Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Australia's Ancient Warriors: Changing Depictions of Fighting in the Rock Art of Arnhem Land, N.T.

  • Paul Taçon (a1) and Christopher Chippindale (a2)

Depictions of battle scenes, skirmishes and hand-to-hand combat are rare in hunter-gatherer art and when they do occur most often result from contact with agriculturalist or industrialized invaders. In the Arnhem Land region of the Northern Territory of Australia we have been documenting rare depictions of fighting and are able to show that there has been a long tradition of warrior art. At least three phases have been identified and in each of them groups of hunter-gatherers are shown in combat. The oldest are at least 10,000 years old, and constitute the most ancient depictions of fighting from anywhere in the world, while the newest were produced as recently as early this century. Significantly, a pronounced change in the arrangement of figures began with the second, middle phase — beginning perhaps about 6000 years ago. This appears to be associated with increased social complexity and the development of the highly complicated kinship relationships that persist in Arnhem Land today. Evidence from physical anthropological, archaeological and linguistic studies supports the idea of the early development of a highly organized society of the type more commonly associated with agriculturalists or horticulturalists.

Hide All
Allen H. & Barton G., 1990. Ngarradj Warde Djobkeng: White Cockatoo Dreaming and the Prehistory ofKakadu. (Oceania Monographs.) Sydney: University of Sydney.
Bahn P.G., 1989. Hunting for farmers. Nature 340, 268.
Bahn P.G. & Vertut J., 1988. Images of the Ice Age. Leicester: Windward / New York (NY): Facts on File.
Barry P.S., 1991. Mystical Themes in Milk River Rock Art. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press.
Beltran A., 1982. Rock Art of the Spanish Levant. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Beltrán Martinez A., 1968. Arie Rupestre Levantino. Zaragoza: Seminario de Prehistoria y Protohistoria, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Universidad de Zaragoza.
Bielawski E., 1979. Contactual transformation: the Dorset-Thule succession, in Thule Eskimo Culture: An Anthropological Retrospective, ed. McCartney A.P.. (Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper 88.) Ottawa: National Museum of Man, 100–9.
Bird C.F.M. & Frankel D., 1991. Chronology and explanation in western Victoria. Archaeology in Oceania 26, 116.
Brandl E., 1973. Australian Aboriginal Paintings in Western and Central Arnhem Land: Temporal Sequences and Elements of Style in Cadell River and Deaf Adder Creek Art. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
Campbell C. 1986. Images of war: a problem in San rock art research. World Archaeology 18(2), 255–67.
Campbell C. 1987. Art in Crisis: Contact Period Rock Art in the Southeastern Mountains of Southern Africa. Unpublished MSc. thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
Cashdan E., 1983. Territoriality among human foragers: ecological models and an application to four Bushman groups. Current Anthropology 24, 4766.
Chaloupka G., 1977. Aspects of the chronology and schematisation of two prehistoric sites on the Arnhem Land Plateau, in Form in Indigenous Art: Schematization in the Art of Aboriginal Australia and Prehistoric Europe, ed. Ucko P.J.. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, 243–59.
Chaloupka G., 1984a. From Palaeoart to Casual Paintings: The Chronological Sequence of Arnhem Land Plateau Rock Art. (Monograph Series 1.) Darwin: Northern Territory Museum of Arts and Sciences.
Chaloupka G., 1984b. Rock Art of the Arnhem Land Plateau: Paintings of the Dynamic Figure Style. Unpublished report. Darwin: Northern Territory Museum of Arts and Sciences.
Chaloupka G., 1985. Chronological sequence of Arnhem Land Plateau art, in Archaeological Research in Kakadu National Park, ed. Jones R.. (Special Publication 13.) Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, 269–80.
Chaloupka G., 1993a. Journey in Time. Sydney: Reed Books.
Chaloupka G., 1993b. You gotta have style, in Rock Art Studies: The Post-Stylistic Era or Where do We Go from Here?, eds. Lorblanchet M. & Bahn P.G.. (Oxbow Monograph 35.) Oxford: Oxbow Books.
