Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa


  • Clayton C. Beegle (a1) and Takashi Yamamoto (a2)

This review article starts with the discovery of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner in Japan at the turn of the century and notes that the observations of the early Japanese workers clearly show that they were aware of the toxin-mediated nature of the activity of B. thuringiensis toward insect larvae. The early work in Europe with B. thuringiensis against Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) showed that the bacterium had promise as a microbial control agent. The commercial development of B. thuringiensis in France in the late 1930s, and in Eastern Europe and the United States in the 1950s, is traced.


Cet article de synthèse relate l’histoire de Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner depuis sa découverte au Japon au début du siècle et indique que les premiers chercheurs japonais connaissaient déjà les effets toxiques du bacille sur les larves d’insectes. Les premiers travaux européens qui décrivent les effets de B. thuringiensis sur Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) ont démontré que la bactérie constituait un agent microbien de contrôle très prometteur. L’historique de la production commerciale de B. thuringiensis, en France à la fin des années 1930 et en Europe de l’Est et aux États-Unis dans les années 1950, est retracée.

[Traduit par la rédaction]

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

M.J. Adang , M.J. Staver , T.A. Rockeleau , J. Leighton , R.F. Barker , and D.V. Thompson . 1985. Characterized full-length and truncated plasmid clones of the crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD-73 and their toxicity to Manduca sexta. Gene 36: 289300.

T.A. Angus 1954. A bacterial toxin paralyzing silkworm larvae. Nature 173: 545546.

K.A. Barton , H.R. Whiteley , and N.-S. Yang . 1987. Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin expressed in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum provides resistance to lepidopteran insects. Plant Physiol. 85: 11031109.

C.C. Beegle , L.C. Lewis , R.E. Lynch , and A.J. Martinez . 1981. Interaction of larval age and antibiotic on the susceptibility of three insect species to Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 37: 143153.

E. Berliner 1915. Uber die Schalffsucht der Mehlmottentaupe. Z. angew. Ent. 2: 2956.

K. Bernhard 1986. Studies on the delta-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 33: 261265.

A. Bonnefoi , and H. de Barjac . 1963. Classification des souches du groupe Bacillus thuringiensis par la determination de l'antigene flagellaire. Entomophaga 8: 223229.

B.L. Brizzard , and H.R. Whiteley . 1988. Nucleotide sequence of an additional crystal protein gene cloned from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis. Nucl. Acids Res. 16: 27232724.

L.A. Bulla Jr , L.I. Davidson , K.J. Kramer , and B.L. Jones . 1979. Purification of the insecticidal toxin from the parasporal crystal of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 91: 11231130.

A. Burgerjon 1965. Le titrage biologique des cristaux de Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner par reduction de consommation au laboratoire de la miniere. Entomophaga 10: 2126.

A. Burgerjon , and G. Biache . 1967. Contribution a l'étude du spectre d'activate de differentes souches de Bacillus thuringiensis. Entomologia exp. appl. 10: 211230.

A. Burgerjon , and P. Grison . 1959. Sensibilite de differents lepidopteres a la souche “anduze” de Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner. Entomophaga 4: 201206.

H.D. Burges , E.M. Thomson , and R.A. Latchford . 1976. Importance of spores and δ-endotoxin protein crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis in Galleria mellonella. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 27: 8794.

D.P. Campbell , D.E. Dieball , and J.M. Brackett . 1987. Rapid HPLC assay for the β-exotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 35: 156158.

G.G. Chestukhina , I.A. Zalunin , L.I. Kostina, T.S. Kotova , S.P. Kattrukha , and V.M. Stepanov . 1980. Crystal-forming proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis. The limited hydrolysis by endogeneous proteinases as a cause of their apparent multiplicity. Biochem. J. 187: 457465.

W. Chunjatupornchai , H. Hofte , J. Seurinck , C. Angusuthanasombat , and M. Vaeck . 1988. Common features of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins specific for Diptera and Lepidoptera. Eur. J. Biochem. 173: 916.

H. de Barjac , and A. Bonnefoi . 1962. Essai de classification biochemique et serologique de 24 souches de Bacillus du type B. thuringiensis. Entomophaga 7: 531.

H. de Barjac , and A. Bonnefoi . 1968. A classification of strains of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner with a key to their differentiation. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 11: 335347.

H. de Barjac , and A. Bonnefoi . 1973. Mise au point sur la classification des Bacillus thuringiensis. Entomophaga 18: 517.

