Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768dbb666b-vkhs7 Total loading time: 0.326 Render date: 2023-02-04T13:41:41.649Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

A sampling unit for estimating gall densities of Paradiplosis tumifex (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Christmas tree stands

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 January 2013

R. Drew Carleton*
Affiliation:
Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service - Atlantic Forestry Centre, PO Box 4000, 1350 Regent Street, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5P7, Canada
Peter J. Silk
Affiliation:
Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service - Atlantic Forestry Centre, PO Box 4000, 1350 Regent Street, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5P7, Canada
Eldon S. Eveleigh
Affiliation:
Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service - Atlantic Forestry Centre, PO Box 4000, 1350 Regent Street, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5P7, Canada
Stephen B. Heard
Affiliation:
University of New Brunswick, Department of Biology, PO Box 4400, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5A3, Canada
Chris Dickie
Affiliation:
InFor Inc., 1350 Regent Street, Strickland Building 2, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3C 2G6, Canada
*
1Corresponding author (e-mail: dcarleton@nrcan.gc.ca).

Abstract

We used field surveys in central New Brunswick, Canada to establish efficient sampling procedures for evaluating densities of balsam gall midge, Paradiplosis tumifex Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and its associated damage in balsam fir, Abies balsamea (Linnaeus) Miller, Christmas trees. Infestation was greater in larger trees than smaller trees and in mid-crown and upper-crown branches than in the lower crown. However, the relationship between gallmaker infestation and site, height class, and crown level was highly complex and may involve covariation of shoot length with height class and crown level. As a result, patterns in infestation did not lend themselves to simple interpretation. This complexity highlights the need to find sampling units that provide simpler but reasonably accurate predictors of gallmaker impact at the whole-tree scale. We identified such a sampling unit: gallmaker density in first-order current-year shoots of a mid-crown branch explained 81% of the variance in total infestation among trees.

Résumé

À partir de relevés de terrain menés dans le centre du Nouveau-Brunswick au Canada, nous avons voulu établir une procédure d’échantillonnage permettant d’évaluer efficacement la densité de la cécidomyie du sapin (Paradiplosis tumifex Gagné) (Diptera : Cecidomyiidae) ainsi que les dommages causés par cet insecte au sapin baumier (Abies balsamea (Linnaeus) Miller), l'arbre de Noël. Le taux d'infestation était plus élevé dans les grands arbres par rapport aux petits ainsi que dans les branches médianes et supérieures par rapport aux inférieures. Cependant, la relation existant entre le taux d'infestation et les sites, la classe de hauteur de l'arbre et la hauteur au sein du houppier s'est révélée très complexe et pourrait faire intervenir une covariation de la longueur des pousses avec la classe de hauteur et la hauteur au sein du houppier. Par conséquent, les variations observées dans le taux d'infestation s'expliquent difficilement par une relation simple. Cette complexité souligne la nécessité de trouver des unités d’échantillonnage permettant une prédiction simple, mais relativement exacte de l'impact de la cécidomyie sur l'arbre entier. Nous avons trouvé une telle unité : la densité de cécidomyies dans les pousses de premier ordre apparues au cours de l'année dans une branche médiane du houppier permet d'expliquer 81% de la variance inter-arbres du taux d'infestation total.

Type
Techniques
Copyright
Copyright © Entomological Society of Canada 2013 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Embree, D.G., Estabrooks, G.F., Marks, D., Renault, T.R. 1985. Efficacy studies of Diazinon 500 EC against the balsam fir gall midge on balsam fir Christmas trees in Nova Scotia. Technical Note No. 131, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forestry Service – Atlantic Forestry Centre, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada.Google Scholar
Estabrooks, G.F., Kettela, E.G., Embree, D.G. 1985. Field trials of Diazinon 500 EC against the balsam gall midge, Paradiplosis tumifex Gagné in Nova Scotia, 1985. Technical Note No. 146, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forestry Service – Atlantic Forestry Centre, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada.Google Scholar
Fay, P.A.Whitham, T.G. 1990. Within-plant distribution of a galling adelgid (Homoptera: Adelgidae): the consequences of conflicting survivorship, growth, and reproduction. Ecological Entomology, 15: 245254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fidgen, J.G., Teerling, C.R., McKinnon, M.L. 1994. Intra- and inter-crown distribution of the eastern spruce gall adelgid, Adelges abietis (L.) on young white spruce. The Canadian Entomologist, 126: 11051110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Giese, R.L.Benjamin, D.M. 1959. The biology and ecology of the balsam gall midge in Wisconsin. Forest Science, 5: 193208.Google Scholar
Johns, R.C., Ostaff, D.P., Quiring, D.T. 2006. Sampling methods for evaluating yellowheaded spruce sawfly density and defoliation in juvenile black spruce stands. Journal of the Acadian Entomological Society, 2: 113.Google Scholar
Lintner, J.A. 1888. Fourth report on the injurious and other insects of New York. The Troy Press Company, Albany, New York, United States of America.Google Scholar
Manly, B.F.J. 2006. Randomization, bootstrap, and Monte Carlo methods in biology, 3rd ed.Chapman and Hall/CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, United States of America.Google Scholar
Osgood, E.A., Bradbury, R.L., Drummond, F.A. 1992. The balsam gall midge – an economic pest of balsam fir Christmas trees. Technical Bulletin 151, Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Maine, Orono, Maine, United States of America.Google Scholar
Osgood, E.A.Gagné, R.J. 1978. Biology and taxonomy of the two gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) found in galls on the balsam fir needles with description of a new species of Paradiplosis. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 71: 8591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Piene, H. 1989. Spruce budworm defoliation and growth loss in young balsam fir: defoliation in spaced and unspaced stands and individual tree survival. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 14: 811817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
R Development Core Team 2010. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R. Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
Strong, W.B.Bennett, R.G. 2010. Sampling plan for Adelges cooleyi (Hemipetra: Adelgidae) in spruce seed orchards. The Canadian Entomologist, 142: 1423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
West, R.J.Shorthouse, J.D. 1982. Morphology of the balsam fir needle gall induced by the midge Paradiplosis tumifex (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Canadian Journal of Botany, 60: 131140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
1
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

A sampling unit for estimating gall densities of Paradiplosis tumifex (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Christmas tree stands
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

A sampling unit for estimating gall densities of Paradiplosis tumifex (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Christmas tree stands
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

A sampling unit for estimating gall densities of Paradiplosis tumifex (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Christmas tree stands
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *