Skip to main content

A new species of Archaeochrysa Adams (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from the early Eocene of Driftwood Canyon, British Columbia, Canada

  • S. Bruce Archibald (a1) (a2) (a3) and Vladimir N. Makarkin (a4)

Archaeochrysa sanikwa new species (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae: Nothochrysinae) is described from early Eocene (Ypresian) Okanagan Highlands shale at Driftwood Canyon, British Columbia, Canada. The evolutionary trends of three chrysopid wing venation characters (the shape of the intramedian cell, the position of the crossvein 2m-cu, and the development of the pseudocubitus) are analysed. The forewing venation of this species is very plesiomorphic compared with the vast majority species of Nothochrysinae, both fossil and extant.

Corresponding author
1 Corresponding author (e-mail:
Hide All

Subject editor: Bradley Sinclair

Hide All
Adams, P.A. 1957. A new genus and new species of Chrysopidae from the western United States, with remarks on the wing venation of the family (Neuroptera). Psyche, 63: 6774.
Adams, P.A. 1967. A review of the Mesochrysinae and Nothochrysinae (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, 135: 215238.
Adams, P.A. and Penny, N.D. 1992a. Review of the South American genera of Nothochrysinae (Insecta: Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). In Current research in Neuropterology. Proceedings of the fourth international symposium on Neuropterology. Edited by M. Canard, H. Aspöck, and M.W. Mansell. SACCO, Toulouse, France. Pp. 3541.
Adams, P.A. and Penny, N.D. 1992b. New genera of Nothochrysinae from South America (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 68: 216221.
Archibald, S.B., Bossert, W.H., Greenwood, D.R., and Farrell, B.D. 2010. Seasonality, the latitudinal gradient of diversity, and Eocene insects. Paleobiology, 36: 374398.
Archibald, S.B., Cover, S.D., and Moreau, C.S. 2006. Bulldog ants of the Eocene Okanagan Highlands, and the history of the subfamily (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmeciinae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 99: 487523.
Archibald, S.B., Greenwood, D.R., Smith, R.Y., Mathewes, R.W., and Basinger, J.F. 2011. Great Canadian Lagerstätten 1. Early Eocene Lagerstätten of the Okanagan Highlands (British Columbia and Washington State). Geoscience Canada, 38: 155164.
Barron, E., Rivas-Carballo, R., Postigo-Mijarra, J.M., Alcalde-Olivares, C., Vieira, M., Castro, L., et al. 2010. The Cenozoic vegetation of the Iberian Peninsula: a synthesis. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 162: 382402.
Béthoux, O. 2005. Wing venation pattern of Plecoptera (Insecta: Neoptera). Illiesia, 1: 5281.
Béthoux, O. and Jarzembowski, E.A. 2010. New basal neopterans from Writhlington (UK, Pennsylvanian). Alavesia, 3: 8796.
Bigler, F. 1984. Biological control by chrysopids: integration with pesticides. In Biology of Chrysopidae. Edited by M. Canard, Y. Séméria, and T.R. New. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, The Netherlands. Pp. 233245.
Brooks, S.J. and Barnard, P.C. 1990. The green lacewings of the world: a generic review (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Entomology), 59: 117286.
Carpenter, F.M. 1935. Tertiary insects of the family Chrysopidae. Journal of Paleontology, 9: 259271.
Chambers, L., Pringle, M., Fitton, G., Larsen, L.M., Pedersen, A.K., and Parrish, R. 2003. Recalibration of the Palaeocene-Eocene boundary (P-E) using high precision U-Pb and Ar-Ar isotopic dating. EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Nice, 6–11 April 2003. Geophysical Research Abstracts 5: 9681. Copernicus Publications, Göttingen, Germany.
Cockerell, T.D.A. 1909. Two fossil Chrysopidae. The Canadian Entomologist, 41: 218219.
Cockerell, T.D.A. 1914. New and little-known insects from the Miocene of Florissant, Colorado. Journal of Geology, 22: 714724.
