Hostname: page-component-594f858ff7-r29tb Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-06-06T02:33:53.523Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": false, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "corePageComponentUseShareaholicInsteadOfAddThis": true, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Effect of Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) attack density on Pinus sylvestris (Pinaceae) survival

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 March 2019

Laurel J. Haavik*
Natural Resources Canada-Canadian Forest Service, Great Lakes Forestry Centre, 1219 Queen Street E, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, P6A 2E5, Canada
Brett P. Hurley
Department of Zoology and Entomology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002, Gauteng, South Africa
Jeremy D. Allison
Natural Resources Canada-Canadian Forest Service, Great Lakes Forestry Centre, 1219 Queen Street E, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, P6A 2E5, Canada
2Corresponding author (e-mail:


Population density is often a critical factor in colonisation of trees by bark and wood-boring insects and may determine whether an exotic species is likely to establish and spread. In a manipulative field study, we investigated whether density of the attacking population of an exotic invasive woodwasp, Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Siricidae), affected survival and time-to-death of a favoured host tree, Pinus sylvestris Linnaeus (Pinaceae). We introduced mating pairs of woodwasps to stressed P. sylvestris at either high (15 mating pairs, nine trees) or low (two mating pairs, nine trees) density. More trees died, and more quickly, when exposed to the high versus low density of S. noctilio (78% versus 33% of trees). In the high-density treatment, year of tree death was synonymous with production of a S. noctilio F1 cohort (one-year or two-year generation time); this pattern was not as consistent in the low-density treatment. Although sample size was limited, our results indicate that attack density affects S. noctilio colonisation of P. sylvestris.

Behaviour and Ecology–NOTE
Creative Commons
Parts of this are a work of the Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Part of this is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States.
© Entomological Society of Canada 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Present address: United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, 1992 Folwell Avenue, St. Paul, Minnesota, 55108, United States of America

Subject editor: Deepa Pureswaran


Anderbrant, O., Schlyter, F., and Birgersson, G. 1985. Intraspecific competition affecting parents and offspring in the bark beetle Ips typographus. Oikos, 45: 8998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ayres, M.P., Pena, R., Lombardo, J.A., and Lombardero, M.J. 2014. Host use patterns by the European woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, in its native and invaded range. Public Library of Science One, 9: e90321.Google ScholarPubMed
Beirne, B.P. 1975. Biological control attempts by introductions against pest insects in the field in Canada. The Canadian Entomologist, 107: 225236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Corley, J.C. and Villacide, J.M. 2012. Population dynamics of Sirex noctilio: influence of diapause, spatial aggregation and flight potential on woodwasp outbreaks and spread. In The Sirex woodwasp and its fungal symbiont: research and management of a worldwide invasive pest. Edited by Slippers, B., de Groot, P., and Wingfield, M.J.. Springer, New York, New York, United States of America. Pp. 5164.Google Scholar
Coutts, M.P. and Dolezal, J.E. 1969. Emplacement of fungal spores by the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, during oviposition. Forest Science, 15: 412416.Google Scholar
Dodds, K.J., de Groot, P., and Orwig, D. 2010. The impact of Sirex noctilio in Pinus resinosa and Pinus sylvestris stands in New York and Ontario. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 40: 212223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fierke, M.K., Kelley, M.B., and Stephen, F.M. 2007. Site and stand variables influencing red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), population densities and tree mortality. Forest Ecology and Management, 247: 227236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grevstad, F.S. 1999. Experimental invasions using biological control introductions: the influence of release size on the chance of population establishment. Biological Invasions, 1: 313323.Google Scholar
Haavik, L.J., Dodds, K.J., and Allison, J.D. 2018. Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) in Ontario (Canada) pine forests: observations over five years. The Canadian Entomologist, 150: 347360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haavik, L.J., Dodds, K.J., Ryan, K., and Allison, J.D., 2016. Evidence that the availability of suitable pine limits non-native Sirex noctilio in Ontario. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 18: 357366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hanks, L.M., Paine, T.D., Millar, J.G., Campbell, C.D., and Schuch, U.K. 1999. Water relations of host trees and resistance to the phloem-boring beetle Phoracantha semipunctata F. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Oecologia, 119: 400407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hurley, B.P., Slippers, B., and Wingfield, M.J. 2007. A comparison of control results for the alien invasive woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, in the southern hemisphere. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 9: 159171.Google Scholar
Jactel, H. and Lieutier, F. 1987. Effects of attack density on fecundity of the scots pine beetle Ips sexdentatus Boern (Co.; Scolytidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 104: 190204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lindgren, B.S. and Raffa, K.F. 2013. Evolution of tree killing in bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): trade-offs between the maddening crowds and a sticky situation. The Canadian Entomologist, 145: 471495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacQuarrie, C.J.K. and Scharbach, R. 2015. Influence of mortality factors and host resistance on the population dynamics of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in urban forests. Environmental Entomology, 44: 160173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madden, J.L. 1975. An analysis of an outbreak of the woodwasp, Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera, Siricidae), in Pinus radiata. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 65: 491500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madden, J.L. 1988. Sirex in Australasia. In Dynamics of forest insect populations. Edited by Berryman, A.A.. Plenium Publishers, New York, New York, United States of America. Pp. 407429.Google Scholar
Morgan, F.D. and Stewart, N.C. 1966. The biology and behaviour of the woodwasp Sirex noctilio F. in New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Zoology, 7: 195204.Google Scholar
Nahrung, H.F., Smith, T.E., Wiegand, A.N., Lawson, S.A., and Debuse, V.J. 2014. Host tree influences on longicorn beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) attack in subtropical Corymbia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). Environmental Entomology, 43: 3746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raffa, K.F. and Berryman, A.A. 1983. The role of host plant resistance in the colonization behavior and ecology of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Ecological Monographs, 53: 2749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ryan, K., de Groot, P., Nott, R.W., Drabble, S., Ochoa, I., Davis, S.M., et al. 2012. Natural enemies associated with Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) and S. nigricornis in Ontario, Canada. Environmental Entomology, 41: 289297.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ryan, K., de Groot, P., Smith, S.M., and Turgeon, J.J. 2013. Seasonal occurrence and spatial distribution of resinosis, a symptom of Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) injury, on boles of Pinus sylvestris (Pinaceae). The Canadian Entomologist, 145: 117122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, Q.H., Byers, J.A., and Schlyter, F. 1992. Optimal attack density in the larch bark beetle, Ips cembrae (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). The Journal of Applied Ecology, 29: 672678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar