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POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE CABBAGE APHID, BREVICORYNE BRASSICAE (HOMOPTERA: APHIDIDAE) AT VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA: I. SAMPLING METHODS AND POPULATION TRENDS

  • D. A. Raworth (a1), B. D. Frazer (a1), N. Gilbert (a2) and W. G. Wellington (a3)
Abstract

Maris Kestrel kale, Brassica oleracea L., was planted and sampled in two locations during 1977–78. The aphids Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer), syrphids in the genera Syrphus and Scaeva, the cecidomyiid Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rond.), the parasite Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh), and the fungus Entomophthora aphidis Hoffman were observed in the samples. A volumetric technique for assessing aphid numbers was developed and evaluated. Peak numbers of B. brassicae differed by an order of magnitude between plots, but the pattern of monotonic increase in the spring, followed by an abrupt decline in the rate of increase, a mid-summer peak, and an autumn population decline was consistent throughout. The first major decline in the rate of increase of B. brassicae was correlated with the appearance of A. aphidimyza and syrphid larvae. Declining adult aphid weight, which suggested declining fecundity, increased alate production at high aphid densities, parasite pressure, and leaf fall added to the damping effect of predators. In autumn, cool temperatures and production of sexuals further reduced the rate of increase of B. brassicae.

De 1977 à 1978, on a planté et échantillonné la variété Maris Kestrel kale de Brassica oleracea L. à deux endroits. On a observé les pucerons Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) et Myzus persicae (Sulzer), des syrphes des genres Syrphus et Scaeva, la cécidomyie Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rond.), le parasite Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) et le champignon Entomophthora aphidis Hoffman dans les échantillons. On a par ailleurs mis au point et évaluer une technique volumétrique d'évaluation de la population de pucerons. Les pics dans la population de B. brassicae variaient d'un ordre de grandeur entre les parcelles; cependant, on a pu observer un comportement constant caractérisé par une augmentation monotonique au printemps suivie d'une baisse abrupte du taux de croissance puis d'un sommet au milieu de l'été et enfin, d'une seconde chute de population à l'automne. La première baisse principale du taux de croissance du nombre de B. brassicae correspondait à l'apparition de A. aphidimyza et des larves de syrphes. Par ailleurs, une perte de poids chez les adultes (laissant supposer une baisse de la fécondité), une forte production d'individus ailés (à haute densité) la pression exercée par le parasite et la chute des feuilles on accentué les effets des attaques des prédateurs. En automne, les températures fraîches et la production d'individus sexués ont entraîné une nouvelle baisse du taux de croissance de la population de B. brassicae.

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References
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The Canadian Entomologist
  • ISSN: 0008-347X
  • EISSN: 1918-3240
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-entomologist
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