Chaloupka G. & Kapirigi N., 1981. Cultural Survey of Yamitj Gunerrd (Yamitj's Country). Unpublished report to the Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service and N.T. Museums and Art Galleries, Darwin.
Chappell J., 1988. Geomorphic dynamics and evolution of tidal river and floodplain systems in northern Australia, in Floodplain Research. Northern Australia: Progress and Prospects vol. 2, eds. Wade-Marshall D. & Loveday P.. Darwin: Australian National University and North Australia Research Unit, 3457.
Chippindale C. & Taçon P., 1993. Two old painted panels from Kakadu: variation and sequence in Arnhem Land rock art, in Time and Space: Dating and Spatial Considerations in Rock Art Research, eds. Steinbring J., Watchman A., Faulstich P. & Taçon P.. (Occasional AURA Publication No. 8.) Melbourne: Archaeological Publications, 3256.
Conkey M.W., 1978. Style and information in cultural evolution: toward a predictive model for the Paleolithic, in Social Archaeology Beyond Subsistence and Dating, eds. Redman C.L., Berman M.J., Curtin E.V., William J. Langhorne T., Versaggi N.M. & Wanser J.C.. New York (NY): Academic Press, 6185.
Conkey M.W., 1987. New approaches in the search for meaning? A review of research in 'Paleolithic Art'. Journal of Field Archaeology 14, 413–30.
Dams L., 1984. Les Peintures Rupestres du Levant Espagnol. Paris: Picard.
Daniel G., 1975. 150 Years of Archaeology. London: Duckworth.
Davidson I., 1989. Is intensification a condition of the fisher-hunter-gatherer way of life? Archaeology in Oceania 24, 75–8.
Davidson I., 1990. Prehistoric Australian demography, in Hunter-gatherer Demography Past and Present, eds. Meehan B. & White N.. (Oceania Monographs.) Sydney: University of Sydney, 4157.
Davidson I., 1991. Archaeologists and Aborigines. The Australian Journal of Anthropology 2(2), 247–58.
Davidson I. & Noble W., 1989. The archaeology of perception: traces of depiction and language. Current Anthropology 30(2), 125–55.
Delluc B. & Delluc G., 1978. Les manifestations graphiques aurignaciennes sur support rocheux des environs des Eyzies (Dordogne). Gallia Préhistoire 21, 213438.
Donnan C.B., 1976. Moche Art and Iconography. Los Angeles (CA): UCLA Latin American Center Publications.
Dyson-Hudson R. & Smith E.A., 1978. Human territoriality: an ecological reassessment. American Anthropologist 20, 2141.
Edwards R., 1979. Australian Aboriginal Art: The Art of the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
Elkin A.P., 1977. Aboriginal Men of High Degree. 2nd ed.New York (NY): St Martin's Press.
Evans N. & Jones R., in press. The cradle of the Pama-Nyungans: archaeological and linguistic speculations, in Understanding Ancient Australia: Perspectives from Archaeology and Linguistics, eds. McConvell P. & Evans N.. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Flannery T. 1993/1994. Stoneage mutant turtle idols? Australian Natural History 24(7), 72.
Forge A., 1991. Hand stencils: rock art or not art, in Rock Art and Prehistory, eds. Bahn P. & Rosenfeld A.. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 3944.
Frankfort H., 1954. The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Gardner R. & Heider K., 1974. Gardens of War: Life and Death in the New Guinea Stone Age. Ringwood, Victoria: Penguin Books Australia.
Ghiglieri M.P., 1984. The Chimpanzees ofKibale Forest. New York (NY): Columbia University Press.
Goodall J., 1986. The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Cambridge (MA): The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Guidon N., 1991. Peintures Rupestres du Brésil. Paris: Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations.
