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Instructions for contributors
1. Journal Overview

The Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine (CJEM)

CJEM is Canada’s only academic journal in emergency medicine and the official publication of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP). CJEM publishes articles of interest to emergency care providers in rural, urban or academic settings that reflect the growing interest in emergency medicine, both as a medical discipline and an expanding field for research. CJEM is indexed by the National Library of Medicine.

a. Vision, Mission & Objectives (as approved by the CAEP Board February 2018)

Vision

Inspiring Excellence in emergency medical care

Mission

To improve emergency medical care by connecting and informing providers

Objectives

1. To promote communication and information exchange amongst physicians practicing emergency medicine in Canada, including those providing care in rural communities;

2. To improve emergency care of patients in Canada and elsewhere;

3. To provide current evidence to assist physicians practicing emergency medicine;

4. To disseminate high-quality emergency medicine scholarly work in research and education, produced by Canadians;

5. To provide scholarly opportunities for medical students, residents, and newly practicing physicians;

6. To promote communication amongst non-physician Canadian emergency care providers;

7. To disseminate Canadian emergency medicine content internationally; and,

8. To be among the top three emergency medicine journals within 5 years.

b. Ethical Standards

Where research involves data from human subjects, we require a statement that the research has been approved or exempted from review by the relevant institutional Research Ethics Board.

In accordance with the in Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, manuscripts will be considered only if they have not been previously published nor are they under consideration by another journal. Authors are referred to "Uniform Requirements" for detailed guidelines on previous publication and exceptions.

c. Manuscript Style

Authors should conform to the general guidelines laid out in Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. CJEM uses the Canadian Oxford Dictionary (latest ed.) for spelling; The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.) for grammar, style, and punctuation; and Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary (32nd ed.) for spelling of medical terms; and Vancouver style for referencing cited publications.

2. Manuscript Categories

a. Original Research Manuscript

Original Research

(maximum 2500 words, 5 tables or figures, 40 references)

Encompasses any type of research that provides original data, including: prospective studies, qualitative research, health record reviews, surveys, systematic reviews, and quality improvement studies.

Brief Original Research

(maximum 1200 words, one table or figure, and 10 references)

While the article types for the Brief Original Research are the same as Original Research, these articles are limited to a maximum of 1200 words, one table or figure, and 10 references.  Other tables or figures can be included as online appendices. Submissions of this type will highlight the most important aspects and findings of your research and may improve the likelihood of acceptance.

Submission Requirements

These articles present primary data arising from original research. CJEM requires randomized controlled trials to be registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. For more information, see Clinical Trial Registration on the ICMJE website. The trials registry and research ethics board registration numbers should be included in the manuscript. 

Publication Checklist: 

Authors should consult the appropriate checklist according to the study design and confirm that the paper is in compliance, as per EQUATOR Network: https://www.equator-network.or...

  • Randomized Trials: CONSORT including a CONSORT flow diagram
  • Observational Studies: STROBE
  • Systematic Reviews: PRISMA
  • Diagnostic Studies: STARD TRIPOD
  • Health Records Reviews: RECORD
  • Qualitative Research: SRQR
  • Clinical Practice Guidelines: AGREE
  • Quality Improvement: SQUIRE
  • Surveys: Kelley https://academic.oup.com/intqh... 

  • Required Formatting

    Structured Abstract

    Structured abstracts of up to 250 words are required for both Original Research and Brief Original Research submission types and must include the following headings: Objectives; Methods; Results; and Conclusions. 

    Clinician's Capsule

    For Original Research and Brief Original Research submission types, please provide a brief simplified Clinicians’ Capsule, comprised of four single-sentence bullet statements under these headings, not exceeding 20 words per bullet. See the example below:

    What is known about the topic?

    ED physicians frequently miss opportunities to prescribe oral anticoagulants (OACs) to patients with atrial fibrillation/flutter (AFF)

    What did this study ask?

    What was the impact of implementing a new evidence-based AAF clinical pathway on OAC prescribing behaviour

    What did this study find?

     This pre-post study found a 20% absolute increase in appropriate OAC prescribing along decreased lengths of stay and decreased return visits

    Why does this study matter to clinicians?

    Local implementation of a similar pathway could lead to better and more efficient care of AFF patients

    Main Manuscript

    Introduction: This section should succinctly discuss (maximum three paragraphs) study background, importance and rationale, and the study objectives.

