1999) 221–4; Grumel, V., ‘Titulature de métropolites byzantins: II. métropolites hypertimes’, in Mémorial Louis Petit: mélanges d'histoire et d'archéologie byzantines (Bucharest 1948) 160–4.

97 See Mullett, M., ‘The detection of relationship in middle Byzantine literary texts: the case of letters and letter networks’ in Hörandner, W. and Grünbart, M., L’épistolographie et la poésie (Paris 2003) 6672 .

98 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, I, 66-7. For context, Brand, C., Byzantium confronts the West, 1180-1204 (Cambridge 1968) 35–7.

99 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, I, 67.

100 For Kamateros’ relationship to Manuel, Kinnamos, ed. Meineke, 210; trans. Brand, 160. For the Kamateroi, Bucossi, A., Andronici Camateri, sacrum armamentarium, pars prima (Turnhout 2014) xx-iv; Simpson, Niketas Choniates, 26-9; Stadtmüller, G., ‘Zur Geschichte der Familie Kamateros’, Byzantinische Zeitschrift 34.2 (1934) 352–8.

101 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, I, 69-70.

102 Magdalino, Empire of Manuel I, 344-5.

103 Niketas Choniates, Thesaurus orthodoxae fidei, Migne, Patrologia graeca CXL 253C; Τα πρακτικά, ed. Sakkos, 154; Petit, ‘Documents inédits’, 479.

104 A. Bucossi, ‘Dialogue and anthologies of the Sacred Arsenal by Andronikos Kamateros: sources, arrangements, purposes’ in van Deun, P. and Macé, C. (ed.), Encyclopedic trends in Byzantium? (Leuven 2011) 269–84; Bucossi, ‘New historical evidence for the dating of the Sacred Arsenal by Andronikos Kamateros’ Revue des études byzantines 67 (2009) 111-30; Magdalino, Empire of Manuel I, 259-60. The text's critical edition is Bucossi, Andronici Camateri.

105 Bucossi, Andronici Camateri, xxxii.

106 Darrouzès, George et Dèmetrios Tornikès, 57-62.

107 Malakes, ed. Papadopoulos-Kerameus, 142-54, esp. 145-6, 149; Darrouzès, ‘Notes sur Euthyme Tornikès’, 158-60.

108 Malakes, ed. Papadopoulos-Kerameus, 142-5 (Turks throughout; barbarians at 145).

109 Malakes, ed. Papadopoulos-Kerameus, 150-1.

110 Prodromos, Historische Gedichte, ed. W. Hörandner (Vienna 1974) 444-8.

111 Malakes, ed. Papadopoulos-Kerameus, 148, 153.

112 Tornikes, ‘Μονῳδία’, ed. Darrouzès, 79.18-21, 80.5-27.

113 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, I, 67; Niketas Choniates, Thesaurus orthodoxae fidei, PG CXL 253D; Τὰ πρακτικά, ed. Sakkos, 155.

114 Darrouzès, Georges et Dèmètrios Tornikès, 35-9.

115 Gregory, ‘Neopatras’.

116 Angold, Church and Society, 201-3.

117 Malakes, ed. Papadopoulos-Kerameus, 145; Magdalino, Empire of Manuel I, 133.

118 Fine, J., The late medieval Balkans (Ann Arbor 1994) 33–8.

119 Herrin, Margins and Metropolis, 103-10.

120 Angold, Church and Society, 162-3, 191, 195, 204-5; Michael Choniates, ed. Kolovou, 68-70; Shawcross, ‘Golden Athens’, 81-2, 91-3; Herrin, Margins and Metropolis, 75-7.

121 Rhalles, G. A. and Potles, M., Σύνταγμα τῶν θείων καὶ ἱερῶν κανόνων (Athens 1852) III, 145; Angold, Church and Society, 156.

122 Angold, Church and Society, 257-60.

123 Angold, Church and Society, 219-22.

124 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, I, 49.

125 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, I, 50.

126 Herrin, Margins and Metropolis, 75-6.

127 Herrin, Margins and Metropolis, 59-102, esp. 74-7 and 88-9.

128 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, I, 50.

129 Angold, Church and Society, 163, 204-5.

130 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, I, 70.

131 Michael Choniates, ed. Kolovou, 99. On protokentarchoi, Herrin, Margins and Metropolis, 79-80.

132 Michael Choniates, ed. Kolovou, 114.

133 Herrin, Margins and metropolis, 61.

134 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, I, 52-3.

135 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, I, 53.

136 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, I, 54.

137 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, I, 68-9, 75-6; Eustathios of Thessaloniki, Die Briefe des Eustathios von Thessalonike, ed. F. Kolovou (Munich 2006) 122-8, 169*-70*.

138 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, I, 75.

139 Eustathios, ed. Kolovou, 127-8.

140 Kolovou, Die Briefe des Eustathios, 172*.

141 Eustathios, ed. Kolovou, 127-8.

142 Kolovou, Michaelis Choniatae epistulae, 61*; Darrouzès, ‘Les discours d'Euthyme Tornikès’, 50.

143 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, I, 40, 72; Angold, Church and society, 202-3.

144 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, I, 73-4.

145 Michael Choniates, ed. Kolovou, 25-6; however, the letters do not discuss the result of the original conflict.

146 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, I, 41-3, 73.

147 Tornikes, ‘Μονῳδία’, ed. Darrouzès, 78-80, 84-7.

148 Malakes, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, ed. Bonis, I, 70, 80, 82.

149 E.g., Rapp, C., Holy Bishops in Late Antiquity: the nature of Christian leadership in an age of transition (Berkeley 2005) 2355, 178-82.

150 Herrin, Margins and Metropolis, 77-84.

151 Niketas Choniates, Historia, ed. van Dieten, 216-8; trans. Magoulias, 122-3.

152 Hussey, J. M., The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire, 2nd edn (Oxford 2010) 318–23.

153 Kazhdan and Franklin, Studies on Byzantine literature, 133-5.

154 Shawcross, ‘Golden Athens’, 82; Angold, Church and Society, 177, 180.

155 Shawcross, ‘Golden Athens’, 78-85.

156 Shawcross, ‘Golden Athens’, 65-95.

157 Kazhdan and Franklin, Studies on Byzantine Literature, 134-7; Angold, Church and Society, 180-90

158 Angold, Church and Society, 207-12; Niketas Choniates, Historia, ed. van Dieten, 605-6; Shawcross, ‘Golden Athens’, 85-9.

159 For the manuscript history of the surviving works, Bonis, Τὰ σῳζόμενα, 24-35.

*Grateful thanks to the anonymous reviewers, as well as Anthony Kaldellis, David Brakke, Kyle Shimoda, and the audience at the 2013 Byzantine Studies Conference for their various feedback and valuable assistance along the way.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies
  • ISSN: 0307-0131
  • EISSN: 1749-625X
  • URL: /core/journals/byzantine-and-modern-greek-studies
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed