Skip to main content
×
×
Home

CONSPECIFIC SUPERPARASITISM IN TWO PARASITOID WASPS, APHIDIUS ERVI HALIDAY AND APHELINUS ASYCHIS WALKER: REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES INFLUENCE HOST DISCRIMINATION

  • B. Bai (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

Conspecific host discrimination and larval competition in two aphid parasitoid species were studied in the laboratory using the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae), as a host. Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) used internal host cues to discriminate between unparasitized and conspecific parasitized hosts. When only parasitized hosts were available, females oviposited into recently parasitized ones where their progeny had a good chance to survive, but rejected those parasitized ≥24 h earlier where their offspring normally died. Competitions occurred only after both eggs had hatched. Larvae eliminated supernumeraries by means of physical combat and physiological suppression. In Aphelinus asychis Walker (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), factors, or changes in host internal condition, associated with hatching of the first egg resulted in suppression of conspecific competitors which could be in either larval or egg stage. The older larvae always won competitions through physiological means. A wasp’s oviposition decision is shown to be influenced by the probability of its progeny’s survival. Species that have different reproductive strategies may respond differently to identical host conditions.

Résumé

La discrimination des hôtes par des individus de la même espèce et la compétition entre larves de deux parasitoïdes du puceron du pois ont été étudiées au laboratoire, en utilisant le puceron du pois, Acyrthosipon pisum (Harris) (Homoptère : Aphididae), comme hôte. Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptère : Aphidiidae) utilisait des indications internes pour distinguer les hôtes non parasités de ceux parasités par des guêpes de la même espèce. Lorsque les hôtes parasités étaient seul disponibles, les femelles déposaient leurs oeufs dans ceux qui étaient les plus récemment parasités dans lesquels leur progéniture avait une meilleure chance de survivre, mais rejetaient ceux parasités plus de 24 h plus tôt où la descendance mourait. La compétition avait lieu seulement après éclosion des oeufs. Les larves de l’espèce en plus grand nombre étaient éliminées par combat physique et suppression physiologique. Dans Aphelinus asychis Walker (Hymenoptère : Aphidiidae), les facteurs associés à l’éclosion du premier oeuf entrainaient la suppression des compétiteurs de la même espèce qui pouvaient être soit au stade larvaire, soit à l’état d’oeuf. Les larves les plus âgées gagnaient les compétitions toujours par des moyens physiologiques. Il a été montré que la décision d’une guêpe de déposer un oeuf est influencée par la probabilité de survie de la progéniture. Des espèces ayant différentes reproductives stratégies pourraient repondre differemment à d’identiques conditions d’hôtes.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Alphen J.J.M. van. 1988. Patch-time allocation by insect parasitoids: Superparasitism and aggregation. pp. 215221in de Jong G. (Ed.), Population Genetics and Evolution. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Alphen J.J.M. van, and Vet L.E.M.. 1986. An evolutionary approach to host finding and selection. pp. 2361in Waage J., and Greathead D. (Eds.), Insect Parasitoids. Academic Press, London.
Alphen J.J.M. van, and Visser M.E.. 1990. Superparasitism as an adaptive strategy for insect parasitoids. A. Rev. Ent. 35: 5979.
Bai B., and Mackauer M.. 1990. Host discrimination by the aphid parasitoid Aphelinus asychis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): When superparasitism is not adaptive. Can. Ent. 122: 363372.
Bai B., and Mackauer M.. 1991. Recognition of heterospecific parasitism: Competition between aphidiid (Aphidius ervi) and aphelinid (Aphelinus asychis) parasitoids of aphids. J. Insect Behav. 4: 333345.
Bakker K., Peulet P.H., and Visser M.E.. 1990. The ability to distinguish between hosts containing different numbers of parasitoid eggs by the solitary parasitoid Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomas) (Hym., Cynip.). Neth. J. Zool. 40: 514520.