H. de Barjac , and E. Frachon . 1990. Classification of Bacillus thuringiensis strains. Entomophaga 35: 233240.

H. de Barjac , and F. Lemille . 1970. Presence of flagellar antigenic subfactors in Serotype 3 of Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 15: 139140.

A.J. De Lucca 1984. Lectin grouping of Bacillus thuringiensis serovars. Can. J. Microbiol. 30: 11001104.

H.T. Dulmage 1970. Insecticidal activity of HD-1, a new isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis var. alesti. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 15: 232239.

H.T. Dulmage , O.P. Boening , C.S. Rehnborg , and G.D. Hansen . 1971. A proposed standardized bioassay for formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis based on the international unit. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 18: 240245.

J. Farkas , K. Sebesta , K. Horska , Z. Samek , L. Dolejs , and F. Sorm . 1969. The structure of exotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis var. gelechiae. Coll. Czech. Chem. Commun. 34: 11181120.

J. Ferre , M.D. Real , J. Van Rie , S. Jansens , and M. Peferoen . 1991. Resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticide in a field population of Plutella xylostella is due to a change in a midgut membrane receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 51195123.

D.N. Ferro , and S.M. Lyon . 1991. Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larval mortality: Operative effects of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. san diego. J. econ. Ent. 84: 806809.

D.A. Fischhoff , K.S. Bowdish , F.J. Perlak , P.G. Marrone , S.M. McCormick , J.G. Niedermeyer , D.A. Dean , K. Kusano-Kretzmer , E.J. Mayer , D.E. Rochester , S.G. Rogers , and R.T. Fraley . 1987. Insect tolerant transgenic tomato plants. Bio/Technology 5: 807813.

J.M. Gonzalez Jr, B.J. Brown , and B.C. Carlton . 1982. Transfer of Bacillus thuringiensis plasmids coding for δ-endotoxin among strains of B. thuringiensis and B. cereus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 69516955.

J.M. Gonzalez Jr, and B.C. Carlton . 1980. Patterns of plasmid DNA in crystalliferous and acrystalliferous strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. Plasmid 3: 9298.

J.M. Gonzalez Jr, and B.C. Carlton . 1984. A large transmissible plasmid is required for crystal production in Bacillus thuringiensis. Plasmid 11: 2838.

J.M. Gonzalez Jr, H.T. Dulmage , and B.C. Carlton . 1981. Correlation between specific plasmids and δ-endotoxin production in Bacillus thuringiensis. Plasmid 5: 351365.

M.Z. Haider , B.H. Knowles , and D.J. Ellar . 1986. Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. colmeri insecticidal δ-endotoxin is determined by differential proteolytic processing of the protoxin. Eur. J. Biochem. 156: 531540.

I.M. Hall , R.L. Hale , H.H. Shorey , and K.Y. Arakawa . 1961. Evaluation of chemical and microbial materials for control of the cabbage looper. J. econ. Ent. 54: 141146.

C.L. Hannay 1953. Crystalline inclusions in aerobic sporeforming bacteria. Nature 172: 1004.

A.M. Heimpel 1967. A critical review of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner and other crystalliferous bacteria. pp. 287322in R.F. Smith , and T.E. Mittler (Eds.), Annual Review of Entomology. Vol. 12. Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, CA. 563 pp.

A.M. Heimpel , and T.A. Angus . 1958. The taxonomy of insect pathogens related to Bacillus cereus Frankland and Frankland. Can. J. Microbiol. 4: 531541.

G.A. Held , L.A. Bulla Jr, E. Ferrari , J. Hoch , A.I. Aronson , and S.A. Minnich . 1982. Cloning and localization of the lepidopteran protoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 60656069.

C. Herrnstadt , T.E. Gilroy , D.A. Sobieski , B.D. Bennett , and F.H. Gaertner . 1987. Nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of a coleopteran-active delta-endotoxin gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. san diego. Gene 57: 3746.

C. Herrnstadt , G.C. Soares , E.R. Wilcox , and D.L. Edwards . 1986. A new strain of Bacillus thuringiensis with activity against coleopteran insects. Bio/Technology 4: 305308.

H. Hofte , J. Seurinck , A. Van Houtven , and M. Vaeck . 1987. Nucleotide sequence of a gene encoding an insecticidal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis tenebrionis toxic against Coleoptera. Nucl. Acids Res. 15: 7183.

H. Hofte , P. Soetaert , S. Jansens , and M. Peferoen . 1990. Nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of a new Lepidoptera-specific cyrstal protein gene from Bacillus thuringiensis. Nucl. Acids Res. 18: 5545.