Haas J. (ed.), 1990. The Anthropology of War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Harvey M., in press. The temporal interpretation of linguistic diversity in the Top End, in Understanding Ancient Australia: Perspectives from Archaeology and Linguistics, eds. McConvell P. & Evans N.. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Haskovec I., 1992a. Mt Gilruth revisited. Archaeology in Oceania 27(2), 6174.
Haskovec I., 1992b. Northern Running Figures of Kakadu National Park: a study of a regional style, in State of the Art: Regional Rock Art Studies in Australia and Melanesia, eds. McDonald J. & Haskovec I.. (Occasional Aura Publication No. 6.) Melbourne: Australian Rock Art Research Association, 148–58.
Hiatt L.R., 1965. Kinship and Conflict. Canberra: Australian National University.
Hiatt L.R., 1975. Introduction, in Australian Aboriginal Mythology, ed. Hiatt L.R.. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, 123.
Hiscock P.D., 1981. Comments of the use of chipped stones artefacts as a measure of 'intensity of site usage'. Australian Archaeology 13, 3034.
Hiscock P.D., 1985. Technological change in the Hunter River Valley and its implications for the interpretation of late Holocene change in Australia. Archaeology in Oceania 21, 4050.
Jones R. (ed.), 1985. Archaeological Research in Kakadu National Park. (Special Publication 13.) Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Jones R. & Johnson I., 1985. Deaf Adder Gorge: Lindner site, Nauwalabila 1, in Archaeological Research in Kakadu National Park, ed. Jones R.. (Special Publication 13.) Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, 165227.
Keen I., 1982. How some Murngin men marry ten wives. Man 17, 620–42.
Kestevan S., 1984. Linguistic considerations of land tenure in western Arnhem Land, in Further Applications of Linguistics to Australian Aboriginal Contexts, eds. McKay G.R. & Sommer B.A.. (Occasional Paper No. 8.) Parkville, Victoria: Applied Linguistics Association of Australia, 4764.
Keyser J.D., 1977. Writing-on-Stone: rock art on the northwestern plains. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 1, 1580.
Keyser J.D., 1979. The Plains Indian War Complex and the rock art of Writing-on-Stone, Alberta, Canada. Journal of Field Archaeology 6(1), 41–8.
Keyser J.D., 1987. A lexicon for historic Plains Indian rock art: increasing interpretive potential. Plains Anthropologist 32, 4371.
Keyser J.D., n.d. The Rock Art of Writing-on-Stone. Unpublished Report. Alberta Provincial Parks Department.
Klassen M.A., forthcoming. A Re-examination of the Rock Art of Writing-on-Stone (title tentative). M.A. thesis. Department of Anthropology, Trent University.
Knauft B., 1985. Good Company and Violence: Sorcery and Social Action in a Lowland New Guinea Society. Berkeley (CA): University of California Press.
Knauft B., 1987. Reconsidering violence in simple human societies: homicide among the Gebusi of New Guinea. Current Anthropology 28(4), 457500.
Knauft B., 1990a. Melanesian warfare: a theoretical history. Oceania 60(4), 250311.
Knauft B., 1990b. Violence among newly sedentary foragers. American Anthropologist 92, 1013–15.
Knauft B., 1991. Violence and sociality in human evolution. Current Anthropology 32(4), 391428.
Knauft B., 1993a. Comments on 'Egalitarian behavior and reverse dominance hierarchy', by Christopher Boehm. Current Anthropology 34(3), 243–4.
Knauft B., 1993b. South Coast New Guinea Cultures: History, Comparison, Dialectic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Knauft B., 1994a. On human egalitarianism. Current Anthropology 35(2), 181–2.
Knauft B., 1994b. Culture and cooperation in human evolution, in The Anthropology of Peace and Non-violence, eds. Sponsel L. & Gregor T.. Boulder (CO): Lynne Rienner, 3767.
Knuckey G., 1991. Dispute Settlement and Community Conflict in Prehistoric Australian Aboriginal Populations. Unpublished B.A. Honours Thesis, University of New England, Australia.
Knuckey G., 1992. Patterns of fracture upon Aboriginal crania from the recent past. Proceedings of the Australasian Society for Human Biology 5, 4758.
