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How Can Empirical Ethics Improve Medical Practice?

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2. Sulmasy DP, Sugarman J. The many methods of medical ethics. In: Sugarman J, Sulmasy DP, eds. Methods in Medical Ethics. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press; 2009:318.

3. Portz R. EACME Newsletter 2010;24, at 2.

4. Reiter-Theil S. What does empirical research contribute to medical ethics? A methodological discussion using exemplary studies. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2012;21(4):425–435.

5. Molewijk B, Stillegbout AM, Otten W, Dupuis HM, Kievit J. Empirical data and moral theory: A plea for integrated empirical ethics. Medicine Health Care and Philosophy 2004;7:5569; Borry P, Schotsmans P, Dierickx K. What is the role of empirical research in bioethical reflection and decision-making? An ethical analysis. Medicine Health Care and Philosophy 2004;7:4153.

6. Solbakk JH. Use and abuse of empirical knowledge in contemporary bioethics. Medicine Health Care and Philosophy 2004;7:516.

7. See note 5, Borry et al. 2004; van der Scheer L, Widdershoven G. Integrated empirical ethics: Loss of normativity? Medicine Health Care and Philosophy 2004;1:8991.

8. Reiter-Theil S. Does empirical research make bioethics more relevant? “The embedded researcher” as a methodological approach. Medicine Health Care and Philosophy 2004;7:1729.

9. See note 8, Reiter-Theil 2004.

10. Candy B, Sampson EL, Jones L. Enteral tube feeding in older people with advanced dementia: Findings from a Cochrane systematic review. International Journal of Palliative Nursing 2009;15(8):396404.

11. Lanuke K, Faisinger RL, Demoissac D. Hydration management at the end of life. Journal of Palliative Medicine 2004;7:25763; Raijmakers NJ, van Zuylen L, Constantini M, Caraceni A, Lundquist G, Voltz R, et al. . Artificial nutrition and hydration in the last week of life in cancer patients: A systematic literature review of practices and effects. Annals of Oncology 2011; available at (last accessed 11 Jan 2011).

12. See note 1, Musschenga 2005.

13. See note 1, Musschenga 2005.

14. Agledahl KM, Førde R, Wifstad A. Choice is not the issue: The misrepresentation of health care in bioethical discourse. Journal of Medical Ethics 2011;37:2125.

15. Dreyer A, Førde R, Nortvedt P. Ethical decision-making in nursing homes: Influence of organisational factors. Nursing Ethics 2011;18:51425.

16. Dreyer A, Førde R, Nortvedt P. Life-prolonging treatment in nursing homes: How do physicians and nurses describe and justify their own practice? Journal of Medical Ethics 2010;36:396400; Gjerberg E, Førde R, Pedersen R, Bollig G. Ethical challenges in the provision of end of life care in Norwegian nursing homes. Social Science and Medicine 2010;71:67784.

17. Sommer I, Pedersen R, Høie AGE, Nortvedt P. Retningslinjer for forhåndsvurdering av å avstå fra hjerte-lunge-redning (Guidelines for assessing DNR code). Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening (Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association) 2007;127:13689.

18. Førde IS, Berner M, Pedersen R, Førde R. Manglende oversikt over etiske retningslinjer (Lack of overview of ethical guidelines). Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening (Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association) 2007;127:13946.

19. Van der Maas PJ, van der Wal G, de Graff CLM, Kester JGC, Onwuteaka-Philipsen BD, van der Heide A, et al. . Euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and other medical practices involving the end of life in the Netherlands, 1990–1995. New England Journal of Medicine 1996;335:17001.

20. Kälvemark S, Höglund AT, Hansson MG, Westerholm P, Arnetz B. Living with conflicts—ethical dilemmas and moral distress in the health care system. Social Science and Medicine 2004;58:107584.

21. Førde R, Aasland OG. Moral distress among Norwegian doctors. Journal of Medical Ethics 2008;34:5215.

22. Tønnesen S, Førde R, Nortvedt P. Fair nursing care when resources are limited: The role of patients and family members in Norwegian nursing homes. Policy, Politics and Nursing Practice 2009;4(10):27684.

23. Norwegian Patients’ Rights Act 1999, Chapter 4.A (new as of 1 Jan 2009).

24. Hem MH, Gjerberg E, Pedersen R, Førde R. Pleie og omsorg i grenselandet mellom frivillighet og tvang: Pleiepersonells erfaringer med å hjelpe personer med demens i personlig stell (Nursing care between voluntariness and coercion: Nursing staff’s experiences with helping persons with dementia). Sykepleien Forskning (Nursing Science) 2010;5:294–301.

25. See note 24, Hem et al. 2010.

26. See note 16, Gjerberg et al. 2010.

27. Winkler E, Reiter-Theil S, Lange-Rieß D, Schmahl-Menges N, Hiddemann W. Patient involvement in decisions to limit treatment: The crucial role of agreement between physician and patient. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2009;27(13):222530.

28. Hurst SA, Hull SC, Danis M. How physicians face ethical difficulties: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Medical Ethics 2005;31:714.

29. See note 21, Førde, Aasland 2008; Aasland OG, Førde R. Impact of feeling responsible for adverse events on doctors’ personal and professional lives: The importance of being open to criticism from colleagues. Quality and Safety in Health Care 2005;14:137.

30. Førde R, Pedersen R, Akre R. Clinicians’ evaluation of clinical ethics consultations in Norway: A qualitative study. Journal of Philosophy and Health Care 2008;11:1725.

31. See note 29, Aasland, Førde 2005.

32. Allsop J, Mulcahy L. Maintaining professional identity: Doctors’ responses to complaints. Sociology, Health and Illness 1998;20:80124.

33. Van Kesteren RG, Velthuis B, Leyden LW. Psychological problems arising from home ventilation. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2001;80:43946; Mah JK, Thannhauser JE, McNeil DA, Dewey D. Being the lifeline: The parent experience of caring for a child with neuromuscular disease on home mechanical ventilation. Neuromuscular Disorders 2008;18:9838.

34. Hurst SA, Perrier A, Pegoraro R, Reiter-Theil S, Førde R, Slowther AM, et al. . Ethical difficulties in clinical practice: Experience of European doctors. Journal of Medical Ethics 2007;33:517; see note 20, Kälvemark 2004.

35. Glasberg AL. Stress of conscience and burnout in healthcare. The danger of deadening one’s conscience. Umeå: Umeå University Medical Dissertations; 2007.

36. Reiter-Theil S, Agich GJ. Research on clinical ethics and consultation: Introduction to the theme. Medicine Health Care and Philosophy 2008;11:35; Pfaefflin M, Kobert K, Reiter-Theil S. Evaluating clinical ethics consultation. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2009;18(4):40619.

37. Pedersen R, Akre V, Førde R. What is happening during case deliberations in clinical ethics committees? A pilot study. Journal of Medical Ethics 2009;35:14752; Pedersen R, Akre V, Førde R. Barriers and challenges in clinical ethics consultations: The experiences of nine clinical ethics committees. Bioethics 2009 Oct;23(8):4609.

38. Førde R, Pedersen R. Clinical ethics committees in Norway: What do they do, and does it make a difference? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2011;20:38995.

39. Halvorsen K, Førde R, Nortvedt P. Value choices and considerations when limiting intensive care treatment: A qualitative study. Acta Anaestesiologica Scandinavica 2009;53:107; Sørlie V, Førde R, Lindseth A, Norberg A. Male physicians’ narratives about being in ethically difficult care situations in pediatrics. Social Science & Medicine 2001;53:65767.

40. Førde R, Vandvik IH. Clinical ethics, information, and communication: Review of 31 cases from a clinical ethics committee. Journal of Medical Ethics 2005;31:737.

41. Pedersen R, Førde R. Fuzzy law encountering life, death, and morality—A report on nine clinical ethics committees’ legal considerations. In: Grunnin J, Holm S, Kerway I, eds. Ethics, Law & Society. Surrey: Ashgate; 2009:14963.

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Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics
  • ISSN: 0963-1801
  • EISSN: 1469-2147
  • URL: /core/journals/cambridge-quarterly-of-healthcare-ethics
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