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DEVELOPMENTAL TIME AND HOST SELECTION BY THE APHID PARASITOID APHELINUS SP. NR. VARIPES (FOERSTER) (HYMENOPTERA: APHELINIDAE)

  • S.E. Lajeunesse (a1) and G.D. Johnson (a1)

Abstract

Developmental rates, lower developmental threshold, host selection among three species of aphid, and head capsule width were determined for the parasitoid Aphelinus sp. nr. varipes (Foerster) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Aphid species used were Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), western wheat aphid, Diuraphis tritici (Gillette), and corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch. Developmental rate was determined at five constant temperatures, 11.3, 14.7, 19.0, 25.7, and 30.3°C. Developmental times of the wasp were similar in Russian and western wheal aphids, ranging from 88.7 days al 11,3°C to 11.3 days at 30.3°C. Lower developmental threshold was similar in both species, 9.7°C in Russian wheat aphid and 9.4°C in western wheat aphid. Because of the low number of corn leaf aphid s parasitized, it was not possible to compute a parasitoid development threshold in that host. In the host selection test, there were no significant differences in numbers of Russian and western wheat aphids attacked; corn leaf aphid was seldom attacked. The western wheat aphid is a native species that also causes leaf-rolling; we believe it was the primary host of the parasitoid before the arrival of the Russian wheat aphid. Wasps emerging from Russian wheat aphid were consistently larger than those emerging from western wheat aphid. Mean head capsule width for 30 female wasps from Russian wheat aphid was 0.33 mm; from 30 female wasps from western wheat aphid mean head capsule width was 0.20 mm.

La vitesse du développement, le seuil inférieur de température du développement, la sélection d’un hôte parmi trois espèces de pucerons et la largeur de la capsule céphalique ont été déterminés chez le parasitoïde Aphelinus sp. près de varipes (Foerster) (Hymenoptera : Aphelinidae). Les pucerons utilisés étaient Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), Diuraphis tritici (Gillette) et le Puceron du maïs, Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch. La vitesse de développement a été déterminée à cinq températures constantes, 11,3, 14,7, 19,0, 25,7 et 30,3°C. La durée du développement des parasites était la même chez les deux espèces de Diuraphis et s’échelonnait entre 88,7 jours à 11,3°C et 11,3 jours à 30,3°C. Le seuil inférieur de température du développement était semblable chez les deux espèces, soit 9,7°C chez D. noxia et 9,4°C chez D. tritici. Le nombre de Pucerons du maïs parasités était trop faible pour qu’il soit possible de calculer un seuil chez cet hôte. Au cours du lest sur la sélection d’un hôte, il n’y avait pas de différence significative entre le nombre de D. noxia et le nombre de D. iritici choisis; le Puceron du maïs était rarement attaqué. Diuraphis tritici est une espèce indigène qui est aussi rouleuse de feuilles; nous croyons qu’il s’agissait du principal hôte du parasitoïde avant l’arrivée de Diuraphis noxia. Les guêpes issues de D. noxia étaient toujours plus grosses que les guêpes émergées de D. tritici. La largeur moyenne de la capsule céphalique de 30 guêpes femelles émergées de D. noxia était de 0,33 mm, alors que la largeur moyenne de cette variable chez 30 guêpes femelles issues de D. tritici n’était que de 0,20 mm.

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