Layton R., 1985. The cultural context of hunter-gatherer rock art. Man: Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 20(3), 434–53.
Layton R., 1986. Political and territorial structures among hunter-gatherers. Man 21, 1833.
Layton R., 1991. Trends in the hunter-gatherer rock art of Western Europe and Australia. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 57(1), 163–74.
Layton R., 1992. Australian Rock Art: A New Synthesis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Layton R., in press. Small tools and social change, in Understanding Ancient Australia: Perspectives from Archaeology and Linguistics, eds. McConvell P. & Evans N.. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Leakey R.B., 1981. The Making of Mankind. New York (NY): E.P. Dutton.
Leakey R.B. & Lewin R., 1992. Origins Reconsidered: In Search of What Makes Us Human. New York (NY): Doubleday.
Lee R.B., 1976. !Kung spatial organization: an ecological and historical perspective, in Kalahari Hunter-gatherers: Studies of the IKung San and their Neighbours, eds. Lee R.B. & de Vore I.. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press.
Lee R.B., 1984. The Dobe IKung. New York (NY): Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Leroi-Gourhan A., 1967. Treasures of Prehistoric Art. New York (NY): Harry N. Abrams.
Lewis D., 1988. The Rock Paintings of Arnhem Land: Social, Ecological, and Material Culture Change in the Postglacial Period. (BAR International Series 415.) Oxford: BAR.
Lewis-Williams J.D., 1983. The Rock Art of Southern Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lewis-Williams J.D. & Loubser J.N.H., 1986. Deceptive appearances: a critique of southern African rock art studies. Advances in World Archaeology 5, 253–89.
Lourandos H., 1983. Intensification: a late Pleistocene-Holocene archaeological sequence from southwestern Victoria. Archaeology in Oceania 18, 8194.
McGhee R., 1978. Canadian Arctic Prehistory. Toronto: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Macintosh N.W.G., 1977. Beswick Creek cave two decades later: a reappraisal, in Form in Indigenous Art: Schematisation in the Art of Aboriginal Australia and Prehistoric Europe, ed. Ucko P.J.. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, 191–7.
McMillan A.D., 1988. Native Peoples and Cultures of Canada: An Anthropological Overview. Vancouver: Douglas & Mclntyre.
Maringer J. & Bandi H.-G., 1953. Art in the Ice Age. Spanish Levant Art. Arctic Art. New York (NY): Frederick A. Praeger.
Mazonowicz D., 1974. Voices from the Stone Age: A Search for Cave and Canyon Art. New York (NY): Gallery of Prehistoric Paintings.
Meggitt M, 1962. Desert People. Sydney: Angus & Robertson.
Minc L., 1986. Scarcity and survival: the role of oral tradition in mediating subsistence crisis. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 5, 39113.
Morphy H., 1991. Ancestral Connections: Art and an Aboriginal System of Knowledge. Chicago (IL): University of Chicago Press.
Moser S., 1992. The visual language of archaeology: a case study of the Neanderthals. Antiquity 66, 831–4.
Mulvaney D.J., 1989. Encounters in Place: Outsiders and Aboriginal Australians 1606–1985. St Lucia: University of Queensland Press.
Nelson E., Chippindale C., Chaloupka G. & Southon J., 1992. AMS dating: possibilities and some results. Paper presented at the Second AURA Congress, Cairns, 31 August, 1992.
Noble W. & Davidson I., 1991. The evolutionary emergence of modern human behaviour: language and it archaeology. Man: journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 26, 223–53.
Oliver D.L., 1989. Oceania: The Native Cultures of Australia and the Pacific Islands, vol. 1. Honolulu (HI): University of Hawaii Press.
Otterbein K.F., 1970. The Evolution of War. Chicago (IL): HRAF Press.
Otterbein K.F., 1985. The Evolution of War: A Cross-Cultural Study of Capital Punishment. 2nd ed.New Haven (CT): HRAF Press.
