Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) activity and loss in commercial tomato greenhouses

  • L.A. Morandin (a1), T.M. Laverty (a1), P.G. Kevan (a2), S. Khosla (a3) and L. Shipp (a4)...
Abstract
Abstract

Activity of bumble bees, Bombus impatiens Cresson, was examined in commercial tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (Solanaceae), greenhouses in relation to greenhouse covering type, solar radiation, greenhouse temperature and humidity. Bumble bee activity was measured by photodiode monitors inserted into the entrance of the colonies. Colony sizes were monitored as an indicator of bee loss through gutter ventilation systems in relation to covering. Activity monitors were found to be a good predictor of actual bumble bee entrances and exits (r2 = 0.85). Bumble bee activity was 94.0% greater under the ultravioltet (UV)-transmitting covering than under ones that transmitted less UV light. No relationship was found between bee activity and the amount of solar radiation or internal greenhouse humidity. Bee activity was weakly positively correlated with internal greenhouse temperature (r2 = 0.18). Bee activity was not different during three periods of the day: morning, midday, and evening. The mean ± SE colony size under the UV-transmitting covering was 86.0 ± 2 bees per colony after 10 days within the greenhouses, compared with 36.4 ± 5.8 bees per colony under the other three types of covering. Our results suggest that bee activity is greatest and bee loss through gutter ventilation systems lowest in greenhouses made with coverings that transmit high levels of UV light.

Résumé

L’activité des bourdons, Bombus impatiens Cresson, a été étudiée dans des serres de culture commerciale de tomates, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (Solanaceae), en fonction du type de couverture de la serre, de la radiation solaire, des conditions de température et d’humidité. L’activité des bourdons a été mesurée au moyen de sondes à photodiodes insérées à l’entrée des colonies. Les tailles des colonies servaient d’indicateurs des pertes de bourdons par le système de ventilation des gouttières en relation avec la couverture. Les sondes d’activité se sont avérées de bons outils pour prédire les entrées et sorties réelles des bourdons (r2 = 0,85). L’activité des bourdons était de 94,0% plus importante sous les couvertures qui laissent passer l’ultraviolet (UV) que sous les couvertures qui transmettent moins bien la lumière UV. Nous n’avons pas trouvé de relation entre l’activité des bourdons et la quantité de radiation solaire ou d’humidité à l’intérieur des serres. L’activité des bourdons était en faible corrélation positive avec la température à l’intérieur des serres (r2 = 0,18). L’activité ne différait pas au cours des périodes de la journée : matin, midi et soir. La taille moyenne ± écart type des colonies sous la couverture qui laisse passer l’ultraviolet a été estimée à 86,0 ± 2 individus par colonie après 10 jours en serre, comparativement à 36,4 ± 5,8 individus par colonie sous les trois autres types de couverture. Nos résultats indiquent que l’activité des bourdons est maximale et la perte d’individus par le système de ventilation des gouttières, minimale dans les serres ou la couverture laisse passer l’ultraviolet.

[Traduit par la Rédaction]

Copyright
Corresponding author
1 Author to whom all correspondence should be addressed (E-mail: lmorandi@sfu.ca).
References
Hide All
W.S. Armbruster , K.D. McCormick 1990. Diel foraging patterns of male euglossine bees: ecological causes and evolutionary response by plants. Biotropica 22: 160–71

S.A. Corbet , R.A. Fussell , A. Fraser , C. Gunson , A. Savage , K. Smith 1993. Temperature and the pollinating activity of social bees. Ecological Entomology 18: 1730

M.H. Dogterom , J.A. Matteoni , R.C. Plowright 1998. Pollination of greenhouse tomatoes by the North American Bombus vosnesenskii (Hymentoptera: Apidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 91: 71–5

P.G. Kevan 1979. Vegetation and floral colors revealed by ultraviolet light: interpretational difficulties for functional significance. American Journal of Botany 66: 749–51

P.G. Kevan , W.G.K. Backhaus 1998. Color vision: ecology and evolution in making the best of the photic environment. pp 163–83 in W.G.K. Backhaus , R. Kliegl , J.S. Werner (Eds), Color vision: perspectives from different disciplines. New York: Walter de Gruyter

S.B. Laughlin 1976. The sensitivities of dragonfly photoreceptors and the voltage gain of transduction. Journal of Comparative Physiology 111: 221–47

R. Menzel , U. Greggers 1985. Natural phototaxis and its relationship to colour vision in honey bees. Journal of Comparative Physiology 141: 389–93

L.A. Morandin , T.M. Laverty , P.G. Kevan 2001 a. Effect of bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) pollination intensity on the quality of greenhouse tomatoes. Journal of Economic Entomology 94: 172–9

D. Peitsch , A. Fietz , H. Hertel , J. De Souza , D.F. Ventura , R. Menzel 1992. The spectral input systems of hymenopteran insects and their receptor-based colour vision. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 170: 2340

E. Pressman , R. Shaked , K. Rosenfeld , A. Hefetz 1998. A comparative study of the efficiency of bumble bees and an electric bee in pollinating unheated greenhouse tomatoes. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 74: 101–4

K. von Frisch 1965. Tanzsprache und Orientierung der Bienen. Berlin, Heidelberg, and New York, New York: Springer

C.B. Williams 1940. The analysis of four years captures of insects in a light trap. Part 2. The effect of weather conditions on insect activity; and the estimation and forecasting of changes in the insect population. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 90: 227306

C.B. Williams 1961. Studies in the effect of weather conditions on the activity and abundance of insect populations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences 244: 331–78

C.B. Williams , M.F.H. Osman 1960. A new approach to the problem of the optimum temperature for insect activity. Journal of Animal Ecology 29: 187–90

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Canadian Entomologist
  • ISSN: 0008-347X
  • EISSN: 1918-3240
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-entomologist
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 9 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 161 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 17th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.