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U.S. Responses to Japanese Wartime Inhuman Experimentation after World War II: National Security and Wartime Exigency

  • HOWARD BRODY, SARAH E. LEONARD, JING-BAO NIE and PAUL WEINDLING
Extract

Bioethics and Defense offers information and commentary on ethical issues arising at the interface between healthcare and warfare. For submissions, contact Griffin Trotter at trotter@slu.edu.

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Notes

1. Harris, SH. Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932–1945, and the American Cover-Up. New York: Routledge; 2002, at 305.

2. Weindling, PJ. John W. Thompson: Psychiatrist in the Shadow of the Holocaust. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press; 2010.

3. See note 1, Harris 2002.

4. Weindling, P. Die Opfer von Menschenversuchen und gewaltsamer Forschung im Nationalsozialismus mit Fokus auf Geschlecht und Rasse. Ergebnisse eines Forschungsprojekts. In: Eschebach, I, Ley, A, eds. Geschlecht und Rasse in der NS-Medizin. Berlin: Metropol Verlag; 2012:81100.

5. Proctor, RN. Racial Hygiene: Medicine under the Nazis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1988.

6. Miller, FG. Research and complicity: The case of Julius Hallervorden. Journal of Medical Ethics 2012;38:53–6.

7. Caplan, AL, ed. When Medicine Went Mad: Bioethics and the Holocaust. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 1992.

8. Annas, GJ, Grodin, MA, eds. The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation. New York: Oxford University Press; 1992.

9. Lifton, RJ. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. New York: Basic Books; 2000, at 295–6.

10. Nie, JB, Guo, N, Selden, M, Kleinman, A, eds. Japan’s Wartime Medical Atrocities: Comparative Inquiries in Science, History, and Ethics. New York: Routledge; 2010.

11. Lafleur, WR, Böhme, G, Shimazono, S, eds. Dark Medicine: Rationalizing Unethical Medical Research. Bloomington: Indiana University Press; 2007.

12. See note 4, Weindling 2012.

13. See note 4, Weindling 2012.

14. See note 1, Harris 2002, at 86–7.

15. See note 5, Proctor 1988.

16. See note 11, Lafleur et al. 2007.

17. Tsuchiya, T. Why Japanese doctors performed human experiments in China 1933–1945. Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 2000;10:179180; available at http://www.eubios.info/EJ106/EJ106C.htm (last accessed 10 Sept 2013).

18. See note 2, Weindling 2010.

19. Shuster, E. Fifty years later: The significance of the Nuremberg Code. New England Journal of Medicine 1997;337:1436–40.

20. Shuster, E. The Nuremberg Code: Hippocratic ethics and human rights. Lancet 1998;351:974–7.

21. See note 2, Weindling 2010, at 148.

22. See note 2, Weindling 2010, at 125.

23. See note 2, Weindling 2010, at 93.

24. See note 1, Harris 2002, at 265.

25. Sanders, M. Interrogation of Tadakama Wakamatsu (11/9/45). In: Kondo, S, ed. Unit 731 and Biological Warfare: A CD-ROM Collection. Tokyo: Kashiwa shobo; 2003, at 5.

26. See note 1, Harris 2002, at 182.

27. Thompson, AT. Report on Japanese Biological (BW) Activities (5/31/46). In: Kondo, S, ed. Unit 731 and Biological Warfare: A CD-ROM Collection. Tokyo: Kashiwa shobo; 2003, at 7.

28. Fell, NH. Conference with Kamei, Kanichiro (4/21/1947). In: Kondo, S, ed. Unit 731 and Biological Warfare: A CD-ROM Collection. Tokyo: Kashiwa shobo; 2003, at 1.

29. Fell, NH. Interrogation of Masuda, Tomosada (4/22/1947). In: Kondo, S, ed. Unit 731 and Biological Warfare: A CD-ROM Collection. Tokyo: Kashiwa shobo; 2003, at 12.

30. Fell, NH. Conference with Kamei, Kanichiro (4/24/1947). In: Kondo, S, ed. Unit 731 and Biological Warfare: A CD-ROM Collection. Tokyo: Kashiwa shobo; 2003, at 12.

31. See note 1, Harris 2002, at 275.

32. Fell, NH. Interrogation of Kikuchi, Hitoshi (5/1,2,5/1947). In: Kondo, S, ed. Unit 731 and Biological Warfare: A CD-ROM Collection. Tokyo: Kashiwa shobo; 2003, at 2.

33. See note 1, Harris 2002, at 278.

34. Fell, NH. Addendum (6/24/47). In: Kondo, S, ed. Unit 731 and Biological Warfare: A CD-ROM Collection. Tokyo: Kashiwa shobo; 2003, at 2.