Otterbein K.F., 1989. Socialization for War: A Study of the Influence of Hunting upon Warfare. Paper read at the 88th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Washington (DC), November 19.
Otterbein K.F., 1991. Comments on ‘Violence and sociality in human evolution’, by B.M. Knauft. Current Anthropology 32(4), 413–14.
Pardoe C., 1984. Prehistoric Human Morphological Variation in Australia. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.
Pardoe C., 1988. The cemetery as symbol. The distribution of prehistoric Aboriginal burial grounds in southeastern Australia. Ardiaeology in Oceania 23(1), 116.
Pardoe C., 1992. If cemeteries are sites, why isn't anything else? Unpublished paper presented at the 1992 Australian Archaeological Association Conference, Valla, NSW.
Powell P.J., 1992. Sacrifice transformed into victory: Standing Bear portrays Sitting Bull's Sun Dance and the final summer of Lakota freedom, in Visions of the People. Minneapolis (MN): Institute of the Arts, 81106.
Price D.T. & Brown J.A. (eds.), 1985. Hunter-gatherers: The Emergence of Cultural Complexity. Orlando (FL): Academic Press.
Robarchek C.A., 1989. Primitive warfare and the ratomorphic image of mankind. American Anthropologist 91, 903–20.
Roberts R., Jones R. & Smith M.A., 1990. Thermoluminescence dating of a 50,000-year old human occupation site in northern Australia. Nature 345, 153–6.
Roberts R., Jones R. & Smith M.A., 1993. Optical dating at Deaf Adder Gorge, Northern Territory, indicates human occupation between 53,000 and 60,000 years ago. Australian Archaeology 37, 58.
Sandars N.K., 1968. Prehistoric Art in Europe. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Schuster C., 1951. Joint-marks: A Possible Index of Cultural Contact between America, Oceania and the Far East. (Mededeling No. XCIV; Afdeling Culturele en Physische Anthropologie No. 39.) Amsterdam: Koninklyk Instituut Voor De Tropen.
Spencer W.B., 1914. The Native Tribes of the Northern Territory of Australia. London: MacMillan.
Sutton P. & Rigsby B., 1982. People with ‘politicks’: management of land and personnel on Australia's Cape York Peninsula, in Resource Managers: North American and Australian Hunter-gatherers, eds. Williams N. & Hunn E.. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.
Taçon P.S.C., 1986. Field journals, tapes and notebooks: field research in Kakadu National Park and Arnhem Land, 24 April, 1986 – 29 January, 1987. Lodged at the Australian Museum, Sydney and AIATSIS, Canberra.
Taçon P.S.C., 1988. Contemporary Aboriginal interpretations of western Arnhem Land rock paintings, in The Inspired Dream: Life as Art in Aboriginal Australia, ed. West M.. Brisbane: Queensland Art Gallery, 2025.
Taçpn P.S.C., 1989a. Art and the essence of being: symbolic and economic aspects of fish among the peoples of western Arnhem Land, Australia, in Animals into Art, ed. Morphy H.. London: Unwin Hyman, 236–50.
Taçon P.S.C., 1989b. From Rainbow Snakes to ‘X-ray’ Fish: The Nature of the Recent Rock Painting Tradition of Western Arnhem Land, Australia. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.
Taçon P.S.C., 1989c. From the ‘Dreamtime’ to the present: the changing role of Aboriginal rock paintings in western Arnhem Land, Australia. The Canadian journal of Native Studies 9(2), 317–39.
Taçon P.S.C., 1991. The power of stone: symbolic aspects of stone use and tool development in western Arnhem Land, Australia. Antiquity 65, 192207.
Taçon P.S.C., 1992. Somewhere over the rainbow: an ethnographic and archaeological analysis of recent rock paintings of western Arnhem Land, Australia, in State of the Art: Regional Rock Art Studies in Australia and Melanesia, eds. McDonald J. & Haskovec I.. (Occasional Aura Publication No. 6.) Melbourne: Australian Rock Art Research Association, 202–15.