K.C. Holmes , and R.E. Monro . 1965. Studies on the structure of parasporal inclusions from Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Mol. Biol. 14: 572581.

G. Honee , T. van der Salm , and B. Visser . 1988. Nucleotide sequence of crystal protein gene isolated from B. thuringiensis subspecies entomocidus 60.5 coding for a toxin highly active against Spodoptera species. Nucl. Acids Res. 16: 6240.

C.M. Ignoffo 1973. Effects of entomopathogens on vertebrates. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 217: 141164.

C.M. Ignoffo , C. Garcia , and T.L. Couch . 1977 a. Effect of antibiotics on the insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 30: 277278.

C.M. Ignoffo , D.L. Hostetter , R.E. Pinnell , and C. Garcia . 1977 b. Relative susceptibility of six soybean caterpillars to a standard preparation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki. J. econ. Ent. 70: 6063.

T. Iizuka , and T. Yamamoto . 1983. Possible location of the mosquitocidal protein in the crystal preparation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 19: 187192.

S.E. Jacobs 1951. Bacteriological control of the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella. Z. Proc. Soc. appl. Bacteriol. 13: 8391.

N. Jahn , W. Schnetter , and K. Geider . 1987. Cloning of an insecticidal toxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis in subsp. tenebrionis and its expression in Escherichia coli cells. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 48: 311315.

P. Jarrett 1983. Comparison of plasmids from twelve isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis H-serotype 7. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 16: 5560.

D.R. Jones , V. Karunakaran , and H.D. Burges . 1983. Phages naturally associated with the aizawai variety of insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis and their relevance to strain identification. J. appl. Bacteriol. 54: 373377.

T. Kaneko , R. Nozaki , and K. Aizawa . 1978. Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness between Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Microbiol. Immunol. 22: 639641.

A. Klier , C. Parsot , and G. Rapoport . 1983. In vitro transcription of the cloned chromosomal crystal gene from Bacillus thuringiensis. Nucl. Acids Res. 11: 39733987.

A. Krieg 1965 b. Uber die vivo-titration (bioassay-biotest) von insektenpathogenen, speziell von Bacillus thuringiensis. Entomophaga 10: 320.

A. Krieg 1970. In vitrodetermination of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cerus, and related bacilli. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 15: 313320.

A. Krieg 1971 a. Concerning α-exotoxin produced by vegetative cells of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 17: 134135.

A. Krieg 1971 b. Is the potential pathogenicity of bacilli for insects related to production of α-exotoxin? J. Invertebr. Pathol. 18: 425426.

A. Krieg , A.M. Huger , G.A. Langenbruch , and W. Schnetter . 1983. Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis: en neuer, gegenuber Larven von Coleopteren wirksamer Pathotyp. Z. angew. Ent. 96: 500508.

J. Krywienczyk , H.T. Dulmage , and P.G. Fast . 1978. Occurrence of two serologically distinct groups within Bacillus thuringiensis serotype 3a,b var. kurstaki. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 31: 372375.

L.A. Lacey , M.S. Mulla , and H.T. Dulmage . 1978. Some factors affecting the pathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner against blackflies. Environ. Ent. 7: 583588.

M.M. Lacadet , G. Chevrier , and R. Dedonder . 1972. Analysis of a protein fraction in the spore coats of Bacillus thuringiensis-comparison with crystal protein. Eur. J. Biochem. 25: 349358.

D. Lereclus , M.M. Lecadet , J. Ribier , and R. Dedonder . 1982. Molecular relationship among plasmids of Bacillus thuringiensis: Conserved sequences through 11 crystalliferous strains. Mol. Gen. Genet. 186: 391398.

J. Li , J. Carroll , and D.J. Ellar . 1991. Crystal structure of insecticidal δ-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis at 2.5 Å resolution. Nature 353: 815821.

R.S. Li , P. Jarrett , and H.D. Burges . 1987. Importance of spores, crystals, and δ-endotoxins in the pathogenecity of different varieties of Bacillus thuringiensis in Galleria mellonella and Pieris brassicae. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 50: 277284.

E. McConnel , and A.G. Richards . 1959. The production by Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner of a heat-stable substance toxic for insects. Can. J. Microbiol. 5: 161168.

W.H. McGaughey 1978. Response of Plodia interpunctella and Ephestia cautella larvae to spores and parasporal crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis. J. econ. Ent. 71: 687688.

