1 Herbort, H. J., ‘Töne mit Kehrseite’, Die Zeit, 17 08 1984.
2 Carpenter, Humphrey, W. H. Auden: A Biography (London, 1981), 325. The text of The Sea and the Mirror is taken from Auden, W. H., Collected Longer Poems (London, 1968), 199–252.
3 Barthes, Roland and Havas, Roland, ‘Ascolto’, Enciclopedia Einaudi (Turin, 1976), I, 982–91. The original French was published in Barthes, Roland, L'Obvie et l'obtus (Paris, 1982), 217–30 and was translated into English by Howard, Richard as ‘Listening’ in The Responsibility of Forms (New York, 1985), 245–60.
4 Calvino, Italo, ‘Un re in ascolto: Racconti dell'estate’, La Repubblica, 13 08 1984.
5 Simon, Dietrich, Afterword to Italo Calvino, Die unsichtbaren Städte (Munich, 1977), 195–6 (German translation of Le città invisibili).
6 Stoianova, Ivanka, ‘Luciano Berio: Chemins en musique’, La Revue musicale, 375–7 (1985), 368.
7 Luciano Berio, ‘Dialog zwischen dir und mir’, 1984 Salzburg Festival Programme Book for Un re in ascolto; translated into English by Francesca Franchi and reprinted in the 1989 Covent Garden Programme Book.
8 Deetjen, Werner, ‘Der Sturm als Opernlibretto’, Shakespeare Jahrbuch, ed. Keller, W., 64 (1928), 77–89.
9 Gotter's and Einsiedel's libretto was set to music by Friedrich Fleischmann (1766–1798) and first performed in Weimar, at Schiller's instigation, on 19 May 1798, produced by no less a figure than Goethe. The text was first published in 1797 under the title ‘Singspiel in drey Acten aus Gotters nachlaß’ in vols. 8 and 9 of Schiller's Die Horen. It is quoted here from Gotter, Friedrich Wilhelm, Gedichte III (Weimar, 1802). Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf was originally intended as the composer: the choice of possible composers also included Schwenke, Grétry, Mozart, Wranitzky, Joseph Haydn, Schulz and Himmel. Fleischmann's 1798 setting was followed by versions by Johann Friedrich Reichardt and Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg, both also dating from 1798. The libretto was reprinted in 1889, which suggests its continuing appeal.
10 Quoted in Deetjen (see n. 8), 88. From Schlegel, Caroline, Briefe aus der Frühromantik, ed. Schmidt, Erich (Leipzig, 1913), I, 436.
11 Jonke, Gert, ‘Gradus ad parnassum’, Schule der Geläufigkeit (Reinbek, 1980), 166.
12 Berio, Luciano, Entretien avec Rossana Dalmonte (Rome 1981), ed. and trans. Kaltenecker, M. (Paris, 1983), 21.