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How Can Empirical Ethics Improve Medical Practice?

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1. Musschenga AW.Empirical ethics, context sensitivity and contextualism. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 2005;30:124; Agich GJ.Understanding criticisms of clinical ethics and ethics consultation. Formosan Journal Medical Humanities 2009;10:315.

2. Sulmasy DP, Sugarman J. The many methods of medical ethics. In: Sugarman J, Sulmasy DP, eds. Methods in Medical Ethics. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press; 2009:318.

3. Portz R.EACME Newsletter 2010;24, at 2.

4. Reiter-Theil S.What does empirical research contribute to medical ethics? A methodological discussion using exemplary studies. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2012;21(4):425–435.

5. Molewijk B, Stillegbout AM, Otten W, Dupuis HM, Kievit J.Empirical data and moral theory: A plea for integrated empirical ethics. Medicine Health Care and Philosophy 2004;7:5569; Borry P, Schotsmans P, Dierickx K.What is the role of empirical research in bioethical reflection and decision-making? An ethical analysis. Medicine Health Care and Philosophy 2004;7:4153.

6. Solbakk JH.Use and abuse of empirical knowledge in contemporary bioethics. Medicine Health Care and Philosophy 2004;7:516.

7. See note 5, Borry et al. 2004; van der Scheer L, Widdershoven G.Integrated empirical ethics: Loss of normativity? Medicine Health Care and Philosophy 2004;1:8991.

8. Reiter-Theil S.Does empirical research make bioethics more relevant? “The embedded researcher” as a methodological approach. Medicine Health Care and Philosophy 2004;7:1729.

9. See note 8, Reiter-Theil 2004.

10. Candy B, Sampson EL, Jones L.Enteral tube feeding in older people with advanced dementia: Findings from a Cochrane systematic review. International Journal of Palliative Nursing 2009;15(8):396404.

11. Lanuke K, Faisinger RL, Demoissac D.Hydration management at the end of life. Journal of Palliative Medicine 2004;7:25763; Raijmakers NJ, van Zuylen L, Constantini M, Caraceni A, Lundquist G, Voltz R, et al. . Artificial nutrition and hydration in the last week of life in cancer patients: A systematic literature review of practices and effects. Annals of Oncology 2011; available athttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21199887 (last accessed 11 Jan 2011).

12. See note 1, Musschenga 2005.

13. See note 1, Musschenga 2005.

14. Agledahl KM, Førde R, Wifstad A.Choice is not the issue: The misrepresentation of health care in bioethical discourse. Journal of Medical Ethics 2011;37:2125.

15. Dreyer A, Førde R, Nortvedt P.Ethical decision-making in nursing homes: Influence of organisational factors. Nursing Ethics 2011;18:51425.

16. Dreyer A, Førde R, Nortvedt P.Life-prolonging treatment in nursing homes: How do physicians and nurses describe and justify their own practice? Journal of Medical Ethics 2010;36:396400; Gjerberg E, Førde R, Pedersen R, Bollig G.Ethical challenges in the provision of end of life care in Norwegian nursing homes. Social Science and Medicine 2010;71:67784.

17. Sommer I, Pedersen R, Høie AGE, Nortvedt P.Retningslinjer for forhåndsvurdering av å avstå fra hjerte-lunge-redning (Guidelines for assessing DNR code). Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening (Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association) 2007;127:13689.

18. Førde IS, Berner M, Pedersen R, Førde R.Manglende oversikt over etiske retningslinjer (Lack of overview of ethical guidelines). Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening (Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association) 2007;127:13946.

19. Van der Maas PJ, van der Wal G, de Graff CLM, Kester JGC, Onwuteaka-Philipsen BD, van der Heide A, et al. . Euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and other medical practices involving the end of life in the Netherlands, 1990–1995. New England Journal of Medicine 1996;335:17001.

20. Kälvemark S, Höglund AT, Hansson MG, Westerholm P, Arnetz B.Living with conflicts—ethical dilemmas and moral distress in the health care system. Social Science and Medicine 2004;58:107584.

21. Førde R, Aasland OG.Moral distress among Norwegian doctors. Journal of Medical Ethics 2008;34:5215.

22. Tønnesen S, Førde R, Nortvedt P.Fair nursing care when resources are limited: The role of patients and family members in Norwegian nursing homes. Policy, Politics and Nursing Practice 2009;4(10):27684.