35. See note 29, Fell 2003.

36. See note 1, Harris 2002, at 278.

37. See note 1, Harris 2002, at 279.

38. Gomer, R, Powell, JW, Roling, BVA. Japan’s biological weapons: 1930–1945. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 1981;37(8):4353.

39. Hill, EV, Victor, J. Introduction (12/12/1947). In: Kondo, S, ed. Unit 731 and Biological Warfare: A CD-ROM Collection. Tokyo: Kashiwa shobo; 2003, at 4.

40. See note 32, Fell 2003.

41. See note 1, Harris 2002, at 288.

42. Investigation Division No. 330, Legal Division. Motoji YAMAGUCHI with aliases, et al. (8 November 1946). In: Kondo S, ed. Unit 731 and Biological Warfare: A CD-ROM Collection. Tokyo: Kashiwa shobo; 2003, at 2.

43. See note 1, Harris 2002, at 291–300.

44. SWNCC. Interrogation of certain Japanese by Russian prosecutor (1 August 1947). In: Kondo, S, ed. Unit 731 and Biological Warfare: A CD-ROM Collection. Tokyo: Kashiwa shobo; 2003, Appendix A, at 4.

45. See note 1, Harris 2002, at 301.

46. See note 44, SWNCC 2003, Appendix A, at 6.

47. See note 1, Harris 2002, at 301.

48. See note 44, SWNCC 2003, at 1.

49. See note 1, Harris 2002, at 301–2.

50. See note 1, Harris 2002, at 304.

51. See note 1, Harris 2002.

52. See note 10, Nie et al. 2010.

53. See note 11, Lafleur et al. 2007.

54. Nie, JB. The United States cover-up of Japanese wartime medical atrocities: Complicity committed in the national interest and two proposals for contemporary action. American Journal of Bioethics 2006;6(3):W21W33.

55. See note 1, Harris 2002.

56. See note 11, Lafleur et al. 2007.

57. The Khabarovsk Trial: Materials on the Trial of Former Servicemen of the Japanese Army Charged with Manufacturing and Employing Bacteriological Weapons. Moscow, USSR: Foreign Languages Publishing House; 1950.

58. See note 11, Lafleur et al. 2007.

59. Nie, JB. The West’s dismissal of the Khabarovsk trial: Ideology, evidence and international bioethics. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 2004;1(1):3242.

60. See note 1, Harris 2002.

61. See note 11, Lafleur et al. 2007.

62. See note 8, Annas, Grodin 1992.

63. Andre, J. Learning to see: Moral growth during medical training. Journal of Medical Ethics 1992;18:148–52.

64. See note 54, Nie 2006.

65. See note 59, Nie 2004.

66. Nie, JB. On the altar of nationalism and the nation-state: Japan’s wartime medical atrocities, the American cover-up, and postwar Chinese responses. In: Nie, JB, Guo, N, Selden, M, Kleinman, A, eds. Japan’s Wartime Medical Atrocities: Comparative Inquiries in Science, History, and Ethics. New York: Routledge; 2010:123–38.

67. Pellegrino, ED. The Nazi doctors and Nuremberg: Some moral lessons revisited. Annals of Internal Medicine 1997;127:307–8, at 308.

68. Bakhtin, M.Rabelais and His World. Bloomington: Indiana University Press; 2009.

69. Stallybrass, P, White, A. The Politics and Poetics of Transgression. London: Methuen; 1986.

70. Rothman, D. Strangers at the Bedside: A History of How Law and Bioethics Transformed Medical Decision Making. New York: Basic Books; 1991, at 37.

71. Miles, SH. Oath Betrayed: America’s Torture Doctors. 2nd ed.Berkeley: University of California Press; 2009.

72. See note 67, Pellegrino 1997.

73. See note 69, Stallybrass, White 1986.

74. Williams, P, Wallace, D. Unit 731: Japan’s Secret Biological Warfare in World War II. New York: Free Press; 1989, at 178–9.

75. Dower, JW. War without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War. New York: Pantheon; 1986.

76. See note 54, Nie 2006.

We are grateful to Dr. Sheldon Rubenfeld and the Center for Medicine after the Holocaust for arranging the tour during which HB met PW and became aware of the importance of John Thompson in postwar events. PW acknowledges Wellcome Trust Grant No. 096580/Z/11/A on research subject narratives and AHRC Grant AH/E509398/1 on human experiments under National Socialism. Griffin Trotter provided valuable comments in review of the manuscript. JBN acknowledges a Marsden Fund grant from the Royal Society of New Zealand for the research on Japan’s wartime medical atrocities in China and their aftermath.

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