Skip to main content Accessibility help


  • A. P. Gutierrez (a1), J. U. Baumgaertner (a1) and K. S. Hagen (a1)


A simple model for growth and development of the ladybird beetle (Hippodamia convergens G-M.) which partitions aphid biomass eaten into components of excretion, assimilation, growth and/or reproduction, and metabolic costs associated with searching and maintenance respiration is reported. All parameters in the model were estimated from simple minimal laboratory experiments, and have biological and/or physical meaning. The effects of predator nutrition on aging, survival, and emigration were also modelled. Most rates in the model for growth, reproduction, and respiration are controlled by the interplay between prey consumption and maximum prey biomass demands. The model for biomass flow is related to standard predator/prey theory.



Hide All
Beddington, J. R., Hassell, M. P., and Lawton, J. H.. 1976 a. The components of arthropod predation. II. The predation rate of increase. J. Anim. Ecol. 45: 165186.
Beddington, J. R., Free, C. A., and Lawton, J. H.. 1976 b. Concepts of stability and resilience in predator-prey models. J. Anim. Ecol. 45: 791816.
Butler, G. D. and Dickerson, W. A.. 1972. Life cycle of the convergent lady beetle in relation to temperature. J. econ. Ent. 65: 15081509.
Fraser, B. D. and Gilbert, N. E.. 1976. Coccinellids and aphids: A qualitative study of the impact of adult lady birds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) preying on field populations of pea aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae). J. ent. Soc. Br. Columb. 73: 3356.
Gutierrez, A. P., Falcon, L. A., and van den Bosch, R.. 1974. Cotton Production in California - A Simulation in Modelling for Pest Management — Concepts, Techniques and Applications, USA/USSR, Tummula, R. L., Haynes, D. L. and Croft, B. H. (Eds.). pp. 134145.
Gutierrez, A. P., Christensen, J. B., Merritt, C. M., Loew, W. B., Summers, C. G., and Cothran, W. R.. 1976. Alfalfa and the Egyptian alfalfa weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Can. Ent. 108: 635648.
Gutierrez, A. P., Falcon, L. A., Loew, W. B., Leipzig, P. A., and van den Bosch, R.. 1975. An analysis of cotton production in California: A model for Acala cotton and the effects of defoliators on its yields. Environ. Ent. 4: 125136.
Gutierrez, A. P. and Wang, Y.. 1976. Applied population ecology: Models for crop production and pest management. In Norton, G. and Holling, C. S. (Eds.), Proceedings of a Conference on Pest Management, 2529 October 1976, Austria.
Gutierrez, A. P., Summers, C. G., and Baumgaertner, J.. 1980. The phenology and distribution of aphids in California alfalfa as modified by ladybird beetle predation (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Can. Ent. 112: 489495.
Hagen, K. S. 1974. The significance of predaceous Coccinellidae in bioligical and integrated control of insects. Entomophaga Mem. 7: 2544.
Hagen, K. S. 1976. Role of insect nutrition in insect management. Proc. Tall Timbers Conf. on Ecol. Anim. Cont. by Habitat Mngmt. 6.
Hagen, K. S. and Sluss, R. R.. 1966. Quantity of aphids required for reproduction by Hippodamia spp. in the laboratory. In Hodek, I. (Ed.), Ecology of aphidophagous insects. (Sept. 27-Oct. 1, 1966.) 360 pp.
Hassell, M. P. 1978. The Dynamics of Arthropod Predator-Prey Systems. Princeton Univ. Press.
Holling, C. S. 1966. The functional response of invertebrate predators to prey density. Mem. ent. Soc. Can. 48. 86 pp.
*Lotka, A. J. 1925. Elements of Physical Biology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.
Mukerji, M. K. and LeRoux, E. J.. 1969. A study on energetics of Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Can. Ent. 101: 449460.
Neuenschwander, P., Hagen, K. S., and Smith, R. F.. 1975. Predation on aphids in California's alfalfa fields. Hilgardia 43(2): 5378.
Nicholson, A. J. 1933. The balance of animal populations, J. Anim. Ecol. 2: 131178.
Odum, E. P. 1971. Fundamentals of Ecology (3rd ed.). W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia.
Readshaw, J. L. and Cuff, W. R.. A model of Nicholson's blowfly cycles applied to predation theory. J. Anim. Ecol. (in press).
Rogers, D. J. and Randolph, S. E.. 1978. Metabolic strategies of male and female tsetse (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the field. Bull. ent. Res. 68: 639654.
Royama, T. 1971. A comparative study of models for predation and parasitism. Researches Popul. Ecol. Kyoto Univ., Suppl. 1.
Schoener, T. 1973. Population growth regulation by intraspecific competition for energy or time: Some simple presentations. Theor. Pop. Biol. 4: 5684.
Tamaki, G., McGuire, J. V., and Turner, J. E.. 1974. Predator power and efficacy: A model to evaluate their impact. Environ. Ent. 3: 625630.
Thornley, J. H. L. 1977. Mathematical Models in Plant Physiology. Academic Press, New York.
*Volterra, W. 1926. Variazioni e fluttuazioni del numero d'individui in specie animali conviventi. Mem. R. Accad. Naz. dei Lincei 6:(2): 31113
Von Foerster, H. 1959. Some remarks on changing populations. In Stohlman, F. Jr, (Ed.), The Kinetics of Cellular Proliferation. Grune and Stratton, New York.
Wang, Y., Gutierrez, A. P., Oster, G., and Daxl, R.. 1977. A population model for cotton growth and development: Coupling cotton–herbivore interaction. Can. Ent. 109: 13591374.
Wiegert, R. G. 1976. Benchmark Papers in Ecology. Ecological Energetics. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsburg, Pa. 457 pp.


  • A. P. Gutierrez (a1), J. U. Baumgaertner (a1) and K. S. Hagen (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.