    Methods: This section should normally include the following paragraphs with these subheadings (as applicable):

    • Study Design and Time period;
    • Study Setting;
    • Population;
    • Intervention;
    • Outcome Measures;
    • Data Analysis; and
    • Sample Size.

    There should be sufficient detail to allow a knowledgeable reader to replicate the study, at least in theory. Authors must explicitly name the Research Ethics Board that approved the research or exempted the project from REB review.

    Results: In this section, authors should present primary and secondary results, without undue repetition of data reported in tables and figures. Each paragraph should refer to a specific table or figure.  Generally, results should be reported to a single decimal point in the text, tables and figures. All results should be reported using SI units, including molar rather than mass-based units for concentration in most cases.

    Please limit use of P values to those of major outcome comparisons. In general, we wish to see the "size of effect" and its associated confidence intervals. Such reporting is advocated by the CONSORT statement and permits readers to gauge the approximate power and clinical importance of the observed magnitude of effect. 

    Discussion: Authors are encouraged to provide the following paragraphs using these subheadings:

    • Interpretation of Findings (minimize use of numbers);
    • Comparison to Previous Studies (maximum 2 paragraphs);
    • Strengths and Limitations;
    • Clinical Implications;
    • Research Implications; and
    • Conclusion.

    References: Maximum of 40 references formatted using the Vancouver style. Within the text, reference citations should be numbered in the order they appear using superscript numbers, and placed following punctuation marks. References should cite surname and initials for up to six authors, followed by “et al.”

    Tables: Tables must be placed within the main manuscript document.

    Please follow the following recommendations:

    • Use MS Word;
    • Do not use PowerPoint or Excel;
    • Each table should appear on a separate page at the end of the article after the references;
    • Each table should have a title and be numbered in order of callout within the text;
    • Excessive use of horizontal lines and all shading should be avoided;
    • Avoid all non-standard abbreviations; and,
    • Provide units of measure where appropriate.

    Figures:

    Please follow the following recommendations:

    • Each individual figure should be placed within the main manuscript document, after the tables;
    • Each figure should be on a separate page;
    • Titles should be on the page with the figure;
    • Figures must be clearly numbered in order of callout; and
    • Photographs and colour images should also be uploaded as separate files (TIF, JPG, or EPS files, 600 dpi, and five inches in width.)

    Acknowledgements: You should acknowledge individuals or organizations that provided advice or support (non-financial). 

    Financial support: Please provide specific details of the funding for the research, or provide the following statement: "This research received no specific grant from any funding agency, commercial or not-for-profit sectors."

    Conflict of Interest: Please provide details of all known financial, professional and personal relationships with the potential to bias the work. Where no known conflicts of interest exist, please include the following statement: "None." Such conflicts might arise from personal relationships or from institutional relationships. CJEM has adopted the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors policy on disclosure of conflicts, including the glossary which provides a definition of conflict of interest and other terms surrounding potential conflicts. Each author of a work must complete and submit a conflict of interest form (See below).

    Commentary

    Invited Commentary

    (1000-1500 words excluding references)

    By invitation of the editors, authors may submit a commentary to accompany an original research article in a given issue.

    Commentary

    (1000 words or less and no more than 10 references)

    Authors may submit a focused discussion commenting on major current problems of emergency physicians or on controversial matters with significant implications for emergency medicine.

    CJEM Debate Series

    (3000 words; 1000-1500 words each side excluding references; max 10 references)

    The CJEM debate series provides readers with the opportunity to hear differing perspectives on topics pertinent to the practice of Emergency Medicine. The debating authors are allocated opposing arguments on topics where there is some controversy or perhaps scientific equipoise. The series also involves a social media vote and online conversation. The debate format consists of an editorial style component (1000-1500 words) for each side, often incorporating a short rebuttal section.

    CJEM Journal Club

    (600-1000 words excluding tables, figures, and no more than 10 references)


    CJEM Journal Club is designed to allow authors to report their critical appraisal of an important published article, highlighting the results and methodology for CJEM readers. The aims of this section are to demonstrate the use of the critical review format, to review articles of interest to emergency physicians, and to determine the relative validity and usefulness of these articles. To assist readers in keeping abreast of the relevant EM literature, timely reviews of important articles/topics will be a factor in the decision to accept. Articles must address three key questions:


    1. What are the results?
    2. Are the results valid? 
    3. Will the results help me care for my patients?


    The preferred review methodology, including critical review forms, is described in "Users Guide to the Medical Literature," a series published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Authors wishing specific guidance should consider making use of the critical appraisal tools found at the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine or peruse articles published in ACP Journal.

