Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Early Eocene big headed flies (Diptera: Pipunculidae) from the Okanagan Highlands, western North America

  • S. Bruce Archibald (a1) (a2) (a3), Christian Kehlmaier (a4) and Rolf W. Mathewes (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

Three new species of Pipunculidae (Diptera) are described (one named), from the early Eocene (Ypresian) Okanagan Highlands of British Columbia, Canada and Washington State, United States of America: Metanephrocerus belgardeaenew species from Republic, Washington; and Pipunculidae species A and Pipunculinae species A from Quilchena, British Columbia. We re-describe the late Eocene (Priabonian) species Protonephrocerus florissantius Carpenter and Hull from Florissant, Colorado, United States of America, and assign it to a new genus proposed here, Priabonanew genus. Pipunculinae species A is the oldest known member of the family whose wing lacks a separated M2 vein; previously this had been known in species only as old as Miocene Dominican amber. This is a presumably derived character state that is predominant in modern species. Molecular analysis indicates an origin of the Pipunculidae in the Maastrichtian; the morphological and taxonomic diversity seen here in the Ypresian is consistent with an early radiation of the family. This is concordant with the radiation of Auchenorrhyncha, upon which they mostly prey, which is in turn associated with the early Paleogene diversification of angiosperm-dominated forests recovering from the K-Pg extinction event.

Résumé

Nous décrivons trois nouvelles espèces de Pipunculidae (Diptera), dont une est nommée, de l’éocène inférieur (yprésien) des terres hautes de l'Okanagan en Colombie-Britannique, Canada, et de l’état de Washington, États-Unis d'Amérique: Metanephrocerus belgardeaenouvelle espèce de Republic, Washington et Pipunculidae espèce A et Pipunculinae espèce A de Quilchena, Colombie-Britannique. Nous décrivons de nouveau l'espèce Protonephrocerus florissantius Carpenter et Hull provenant de l’éocène supérieur (priabonien) de Florissant, Colorado, États-Unis d'Amérique, et la plaçons dans le nouveau genre Priabonanouveau genre que nous proposons ici. Pipunculinae espèce A est le membre connu le plus ancien de la famille dont l'aile ne possède pas de nervure M2 séparée; cette caractéristique n'avait pas jusqu’à présent été signalée plus antérieurement que chez des espèces de l'ambre du miocène de la République Dominicaine. Il s'agit vraisemblablement de l’état dérivé du caractère qui prédomine chez les espèces modernes. Une analyse moléculaire situe l'origine des Pipunculidae au maastrichtien; la diversité morphologique et taxonomique observée ici dans l'yprésien s'accorde bien avec une radiation hâtive de la famille. Cela est aussi en accord avec la radiation des Auchenorrhyncha, dont la plupart des Pipunculidae se nourrissent, et qui est elle-même associée à la diversification au paléogène inférieur des forêts dominées par les angiospermes qui se remettent de l'extinction K-Pg.

Copyright
Corresponding author
1Corresponding author: (e-mail: sba48@sfu.ca).
Footnotes
Hide All

Subject editor: Bradley Sinclair

http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:16184463-7371-4601-9302-0F094C53F745

Footnotes
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

S.B. Archibald , W.H. Bossert , D.R. Greenwood , B.D. Farrell 2010. Seasonality, the latitudinal gradient of diversity, and Eocene insects. Paleobiology, 36: 374398.

S.B. Archibald , S.D. Cover , C.S. Moreau 2006. Bulldog ants of the Eocene Okanagan Highlands, and the history of the subfamily (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmeciinae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 99: 487523.

S.B. Archibald , D.R. Greenwood , R.W. Mathewes 2012. Seasonality, montane beta diversity, and Eocene insects: testing Janzen's dispersal hypothesis in an equable world. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 371: 18.

S.B. Archibald R.W. Mathewes 2000. Early Eocene insects from Quilchena, British Columbia, and their paleoclimatic implications. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 78: 14411462.

E.D. Currano , P. Wilf , S.L. Wing , C.C. Labandeira , E.C. Lovelock , D.L. Royer 2008. Sharply increased insect herbivory during the Paleocene–Eocene thermal maximum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105: 19601964.

D.R. Greenwood , S.B. Archibald , R.W. Mathewes , P. Moss 2005. Fossil biotas from the Okanagan Highlands, southern British Columbia and northern Washington State: climates and ecosystems across an Eocene landscape. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 42: 167185.