23. Norwegian Patients’ Rights Act 1999, Chapter 4.A (new as of 1 Jan 2009).

24. Hem MH, Gjerberg E, Pedersen R, Førde R. Pleie og omsorg i grenselandet mellom frivillighet og tvang: Pleiepersonells erfaringer med å hjelpe personer med demens i personlig stell (Nursing care between voluntariness and coercion: Nursing staff’s experiences with helping persons with dementia). Sykepleien Forskning (Nursing Science) 2010;5:294–301.

25. See note 24, Hem et al. 2010.

26. See note 16, Gjerberg et al. 2010.

27. Winkler E, Reiter-Theil S, Lange-Rieß D, Schmahl-Menges N, Hiddemann W.Patient involvement in decisions to limit treatment: The crucial role of agreement between physician and patient. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2009;27(13):222530.

28. Hurst SA, Hull SC, Danis M.How physicians face ethical difficulties: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Medical Ethics 2005;31:714.

29. See note 21, Førde, Aasland 2008; Aasland OG, Førde R.Impact of feeling responsible for adverse events on doctors’ personal and professional lives: The importance of being open to criticism from colleagues. Quality and Safety in Health Care 2005;14:137.

30. Førde R, Pedersen R, Akre R.Clinicians’ evaluation of clinical ethics consultations in Norway: A qualitative study. Journal of Philosophy and Health Care 2008;11:1725.

31. See note 29, Aasland, Førde 2005.

32. Allsop J, Mulcahy L.Maintaining professional identity: Doctors’ responses to complaints. Sociology, Health and Illness 1998;20:80124.

33. Van Kesteren RG, Velthuis B, Leyden LW.Psychological problems arising from home ventilation. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2001;80:43946; Mah JK, Thannhauser JE, McNeil DA, Dewey D.Being the lifeline: The parent experience of caring for a child with neuromuscular disease on home mechanical ventilation. Neuromuscular Disorders 2008;18:9838.

34. Hurst SA, Perrier A, Pegoraro R, Reiter-Theil S, Førde R, Slowther AM, et al. . Ethical difficulties in clinical practice: Experience of European doctors. Journal of Medical Ethics 2007;33:517; see note 20, Kälvemark 2004.

35. Glasberg AL. Stress of conscience and burnout in healthcare. The danger of deadening one’s conscience. Umeå: Umeå University Medical Dissertations; 2007.

36. Reiter-Theil S, Agich GJ.Research on clinical ethics and consultation: Introduction to the theme. Medicine Health Care and Philosophy 2008;11:35; Pfaefflin M, Kobert K, Reiter-Theil S.Evaluating clinical ethics consultation. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2009;18(4):40619.

37. Pedersen R, Akre V, Førde R.What is happening during case deliberations in clinical ethics committees? A pilot study. Journal of Medical Ethics 2009;35:14752; Pedersen R, Akre V, Førde R.Barriers and challenges in clinical ethics consultations: The experiences of nine clinical ethics committees. Bioethics 2009 Oct;23(8):4609.

38. Førde R, Pedersen R.Clinical ethics committees in Norway: What do they do, and does it make a difference? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2011;20:38995.

39. Halvorsen K, Førde R, Nortvedt P.Value choices and considerations when limiting intensive care treatment: A qualitative study. Acta Anaestesiologica Scandinavica 2009;53:107; Sørlie V, Førde R, Lindseth A, Norberg A.Male physicians’ narratives about being in ethically difficult care situations in pediatrics. Social Science & Medicine 2001;53:65767.

40. Førde R, Vandvik IH.Clinical ethics, information, and communication: Review of 31 cases from a clinical ethics committee. Journal of Medical Ethics 2005;31:737.

41. Pedersen R, Førde R. Fuzzy law encountering life, death, and morality—A report on nine clinical ethics committees’ legal considerations. In: Grunnin J, Holm S, Kerway I, eds. Ethics, Law & Society. Surrey: Ashgate; 2009:14963.

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Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics
  • ISSN: 0963-1801
  • EISSN: 1469-2147
  • URL: /core/journals/cambridge-quarterly-of-healthcare-ethics
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