    Resident Issue

    (750–1000 words and no more than 10 references)


    Resident Issue articles should be written on subjects of importance to Canadian emergency medicine residents that have not been well-covered elsewhere. This may include referenced position papers, short research articles, and uniquely resident perspectives on current emergency medicine topics.
    Before submitting a full-length Resident Issue article, an outline must be approved by CJEM. Please submit an article outline (maximum 300 words) that lists the proposed authors of the article, the significance of the topic to residents and emergency medicine, and a list of references to the Editorial Office (cjem@caep.ca). If your topic is approved, you will be invited to submit a full-length manuscript (maximum length 1,000 words, 5 tables/figures, 10 references), which would then undergo our standard review and consideration process.

    Humanity

    (1000 words or less and no more than 10 references)

    Submissions should reflect the challenges of working in medicine. Generally, they should be humorous or provide some human interest and add to our understanding of the physician experience, particularly in Canada.

    CAEP Paper

    Authors should communicate directly with the Editor-in-Chief as endorsement by the Canadian Association for Emergency Physicians (CAEP) and selected international organizations (such as IFEM) is required.  Further information on CAEP position statements and guidelines can be found here [http://caep.ca/CAEPPositionStatementsGuidelines].
    CAEP Position Statement
    CAEP Guidelines
    CAEP Academic Symposium Paper

    Clinical Summary

    Coming soon…

    Educational Innovation

    (1000 words or less, excluding abstract, with one figure or table and references)

    CJEM will consider original scholarly submissions that are not original research, but that discuss educational advances in emergency medicine. Authors should define how the submission is innovative, builds on existing literature and adds to the scholarship of education. Submissions should be structured as follows: Background; Purpose or Rationale; Description of the Innovation; Discussion; and, Summary. Sufficient detail allowing readers to reproduce the innovation is required. If necessary, forms or other tools required to set up the innovation may be accepted for on-line publication. An unstructured abstract of less than 200 words is also required.

    Clinical Correspondence

    (1000 words or less, no abstract, only one figure or table, and no more than 5 references)

    Clinical Correspondence may be considered if they identify a previously un-described finding or phenomenon and/or describe a therapy that could lead to future research or a change in practice. All cases for consideration should have a "take home" clinical message pertinent to Emergency Physicians.

    Letter

    (400 words and no more than 5 references)

    Letters should be addressed to the Editor and will be considered for publication if they relate to topics of interest to emergency physicians in urban, rural, community, or academic settings, or if they are in response to (and relevant to) a recent CJEM publication. Letters are generally not peer reviewed but may be edited for brevity and clarity. Letters responding to a previously published CJEM article should be submitted within eight weeks of the article's publication. Authors whose work is discussed will typically be given an opportunity to respond.

    Formatting

    All submissions should be double-spaced, using 12-point Times New Roman typeface and a word processing program (i.e. MS Word). Submissions must include the following:


    Cover Letter

    All submissions should be accompanied by a brief cover letter. Within the cover letter, the corresponding author should disclose potential conflicts of interest and financial support, specify each author's contribution to the work, and indicate that all co-authors have had the opportunity to review the final manuscript and have provided their permission to publish the manuscript.


    Title page

    The title page should include the article title, the authors' name(s) as they should appear in print, and the affiliations and degrees of all authors. The name, address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address for the corresponding author should be provided. The title page must also include a word count and running header of no more than 150 characters. Choose the article title carefully. Be creative and ensure that the title accurately reflects the content of the article.

    Abstract and Keywords

    Structured
    Structured abstracts of up to 250 words are required for all Original Research submission types and must include the following headings: Objectives; Methods; Results; Conclusions; and, Keywords.


    Unstructured
    Unstructured abstracts of up to 200 words are required for Educational Innovation submissions that summarizes the main points of the article.
    Abstracts are not required for other submissions including: Clinical Summary, Commentary; CAEP Paper; Clinical Correspondence; and, Letter.  However, a minimum of three keywords are required to be included on the title page.