Engel, M.S. and Grimaldi, D. 2007. The neuropterid fauna of Dominican and Mexican amber (Neuropterida: Megaloptera, Neuroptera). American Museum Novitates, 3587: 158.
Evanoff, E., McIntosh, W.C., and Murphey, P.C. 2001. Stratigraphic summary and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the Florissant Formation, Colorado. In Fossil flora and stratigraphy of the Florissant Formation, Colorado. Volume 1. Proceedings of the Denver Museum of Nature and Science. Volume 4. Edited by E. Evanoff, K. Gregory-Wodzicki, and K. Johnson. Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Denver, Colorado. Pp. 116.
Goncharova, I.A. 1989. Dvustvorchatye mollyuski Tarkhanskogo i Chokrakskogo basseinov [Bivalve molluscs of Tarkhanian and Tshokrakian Basins]. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta, 234: 1200. (In Russian).
Greenwood, D.R., Archibald, S.B., Mathewes, R.W., and Moss, P.T. 2005. Fossil biotas from the Okanagan Highlands, southern British Columbia and northern Washington State: climates and ecosystems across an Eocene landscape. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 42: 167185.
Handschin, E. 1937. Fossile Insekten aus Siebenbürgen. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 17: 2529.
Iturralde-Vinent, M.A. and MacPhee, R.D.E. 1996. Age and paleogeographical origin of Dominican amber. Science, 273: 18501852.
Jepson, J.E., Makarkin, V.N., and Coram, R.A. 2012. Lacewings (Insecta: Neuroptera) from the Lower Cretaceous Purbeck Limestone Group of southern England. Cretaceous Research, 34: 3147.
Kovanci, B. and Canbulat, S. 2007. A new species of the genus Nothochrysa McLachlan 1868 from northwestern Turkey (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) with a key to western Palaearctic species. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.S.), 43: 165168.
Kukalová-Peck, J. and Lawrence, J.F. 2004. Relationships among coleopteran suborders and major endoneopteran lineages: evidence from hind wing characters. European Journal of Entomology, 101: 95144.
Lanphere, M.A. 2000. Duration of sedimentation of the Creede Formation from 40Ar/39Ar age. In Ancient Lake Creede: its volcano-tectonic setting, history of sedimentation, and relation to mineralization in the Creede Mining District, Special Paper. Volume 346. Edited by P.M. Bethke and R.L. Hay. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado. Pp. 7176.
Makarkin, V.N. 1991. Miotsenovye setchatokrylye (Neuroptera) Severnogo Kavkaza i Sikhote-Alinya [Miocene Neuroptera from North Caucasus and Sikhote-Alin’]. Paleontologicheskii Zhurnal, 1991: 5768. (In Russian, English summary).
Makarkin, V.N. 1994. Upper Cretaceous Neuroptera from Russia and Kazakhstan. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 30: 283292.
Makarkin, V.N. 1997. Fossil Neuroptera of the lower Cretaceous of Baisa, East Siberia. Part 3. Chrysopidae. Spixiana, 20: 107118.
Makarkin, V.N. 2014. A new fossil green lacewing (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from the Eocene Tadushi Formation, eastern Sikhote-Alin. Far Eastern Entomologist, 272: 17.
Makarkin, V.N. and Archibald, S.B. 2013. A diverse new assemblage of green lacewings (Insecta: Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from the Early Eocene Okanagan Highlands, western North America. Journal of Paleontology, 87: 122145.
Makarkin, V.N., Yang, Q., Peng, Y.Y., and Ren, D. 2012. A comparative overview of the neuropteran assemblage of the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation (China), with description of a new genus of Psychopsidae (Insecta: Neuroptera). Cretaceous Research, 35: 5768.
Martill, D.M. and Heimhofer, U. 2008. Stratigraphy of the Crato Formation. In The Crato fossil beds of Brazil. Window into an ancient world. Edited by D.M. Martill, G. Bechly, and R.F. Loveridge. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Pp. 2543.