D. Grimaldi 1999. The co-radiation of pollinating insects and angiosperms in the Cretaceous. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens, 86: 373406.

D. Grimaldi M.S. Engel 2005. Evolution of the insects. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York, United States of America.

A. Iglesias , P. Wilf , K.R. Johnson , A.B. Zamuner , N.R. Cúneo , S.D. Matheos , B.S. Singer 2007. A Paleocene lowland macroflora from Patagonia reveals significantly greater richness than North American analogs. Geology, 35: 947950.

M.A. Iturralde-Vinent R.D.E. MacPhee 1996. Age and paleogeographical origin of Dominican amber. Science, 273: 18501852.

K.R. Johnson B. Ellis 2002. A tropical rainforest in Colorado 1.4 million years after the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary. Science, 296: 23792383.

C. Kehlmaier T. Assmann 2010. Molecular analysis meets morphology-based systematics – a synthetic approach for Chalarinae (Insecta: Diptera: Pipunculidae). Systematic Entomology, 35: 181195.

C.C. Labandeira 2002. Paleobiology of middle Eocene plant-insect associations from the Pacific Northwest: a preliminary report. Rocky Mountain Geology, 37: 3159.

C.C. Labandeira , K.R. Johnson , P. Wilf 2002. Impact of the terminal Cretaceous event on plant–insect associations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99: 20612066.

P.T. Moss , D.R. Greenwood , S.B. Archibald 2005. Regional and local vegetation community dynamics of the Eocene Okanagan Highlands (British Columbia – Washington State) from palynology. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 42: 187204.

. . , .S.H. Scudder 1890 The tertiary insects of North America United States Geological Survey of the TerritoriesWashington, DC, United States of America

J.H. Skevington D.K. Yeates 2000. Phylogeny of the Syrphoidea (Diptera) inferred from mtDNA sequences and morphology with particular reference to classification of the Pipunculidae (Diptera). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 16: 212224.

J.H. Skevington D.K. Yeates 2001. Phylogenetic classification of Eudorylini (Diptera: Pipunculidae). Systematic Entomology, 26: 421452.

R.Y. Smith , J.F. Basinger , D.R. Greenwood 2012. Early Eocene plant diversity and dynamics in the Falkland flora, Okanagan Highlands, British Columbia, Canada. Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 92: 309328.

T. Wappler , E.D. Currano , P. Wilf , J. Rust , C.C. Labandeira 2009. No post-Cretaceous ecosystem depression in European forests? Rich insect-feeding damage on diverse middle Palaeocene plants, Menat, France. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 276: 42714277.

T. Wappler , C.C. Labandeira , J. Rust , H. Frankenhäuser , V. Wilde 2012. Testing for the effects and consequences of mid Paleogene climate change on insect herbivory. PLoS One, 7: e40744. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040744.

B.M. Wiegmann , M.D. Trautwein , I.S. Winkler , N.B. Barr , J.-W. Kim , C. Lambkin , et al.2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108: 56905695.

P. Wilf , N.R. Cúneo , K.R. Johnson , J.F. Hicks , S.L. Wing , J.D. Obradovich 2003. High plant diversity in Eocene South America: evidence from Patagonia. Science, 300: 122125.

P. Wilf K.R. Johnson 2004. Land plant extinction at the end of the Cretaceous: a quantitative analysis of the North Dakota megafloral record. Paleobiology, 30: 347368.

P. Wilf C.C. Labandeira 1999. Response of plant-insect associations to Paleocene–Eocene warming. Science, 284: 21532153.

P. Wilf , C.C. Labandeira , K.R. Johnson , N.R. Cúneo , D.L. Dilcher 2005. Richness of plant-insect associations in Eocene Patagonia: a legacy for South American biodiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102: 89448948.

P. Wilf , C.C. Labandeira , K.R. Johnson , B. Ellis 2006. Decoupled plant and insect diversity after the end-Cretaceous extinction. Science, 313: 11121115.

J.C. Zachos , G.R. Dickens , R.E. Zeebe 2008. An early Cenozoic perspective on greenhouse warming and carbon cycle dynamics. Nature, 451: 279283.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Canadian Entomologist
  • ISSN: 0008-347X
  • EISSN: 1918-3240
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-entomologist
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×