    Clinicians’ Capsule
    For Original Research and Clinical Summary submission types, please provide a brief simplified Clinicians’ Capsule, comprised of four bullet statements under these headings, and not exceeding 20 words per bullet:
    What is known about the topic?
    e.g.  ED physicians frequently miss opportunities to prescribe oral anticoagulants (OACs) to patients with atrial fibrillation/flutter (AFF)
    What did this study ask?
    e.g. What was the impact of implementing a new evidence-based AAF clinical pathway on OAC prescribing behaviour
    What did this study find?
     e.g. This pre-post study found a 20% absolute increase in appropriate OAC prescribing along decreased lengths of stay and decreased return visits
    Why does this study matter to clinicians?
    e.g. Local implementation of a similar pathway could lead to better and more efficient care of AFF patients

    Main Manuscript

    Introduction: This section should succinctly discuss (i.e. three paragraphs) study background, importance, and the a priori study question, objectives or hypothesis.

    Methods: This section should include a description of the overall study design as planned, the study setting, time period, population studied (with eligibility criteria and unit of analysis if different from individual patients), a description of the intervention, the primary and secondary outcome measures, and the statistical analysis employed. For investigations involving human subjects, the nature and timing of the consent that was obtained must be specified. There should be sufficient detail to allow a knowledgeable reader to replicate the study, at least in theory. Authors must explicitly name the ethics committee or investigational review board, which approved the research.

    Results: In this section, authors should present primary and secondary results, without undue repetition of data reported in tables and figures. Any substantial deviations from the study as planned usually appear in this section. Measurements and rates should be reported using the appropriate number of significant digits, based on the precision of the measure (e.g. "After providing informed consent, 11 (13%) of 82 subjects withdrew from the study before being administered the intervention." rather than "(13.4%)"). All results should be reported using SI units, including molar rather than mass-based units for concentration in most cases.
    A core element of CJEM’s philosophy is our emphasis on the importance of estimation over hypothesis testing, i.e., using point and interval estimates rather than P values. Instead, we prefer that each comparative study outcome be reported with an estimated "size of effect" and its associated confidence intervals. Such reporting is advocated by the CONSORT statement and permits readers to gauge the approximate power and clinical importance of the observed magnitude of effect. We therefore ask authors to restrict the reporting of P values for the primary outcome, or to a very small number of principal, a priori outcomes. P values tell only the probability that the observed effect is due to chance alone and communicate nothing regarding its clinical importance. 

    Discussion: Here, authors highlight the important study findings and their implications especially in the context of previous work, but without exhaustively summarizing the prior literature. In addition, the Discussion should identify limitations of the research and how any biases may affect the interpretation of the findings.

    Conclusions: These should be stated in one paragraph and must be supported by the study findings. Avoid extending your conclusion beyond what your data show.

    References: References should be formatted using the Vancouver style. Within the text, references should be numbered in the order they appear using standard text and angular brackets (e.g., <1>) rather than using superscript numbers. Do not leave any special word-processing software formatting commands for sections or references embedded in the documents being submitted. References should cite surname and initials for up to six authors. Seventh and subsequent authors should be cited as "et al." Use official abbreviations for titles of journals (if available). Examples of layout include:

          Journal article
          Surname Initial(s). Title of article. Journal title/or title abbreviation. Year; volume(issue): page(s). DOI - if available
          

          Conference paper
          Surname author Initial(s). Paper title. In: Surname editor Initial(s), editor(s). Conference title. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. page(s).
          

          Book

          Surname Initial(s). Book title. Edition - if available. Place of publication: Publisher; Year.
          Anthology (book with several authors)

          Surname author Initial(s). Chapter title. In: Surname editor Initial(s), editor(s). Book title. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. page(s).


    Figure and Table Legends: Most papers will benefit from at least one and not more than five tables or figures. List the figure and table legends, numbered in the order they are cited in the text.  

    Tables: Tables must be prepared in MS Word or equivalent using the Table feature and be part of the main manuscript document. Tables cannot be used if they are in PowerPoint or Excel, or if they are supplied as images. Each table should appear on a separate page at the end of the article after the references. Each table should have a title and be numbered in order of callout within the text. Excessive use of horizontal lines and all shading should be avoided. Non-standard abbreviations and units of measure should appear in the table or legend.

    Figures: Each individual figure should be uploaded as a separate digital file and should not be imbedded in the main manuscript (see below for further advice).
    Acknowledgements: You may acknowledge individuals or organizations that provided advice, support (non-financial). Formal financial support and funding should be listed in the following section.

