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The oldest Inocelliidae (Raphidioptera) from the Eocene of western North America

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 June 2019

Vladimir N. Makarkin
Laboratory of Entomology, Federal Scientific Centre of the East Asia Terrestrial Biodiversity, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 100 let Vladivostoku 159, 690022, Vladivostok, Russia
S. Bruce Archibald*
Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6, Canada; Museum of Comparative Zoology, 26 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02138, United States of America; Royal British Columbia Museum, 675 Belleville Street, Victoria, British Columbia, V8W 9W2, Canada
James E. Jepson
School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Science, University College Cork, Distillery Fields, North Mall, Cork, T23 N73K, Ireland
1Corresponding author (e-mail:


One new genus of Inocelliidae (Raphidioptera) with one new species and one undetermined specimen is described from the Eocene of North America: Paraksenocellia borealisnew genus, new species from the early Eocene (Ypresian) Okanagan Highlands shale at Driftwood Canyon, British Columbia, Canada (a forewing), and Paraksenocellia species from the middle Eocene (Lutetian) of the Coal Creek Member of the Kishenehn Formation, northwestern Montana, United States of America (a hind wing). These are the oldest records of the family. The new genus possesses many character states that are rare in Inocelliidae, e.g., a very long pterostigma extending to ScP in both the forewings and hind wings; the forewing subcostal space has three crossveins; the forewing and hind wing AA1 are deeply forked; the crossvein between CuA and CuP is located far distad the crossvein 1r-m. Paraksenocellia is confidently a member of the Inocelliidae, as it possesses a proximal shift of the basal crossvein 1r-m (connecting R and M) in the forewing and the loss of the basal crossvein 1r-m in the hind wing, both apomorphies of the family. It shares some character states with the Mesozoic Mesoraphidiidae, which we consider to be mostly stem-group plesiomorphies.

Biodiversity and Evolution
© Entomological Society of Canada 2019 

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