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Molecular divergence between Gryllus rubens and Gryllus texensis, sister species of field crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 April 2012

D.A. Gray*
Affiliation:
Department of Biology, California State University, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, California 91330-8303, United States of America
P. Barnfield
Affiliation:
Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada L2S 3A1
M. Seifried
Affiliation:
Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada L2S 3A1
M.H. Richards
Affiliation:
Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada L2S 3A1
*
1 Corresponding author (e-mail: dave.gray@csun.edu).

Abstract

We assess the degree of sequence divergence in the maternally inherited mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome b (CytB) genes between two sister species of field crickets, Gryllus rubens Scudder, 1902 and Gryllus texensis Cade and Otte, 2000. We analyzed 1460 base pairs from 10 individuals of each species; individuals were sampled from areas of both allopatry and sympatry. Overall average pairwise mitochondrial sequence divergence between species was 1.4% ± 0.1% (mean ± SD); however, there was almost an order of magnitude more divergence in COI (2.59% ± 2.25%) than in CytB (0.35% ± 0.24%). Gryllus texensis appears to harbor a much greater level of genetic variation than does G. rubens. Phylogenetic trees constructed from these sequences show reasonable separation of species; however, sequences are not reciprocally monophyletic. Gene tree polyphyly may reflect recent species-level divergence and (or) interspecific gene flow. The pattern of sequence divergence and genetic variation in these taxa is consistent with allopatric or peripatric speciation in Pleistocene glacial refugia in the southeastern (G. rubens ancestral lineage) and southcentral United States (G. texensis ancestral lineage).

Résumé

Nous évaluons le degré de divergence des séquences dans les gènes mitochondriaux d'origine maternelle, cytochrome c oxydase I (COI) et cytochrome b (CytB), chez les espèces soeurs de grillons des champs Gryllus rubens Scudder, 1902 et Gryllus texensis Cade et Otte, 2000. Nous avons analysé 1460 paires de bases chez 10 individus de chaque espèce, prélevés dans des zones d'allopatrie et de sympatrie. La divergence globale des séquences mitochondriales, paire par paire, entre les espèces est de 1,4 % ± 0,1 % (moyenne ± ET); cependant, la divergence de COI (2,59 % ± 2,25 %) est d'un ordre de grandeur plus importante que celle de CytB (0,35 % ± 0,24 %). Gryllus texensis semble posséder un niveau beaucoup plus élevé de variation génétique que G. rubens. Les arbres phylogénétiques élaborés à partir de ces séquences montrent une séparation adéquate des espèces, mais les séquences ne sont pas réciproquement monophylétiques. La polyphylie des arbres génétiques peut indiquer une divergence récente au niveau des espèces et (ou) un flux génétique interspécifique. Les patrons de divergence des séquences et de variation génétique chez ces taxons sont compatibles avec une spéciation allopatrique ou péripatrique dans les refuges glaciaires du pléistocène dans le sud-est (lignée ancestrale de G. rubens) et le centre-sud (lignée ancestrale de G. texensis) des États-Unis.

[Traduit par la Rédaction]

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Entomological Society of Canada 2006

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