    Financial support: Please provide details of the sources of financial support for all authors, including grant numbers. For example, "This work was supported by the Medical Research Council (grant number XXXXXXX)". Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma and space, and where research was funded by more than one agency the different agencies should be separated by a semi-colon, with 'and' before the final funder. Grants held by different authors should be identified as belonging to individual authors by the authors' initials. For example, "This work was supported by the Welcome Trust (A.B., grant numbers XXXX, YYYY), (C.D., grant number ZZZZ); the Natural Environment Research Council (E.F., grant number FFFF); and the National Institutes of Health (A.B., grant number GGGG), (E.F., grant number HHHH)". Where no specific funding has been provided for research, please provide the following statement: "This research received no specific grant from any funding agency, commercial or not-for-profit sectors."


    Conflict of Interest: Please provide details of all known financial, professional and personal relationships with the potential to bias the work. Where no known conflicts of interest exist, please include the following statement: "None."). Such conflicts might arise from personal relationships or from institutional relationships. CJEM has adopted the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors policy on disclosure of conflicts, including the glossary which provides a definition of conflict of interest and other terms surrounding potential conflicts. Each author of a work must complete and submit a conflict of interest form (See below).

    Review and Editorial Processes
    All submissions are initially reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief or one of the Senior Associate Editors. Articles judged unsuitable for CJEM will be returned to the authors following this step, typically within two weeks. Those meeting screening criteria will be forwarded for blinded peer review, with the exception of Letters to the Editor and Images.
    To revise your manuscript, log in and enter your Author Centre, where you will find your manuscript title listed under "Manuscripts with Decisions." Under "Actions," click on "Create a Revision." Your manuscript number will be appended to denote a revision. You will be unable to make your revisions on the originally submitted version of the manuscript. Instead, revise your manuscript using a word processing program and save it on your computer. Please also highlight the changes to your manuscript within the document, ideally by using the track changes mode in MS Word or by using bold or colored text. Once the revised manuscript is prepared, you can upload it and submit it through your Author Centre.
    When submitting your revised manuscript, you will be able to respond to the comments made by the reviewer(s) in the space provided. In this space, please address each of the suggestions and cite where in the manuscript the change has been made. If no change was made, please explain why. In order to expedite the processing of the revised manuscript, please be as specific as possible in your response to the reviewer(s).
    All revisions will be reviewed by the Decision Editor, who may consult with the original or new peer reviewers, to determine whether review comments have been addressed. The Decision Editor, along with the Editor-in-Chief or a Senior Associate Editor, will make a final decision regarding publication. Accepted articles will be edited, and authors will have the opportunity to review and approve revisions prior to publication. Manuscripts submitted to CJEM will be treated with respect and confidentiality.
    Published manuscripts become the property of CAEP and may not be published elsewhere without permission.


    Contacting CJEM Editors
    Authors with questions regarding a submission or prospective authors who wish to discuss a paper in the development stage are encouraged to contact the Editor-in-Chief or the appropriate Section Editor by e-mail at cjem@caep.ca. Further information can be obtained from the Editor-in-Chief or the Managing Editor at cjem@caep.ca


    Additional Resources
    Authors are encouraged to submit articles in many areas of research. Common methodological guidelines for reporting different types of studies have been summarized below. Authors should generally follow these reporting guidelines for a given study design, in an effort to improve the overall quality of the medical literature. Please be advised that this list should not be considered comprehensive for all possible study designs.
    Further information can be obtained from the Editor-in-Chief or the Managing Editor at cjem@caep.ca

    STUDY DESIGN

    REPORTING GUIDELINE

    Randomized Controlled Trial - Superiority design

    CONSORT Statement

    Randomized Controlled Trial - Non-Inferiority/Equivalence design

    Modified CONSORT Statement

    Systematic Review

    PRISMA Statement

    Diagnostic Test Performance Study

    STARD Statement

    Systematic Review of Diagnostic Tests

    QUADAS Statement

    Meta-analysis of Observational Studies

    MOOSE Statement

    Economic Evaluations

    CHEC Criteria

    Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine
    • ISSN: 1481-8035 (Online)
    • Frequency: 6 issues per year
    CJEM is Canada’s only academic journal in emergency medicine and the official publication of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians. CJEM publishes articles of interest to emergency care providers in rural, urban or academic settings that reflect the growing interest in emergency medicine, both as a medical discipline and an expanding field for research. Original research, review articles, updates, editorials, case reports and diagnostic challenges, plus position statements from the national association are widely read.