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LIFE CYCLE AND BEHAVIOR OF THE SPRUCE BUDMOTH, ZEIRAPHERA CANADENSIS (LEPIDOPTERA: OLETHREUTIDAE), IN NEW BRUNSWICK

  • Jean J. Turgeon (a1)
Abstract

The life cycle, feeding behavior, and feeding damage of the spruce budmoth, Zeiraphera canadensis, were studied in northern New Brunswick. Larval emergence, which began in late May, was usually completed within 10 days. First-instar larvae did not feed on the previous year's foliage and took less than 30 min to settle inside a growing shoot, from which they exited only at the end of larval development. Larvae then dropped to the ground and remained as prepupae for approximately 6 days. Mating could be observed the first night following adult emergence. The majority of the mated females contained only 1 spermatophore (92%); others had 2 (7%) or 3 (1%). Although 95% of the egg clusters had 7 eggs or less, 5% had up to 19 eggs. Eggs required embryonic development before successful diapause could be initiated. The importance of these observations in the development of management strategies for this pest is discussed.

Le cycle vital, le comportement lors de la période d'alimentation et le type de dégâts infligé par la tordeuse de l'épinette, Zeiraphera canadensis, ont été étudiés dans le nord du Nouveau Brunswick. L'émergence des larves, qui a débuté à la fin du mois de mai, fut généralement complétée en moins de 10 jours. Les individus du 1er stade larvaire se nourissaient exclusivement de feuillage de l'année courante, prirent moins de 30 min pour s'établir à l'intérieur d'une pousse de l'année et ce, pour y demeurer, habituellement à l'intérieur de la même pousse, pour toute la durée du développement larvaire. Une fois le développement larvaire complété, les larves tombaient au sol et prenaient environ 6 jours avant de se transformer en nymphe. Des adultes ayant émergé tôt le matin furent observés en train de s'accoupler le soir même. Les femelles accouplés contenaient 1 (92%), 2 (7%) ou 3 (1%) spermatophores. Bien que la majorité des masses d'oeufs contenaient 7 oeufs ou moins, une faible proportion (5%) en contenait jusqu'à 19. Pour être en mesure d'amorcer la diapause, les oeufs devaient compléter une période de développement embryonnaire. L'importance de ces études sur le développement de stratégies pour le contrôle de cet insecte nuisible est également l'objet de la discussion.

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References
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The Canadian Entomologist
  • ISSN: 0008-347X
  • EISSN: 1918-3240
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-entomologist
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