Martins-Neto, R.G. 1997. Neurópteros (Insecta, Planipennia) da Formação Santana (Cretáceo Inferior), Bacia do Araripe, nordeste do Brasil. X - Descrição de novos táxons (Chrysopidae, Babinskaiidae, Myrmeleontidae, Ascalaphidae e Psychopsidae). Revista Uniersidade de Guarulhos, Série Ciências Exatas e Technológicas, 2: 6883.
Martins-Neto, R.G. 2003. The Santana Formation Paleoentomofauna reviewed. Part I – Neuropteroida (Neuroptera and Raphidioptera): systematic and phylogeny, with description of new taxa. Acta Geologica Leopoldensia, 25: 3566.
Martins-Neto, R.G. and Vulcano, M.A. 1989. Neurópteros (Insecta: Planipennia) da Formação Santana (Cretáceo Inferior), Bacia do Araripe, Nordeste do Brasil. I - Família Chrysopidae. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 60: 189201.
Martynov, A.V. 1927. Jurassic fossil insects from Turkestan. 7. Some Odonata, Neuroptera, Thysanoptera. Izvestia Akademii Nauk SSSR (Series 6), 21: 757768.
Moss, P.T., Greenwood, D.R., and Archibald, S.B. 2005. Regional and local vegetation community dynamics of the Eocene Okanagan Highlands (British Columbia-Washington State) from palynology. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 42: 187204.
Nel, A., Delclòs, X., and Hutin, A. 2005. Mesozoic chrysopid-like Planipennia: a phylogenetic approach (Insecta: Neuroptera). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.F.), 41: 2968.
Nel, A. and Séméria, Y. 1986. Une nouvelle espèce de Chrysopide fossile du Stampien supérieur (Oligocène) d’Aix-en-Provence Notochrysa stampieni n. sp. (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae, Notochrysinae). Neuroptera International, 4: 2330.
New, T.R. 1980. A revision of the Australian Chrysopidae (Insecta: Neuroptera). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series, 77: 1143.
Oswald, J.D. 1993. Revision and cladistic analysis of the world genera of the family Hemerobiidae (Insecta: Neuroptera). Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 101: 143299.
Panfilov, D.V. 1980. Novye predstaviteli setcharokrylykh (Neuroptera) iz yury Karatau [New representatives of lacewings (Neuroptera) from the Jurassic of Karatau]. In Iskopaemye nasekomye mezozoya [Fossil insects of the Mesozoic]. Edited by V.G. Dolin, D.V. Panfilov, A.G. Ponomarenko, and L.N. Pritykina. Naukova Dumka, Kiev, Ukraine. Pp. 82111. (In Russian).
Peñalver, E., Nel, A., and Martínex-Delclòs, X. 1995. New Nothochrysinae from the Spanish Miocene (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, 100: 481487.
Ponomarenko, A.G. 1992. Novye setchatokrylye (Insecta, Neuroptera) iz mezozoya Mongolii [New lacewings (Insecta, Neuroptera) from the Mesozoic of Mongolia]. In Novye taksony iskopaemykh bespozvonochnykh Mongolii [New taxa of fossil invertebrates of Mongolia]. Transactions of the joint Soviet-Mongolian paleontological expedition. Volume 41. Edited by T.A. Grunt, Nauka Press, Moscow, Pp. 101111. (In Russian)
Rasnitsyn, A.P. and Zherikhin, V.V. 2002. 4. Appendix: alphabetic list of selected insect fossil sites. 4.1. Impression fossils. In History of insects. Edited by A.P. Rasnitsyn and D.L.J. Quicke. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. Pp. 437444.
Ren, D. and Guo, Z.G. 1996. On the new fossil genera and species of Neuroptera (Insecta) from the Late Jurassic of northeast China. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 21: 461479.
Ridgway, R.L. and Murphy, W.L. 1984. Biological control in the field. In Biology of Chrysopidae. Edited by M. Canard, Y. Séméria, and T.R. New. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, The Netherlands. Pp. 220228.
Schlüter, T. 1982. Cimbrochrysa moleriensis n. g. n. sp. und Hypochrysa hercyniensis n. sp., zwei fossile Chrysopidae-Arten (Insecta: Planipennia) aus dem europäischen Tertiär. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie. Monatshefte, 1982: 257264.