W.H. McGaughey 1985. Insect resistance to the biological insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis. Science 229: 193195.

W.H. McGaughey , and R.W. Beeman . 1988. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in colonies of Indianmeal moth and almond moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. econ. Ent. 81: 2833.

S.A. McPherson , F.J. Perlack , R.L. Fuchs , P.G. Marrone , P.B. Lavrik , and D.A. Fischhoff . 1988. Characterization of the coleopteran-specific protein gene of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis. Bio/Technology 6: 6166.

W.J. Moar , J.T. Trumble , and B.A. Federrici . 1989. Comparative toxicity of spores and crystals from the NRD-12 and HD-1 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki to neonate beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. econ. Ent. 82: 15931603.

M.B. Mohd-Salleh , C.C. Beegle , and L.C. Lewis . 1980. Fermentation media and production of exotoxin by three varieties of Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 35: 7583.

M.B. Mohd-Salleh , and L.C. Lewis . 1982. Toxic effects of spore/crystal ratios of Bacillus thuringiensis on European corn borer larvae. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 39: 290297.

J.R. Norris 1964. The classification of Bacillus thuringiensis. J. appl. Bacteriol. 27: 439447.

J.R. Norris 1970. Sporeformers as insecticides. J. appl. Bacteriol. 33: 192206.

M. Ohba , and K. Aizawa . 1978. Serological identification of Bacillus thuringiensis and related bacteria isolated in Japan. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 32: 303309.

M. Ohba , A. Tantichodok , and K. Aizawa . 1981. Production of heat-stable exotoxin by Bacillus thuringiensis and related bacteria. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 38: 2632.

F.J. Perlak , R.W. Deaton , T.A. Armstrong , R.L. Fuchs , S.R. Sims , J.T. Greenplate , and D.A. Fischhoff . 1990. Insect resistant cotton plants. Bio/Technology 8: 939943.

U. Riethmuller , and G.A. Langenbruch . 1989. Zwei Biotestmethoden zur Prufung von Bacillus thuringiensis subspec. tenebrionis gegen Larven des Kartoffelkafers (Leptinotasa decemlineata). Entomophaga 34: 237245.

M.H. Rogoff , and A.A. Yousten . 1969. Bacillus thuringiensis: Microbiological considerations. pp. 357386in C.E. Clifton , S. Reffel , and M.P. Starr (Eds.), Annual Review of Microbiology. Vol. 23. Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, CA.

H.S. Salama , M.S. Foda , and A. Sharaby . 1989. A proposed new biological standard for bioassay of bacterial insecticides vs. Spodoptera spp. Trop. Pest Manage. 35: 326330.

P.S. Scherrer , and H.J. Somerville . 1977. Membrane fractions from the outer layers of spores of Bacillus thuringiensis with toxicity to lepidopterous larvae. Eur. J. Biochem. 72: 479490.

H.E. Schnepf , and H.R. Whiteley . 1981. Cloning and expression of the Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein gene in Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 28932897.

K. Sebesta , and K. Horska . 1970. Mechanisms of inhibition of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase by exotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 209: 357367.

V. Sekar , D.V. Thompson , M.J. Maroney , R.G. Bookland , and M.J. Adang . 1987. Molecular cloning and characterization of the insecticidal crystal protein gene of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 70367040.

T. Seki , C.-K. Chung , H. Mikami , and Y. Oshima . 1978. Deoxyribonucleic acid homology and taxonomy of the genus Bacillus. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 28: 182189.

E.S. Sharpe , and F.L. Baker . 1979. Ultrastructure of the unusual crystal of the HD-1 isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 34: 320322.

J.A. Short , P.O. Walker , R.D. Thomson , and H.J. Somerville . 1974. Fine structure of Bacillus finitimus and Bacillus thuringiensis spores with special reference to the location of crystal antigen. J. Gen. Microbiol. 84: 261276.

A. Sick , F. Gaetner , and A. Wong . 1990. Nucleotide sequence of a coleopteran-active toxin gene from a new isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tolworthi. Nucl. Acids Res. 18: 1305.

S. Singer 1980. Bacillus sphaericus for the control of mosquitos. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 22: 13351355.

R.A. Smith 1982. Effect of strain and medium variation on mosquito toxin production by Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis. Can. J. Microbiol. 28: 10891092.

R.A. Smith 1987. Use of crystal serology to differentiate among varieties of Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 50: 18.

H.J. Somerville , and M.L. Jones . 1972. DNA competition studies within the Bacillus cereus group of bacilli. J. Gen. Microbiol. 73: 257265.