Taçon P.S.C., 1993a. An Assessment of Rock Art in the Mann River region, Arnhem Land, N.T.. Unpublished report to the Bawinanga Aboriginal Corporation and the Djomi Museum. Sydney.
Taçgon P.S.C., 1993b. Regionalism in the recent rock art of western Arnhem Land, Northern Territory. Archaeology in Oceania 28, 112–20.
Taçon P.S.C., 1993c. Mann River Region Rock Art Recording Project 1993. Unpublished field notebook.
Taçon P.S.C., 1994. Expressing ethnic identity with stone: the meaning of marks, monuments and masterpieces in the landscape. Paper presented at the 15th IPPA Conference, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 8 January 1994. (Submitted to Archaeology in Oceania for the October 1994 issue).
Taçon P.S.C. & Chippindale C., 1992. A New Manner of Looking: Variability, Meaning and Sequence in Older Arnhem Land Pictures. Presented at the Second AURA Congress, Cairns, 2 September, 1992.
Turnbull C., 1965. Wayward Servants: The Two Worlds of the African Pygmies. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode.
Vastokas J.M. & Vastokas R., 1973. Sacred Art of the Algonkians: A Study of the Peterborough Petroglyphs. Peterborough, Ontario: Mansard Press.
Vayda A.P., 1967. Hypotheses about functions of war, in War: the anthropology of armed conflict and aggression. Natural History supplement, December 1 (1967), 4850.
Walsh G.L., 1994. Bradshaws. Ancient Rock Paintings of NorthWest Australia. Carouge-Geneva: Edition Limitée.
Warner W.L., 1930. Murngin warfare. Oceania 1, 457–94.
Warner W.L., 1937. Black Civilization: A Social Study of an Australian Tribe. New York (NY): Peter Smith.
Warner W.L., 1969(1937). A Black Civilization. New York (NY): Harper.
Watchman A., 1987. Preliminary determinations of the age and composition of mineral salts on rock art surfaces in the Kakadu National Park, in Archaeometry: Further Australasian Studies, eds. Ambrose W.R. & Mummery J.M.J.. Canberra: Australian National University, 3642.
Watchman A., 1990. A summary of occurrences of oxalate-rich crusts in Australia. Rock Art Research 7(1), 4450.
Welte A.-C., 1989. An approach to the theme of confronted animals in French Palaeolithic art, in Animals into Art, ed. Morphy H.. London: Unwin Hyman, 215–35.
Whitley D.S., 1994. By the hunter, for the gatherer: art, social relations and subsistence change in the prehistoric Great Basin. World Archaeology 25, 356–73.
Whitley D.S., in press. The Numic vision quest: ritual and rock art in the Great Basin, in Numic Myth and Ritual: Essays in the Expressive Culture of the Numa, ed. Myers L.D.. Urbana (IL): University of Illinois Press.
Woodhouse H.C., 1979. The Bushman Art of Southern Africa. London & Sydney: Macdonald & James.
Woodhouse H.C., 1987. Inter and intragroup aggression illustrated in the rock paintings of South Africa. South African Journal of Ethnology 10(1), 42–8 & 10(3), 153.
Woodhouse H.C., 1988. Images of war: a problem in San rock art research. Pictogram 1(2), 46.
Woodhouse H.C., 1993. Conflict, Weapons, and Warfare in the Rock Art of Southern Africa. (Institute for the Study of Man in Africa, Paper no. 43.) Johannesburg: Institute for the Study of Man in Africa.
Woodroffe C.D., 1988. Changing mangrove and wetland habitats over the last 8000 years, northern Australia and southeast Asia, in Floodplain research. Northern Australia: Progress and Prospects vol. 2, eds. Wade-Marshall D. & Loveday P.. Darwin: Australian National University and North Australia Research Unit, 133.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Cambridge Archaeological Journal
  • ISSN: 0959-7743
  • EISSN: 1474-0540
  • URL: /core/journals/cambridge-archaeological-journal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 64 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 672 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.