Scudder, S.H. 1885. Systematische Übersicht der fossilen Myriopoden, Arachnoideen und Insekten. In Handbuch der Palaeontologie. Abteilung 1. Palaeozoologie. Band 2. Mollusca und Arthropoda. Edited by K.A. Zittel. Verlag von R. Oldenbourg, Munich, Germany. Pp. 721831.
Scudder, S.H. 1890. The tertiary insects of North America. Report of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories, 13: 1734.
Séméria, Y. and Nel, A. 1990. Paleochrysopa monteilsensis gen. et sp. nov., a new fossil of Chrysopidae from the Upper Eocene Formation of Monteils (France), with a review of the known chrysopid fossils (Insecta: Neuroptera). In Advances in Neuropterology. Proceedings of the third international symposium on Neuropterology. Edited by M.W. Mansell and H. Aspöck. South African Department of Agricultural Development Pretoria, South Africa. Pp. 2732.
Statz, G. 1936. Ueber neue Funde von Neuropteren, Panorpaten und Trichopteren aus den tertiären Schiefern von Rott am Siebengebirge. Decheniana, 93: 208255.
Sziráki, G. and Dulai, A. 2002. Sarmatian (Late Miocene) arthropods from Tallya and neighbouring localities (Tokaj Mts, Hungary): preliminary report. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 94: 3144.
Thil, C., Klotz, S., and Uhl, D. 2012. Palaeoclimate estimates for selected leaf floras from the late Pliocene (Reuverian) of Central Europe based on different palaeobotanical techniques. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 21: 125.
Tjeder, B. 1966. Neuroptera-Planipennia. The lace-wings of southern Africa. 5. Family Chrysopidae. In South African animal life. Volume 12. Edited by B. Hanström, P. Brinck, and G. Rudebec. Swedish Natural Science Research Council, Stockholm, Sweden. Pp. 228534.
Tulisalo, U. 1984. Biological control in the greenhouse. In Biology of Chrysopidae. Edited by M. Canard, Y. Séméria, and T.R. New. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, The Netherlands. Pp. 228233.
Willmann, R. 1993. Insekten aus der Fur-Formation von Dänemark (Moler, ob. Paleozän / unt. Eozän?). 8. Zwei neue Vertreter der Chrysopidae (Neuroptera). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie. Monatshefte, 1993: 239245.
Willmann, R. and Brooks, S.J. 1991. Insekten aus der Fur-Formation von Dänemark (Moler, ob. Paleozän/ unt. Eozän?). 6. Chrysopidae (Neuroptera). Meyniana, 43: 125135.
Winterton, S.L. and Brooks, S.J. 2002. Phylogeny of the apochrysine green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae: Apochrysinae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 95: 1628.
Wolfe, J.A., Gregory-Wodzicki, K.M., Molnar, P., and Mustoe, G. 2003. Rapid uplift and then collapse in the Eocene of the Okanagan? Evidence from paleobotany [CD-ROM]. In Geological Association of Canada–Mineralogical Association of Canada–Society of Economic Geologists, Joint Annual Meeting, Vancouver, Abstracts. Geological Association of Canada – Mineralogical Association of Canada – Society of Economic Geologists, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Yang, C.K. 1986. The subfamily Nothochrysinae new to China and a new species of the genus Nothochrysa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Entomotaxonomia, 8: 277280.
Yang, C.K. and Hong, Y.C. 1990. Drakochrysa, an Early Cretaceous new genus of Chrysopidae (Insecta: Neuroptera) from Laiyang Basin, Shandong Province. Geoscience, 4: 1526. (In Chinese, English summary).
Yang, Q., Makarkin, V.N., Winterton, S.L., Khramov, A.V., and Ren, D. 2012. A remarkable new family of Jurassic insects (Neuroptera) with primitive wing venation and its phylogenetic position in Neuropterida. Public Library of Science One, 7: e44762.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Canadian Entomologist
  • ISSN: 0008-347X
  • EISSN: 1918-3240
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-entomologist
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 15 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 93 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th March 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.