Charnov E.L., and Stephens D.W.. 1988. On the evolution of host selection in solitary parasitoids. Am. Nat. 132: 707722.
Chow F.J., and Mackauer M.. 1985. Multiparasitism of the pea aphid: Stage of development of parasite determines survival of Aphidius smithi and Praon pequodorum (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Can. Ent. 117: 133134.
Cloutier C., Dohse L.A., and Bauduin F.. 1984. Host discrimination in the aphid parasitoid Aphidius nigripes. Can. J. Zool. 62: 13671372.
Dijken M.J. van, and Waage J.D.. 1987. Self and conspecific superparasitism by the egg parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens. Entomologia exp. appl. 43: 183192.
Fisher R.C. 1961. A study in insect multiparasitism. II. The mechanisms and control of competition for possession of the host. J. Exp. Biol. 38: 605628.
Fisher R.C. 1971. Aspects of the physiology of endoparasitic Hymenoptera. Biol. Rev. 46: 243278.
Hågvar E.B. 1988. Multiparasitism of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae: Competition in the egg stage between Aphidius matricariae and Ephedrus cerasicola. Entomologia exp. appl. 47: 275282.
Hubbard S.F., Marris G., Reynolds A., and Rowe G.W.. 1987. Adaptive patterns in the avoidance of superparasitism by solitary parasitic wasps. J. Anim. Ecol. 56: 387403.
Mackauer M. 1959. Histologische Untersuchungen an parasitierten Blattläusen. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde 19: 322352.
Mackauer M. 1990. Host discrimination and larval competition in solitary endoparasitoids. pp. 4162in Mackauer M., Ehler L.E., and Roland J. (Eds.), Critical Issues in Biological Control. Intercept, Andover, Hants.
Mangel M. 1989. Evolution of host selection in parasitoids: Does the state of the parasitoid matter? Am. Nat. 133: 688705.
Mangel M., and Clark C.W.. 1988. Dynamic modelling in behavioral ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 308 pp.
McBrien H., and Mackauer M.. 1990. Heterospecific larval competition and host discrimination in two species of aphid parasitoids: Aphidius ervi and Aphidius smithi. Entomologia exp. appl. 56: 145153.
McBrien H., and Mackauer M.. 1991. Decision to superparasitize based on larval survival: Competition between aphid parasitoids Aphidius ervi and Aphidius smithi. Entomologia exp. appl. 59: 145150.
Roitberg B.D. 1991. Why an evolutionary perspective. In Roitberg B.D., and Isman M.B. (Eds.), Evolutionary Perspectives of Chemical Ecology. Chapman and Hall, New York, NY. In press.
Roitberg B.D., and Mangel M.. 1989. On the evolutionary ecology of marking pheromones. Evol. Ecol. 2: 289315.
Salt G. 1961. Competition among insect parasites. Symp. Soc. exp. Biol. 15: 96119.
Sokal R.R., and Rohlf F.J.. 1981. Biometry, 2nd ed. W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, CA. 859 pp.
Tremblay E. 1966. Ricerche sugli imenotteri parassiti. III. Osservazioni sulla competizione intraspecifica negli Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Bolletino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria ‘Filippo Silvestri’ di Portici 24: 209225.
Vinson S.B. 1990. Physiological interactions between the host genus Heliothis and its guild of parasitoids. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 13: 6381.
Visser M.E., van Alphen J.J.M., and Nell H.W.. 1990. Adaptive superparasitism and patch time allocation in solitary parasitoids: The influence of the number of parasitoids depleting a patch. Behavior 114: 2136.
Völkl W., and Mackauer M.. 1990. Age-specific pattern of host discrimination by the aphid parasitoid Ephedrus californicus Baker (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Can. Ent. 122: 349361.
Waage J.D., and Godfray H.J.C.. 1985. Reproductive strategies and population ecology of insect parasitoids. pp. 449470in Sibly R.M., and Smith R.H. (Eds.), Behavioral Ecology, Ecological Consequences of Adaptive Behavior. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Canadian Entomologist
  • ISSN: 0008-347X
  • EISSN: 1918-3240
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-entomologist
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 5 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 77 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 16th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.