H.J. Somerville , and H.V. Pockett . 1975. An insect toxin from spores of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus. J. Gen. Microbiol. 87: 359369.

H.J. Somerville , Y. Tanada , and E.M. Omi . 1970. Lethal effect of purified spore and crystalline endotoxin preparations of Bacillus thuringiensis on several lepidopterous insects. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 16: 241248.

E.A. Steinhaus 1951. Possible use of Bacillus thuringiensis as an aid in the biological control of the alfalfa caterpillar. Hilgardia 20: 359381.

E.A. Steinhaus 1956 b. Living insecticides. Sci. Am. 195: 96100.

T.B. Stone , S.R. Sims , and P.G. Marrone . 1989. Selection of tobacco budworm for resistance to a genetically engineered Pseudomonas fluorescens containing the δ-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 53: 228234.

G.R. Sutter , and E.S. Raun . 1966. The effect of Bacillus thuringiensis components on the development of the European corn borer. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 8: 457460.

G.R. Sutter , and E.S. Raun . 1967. Histopathology of European-corn-borer larvae treated with Bacillus thuringiensis. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 9: 90103.

B.E. Tabasnik , N.L. Cushing , N. Finson , and M.W. Johnson . 1990. Field development of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). J. econ. Ent. 83: 16711676.

P.C.B. Turnbull 1981. Bacillus cereus toxins. Pharmac. Ther. 13: 453505.

S. Tyski 1989. Radioimmunoassay of δ-endotoxin from B. thuringiensis: Correlation with bioassay. Toxicon 27: 947949.

M. Vaeck , A. Reynaerts , H. Hofte , S. Jansens , M. De Beuckeleer , C. Dean , M. Zabeau , M. Van Montagu , and J. Leemans . 1987. Transgenic plants protected from insect attack. Nature 328: 3337.

J. Van Rie , W.H. McGaughey , D.E. Johnson , B.D. Barnett , and H. Van Mellaert . 1990. Mechanism of insect resistance to the microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis. Science 247: 7274.

C. Waalwijk , A.M. Dullemans , M.E.S. van Workum , and B. Visser . 1985. Molecular cloning and the nucleotide sequence of the Mr 28000 crystal protein gene of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. Nucl. Acids Res. 13: 82068217.

H. Wabiko , K.C. Raymond , and L.A. Bulla Jr, 1986. Bacillus thuringiensis entomocidal protoxin gene sequence and gene product analysis. DNA 5: 305314.

E.S. Ward , and D.J. Ellar . 1983. Assignment of the δ-endotoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis to a specific plasmid by curing analysis. FEBS Lett. 158: 4549.

E.S. Ward , and D.J. Ellar . 1987. Nucleotide sequence of a Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis gene encoding a 130 kDa deltaendotoxin. Nucl. Acids Res. 15: 7175.

E.S. Ward , D.J. Ellar , and J.A. Todd . 1984. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the insecticidal delta-endotoxin gene of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis. FEBS Lett. 175: 377382.

V.W. Winkler , G.D. Hansen , and J. Yoder . 1971. Immunochemical analysis of parasporal crystal digests of Bacillus thuringiensis as an index of insecticidal activity. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 18: 378382.

D. Wu , and F.N. Chang . 1985. Synergism in mosquitocidal activity of 26 and 65 kDa proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis crystal. FEBS Lett. 190: 232236.

D. Wu , X.L. Cao , Y.Y. Bai , and A.I. Aronson . 1991. Sequencing of an operon containing a novel d-endotoxin gene from Bacillus thuringiensis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 81: 3136.

T. Yamamoto , and T. Iizuka . 1983. Two types of entomocidal toxins in the parasporal crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 227: 233241.

T. Yamamoto , and R.E. McLaughlin . 1981. Isolation of a protein from the parasporal crystal of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki toxic to the mosquito larva, Aedes taeniorhynchus. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 103: 414421.

C. Yamvrias , and T.A. Angus . 1970. The comparative pathogenicity of some Bacillus thuringiensis varieties for larvae of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 15: 9299.

G.W. Zehnder , and W.D. Gelernter . 1989. Activity of the M-ONE formulation of a new strain of Bacillus thuringiensis against the Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): Relationship between susceptibility and insect life stage. J. econ. Ent. 82: 756761.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Canadian Entomologist
  • ISSN: 0008-347X
  • EISSN: 1918-3240
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-entomologist
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 14 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 549 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.