Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-7ccbd9845f-vmftn Total loading time: 0.653 Render date: 2023-01-30T09:03:07.595Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Supralaryngeal implementation of length and laryngeal contrasts in Japanese and Korean

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 January 2017

Alexei Kochetov*
University of Toronto
Yoonjung Kang
University of Toronto Scarborough


This article investigates supralaryngeal characteristics of Japanese and Korean length and laryngeal contrasts in stops and affricates. Electropalatography data collected from five Japanese and five Korean speakers revealed similar differences among the consonants in the degree of linguopalatal contact and duration of the closure. Japanese (voiceless) geminate and Korean fortis obstruents were most constricted and had the longest duration (although considerably longer in Japanese). Japanese voiced and Korean lenis obstruents were least constricted and had the shortest duration. Japanese voiceless (singleton) and Korean aspirated obstruents showed intermediate degree of contact and duration. Both stops and affricates showed a positive correlation between degree of contact and duration. The results show that the two very different sets of phonological contrasts are implemented similarly at the supralaryngeal level. These cross-language similarities and cross-category differences are proposed to result from the application of independently-motivated phonetic enhancement rules to distinct phonological representations of laryngeal/length contrasts in the two languages.


Cet article explore des propriétés supralaryngées de la durée en japonais et coréen et les contrastes laryngés des obstruantes et des affriquées. Les données recueillies par l’électropalatographie auprès de cinq locuteurs du japonais et cinq locuteurs du coréen révèlent des différences similaires parmi les consonnes concernant le degré de contact linguopalatal et la durée de la fermeture. Les géminées (non-voisées) du japonais et les obstruantes fortis du coréen présentent le plus de constriction et les durées les plus longues (la durée était sensiblement plus longue en japonais). Les obstruantes voisées du japonais et les obstruantes lenis du coréen présentent le moins de constriction et les durées les plus courtes. Les obstruantes non voisées (simples) du japonais et les obstruantes aspirées du coréen présentent des degrés intermédiaires de contact et de durée. Il existe une corrélation positive entre le degré de contact et la durée pour les obstruantes et les affriquées. Les résultats montrent que ces deux contrastes phonologiques distincts sont réalisés phonétiquement de façon similaire au niveau supralaryngé. Nous proposons que ces similarités interlinguistiques et ces différences intercatégorielles résultent de règles d'amélioration phonétique (indépendamment motivées) appliquées à des représentations phonologiques distinctes de contrastes laryngés/de durée dans les deux langues.

© Canadian Linguistic Association/Association canadienne de linguistique 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


This paper has benefited from many helpful comments and suggestions provided by the journal's anonymous reviewers and the audiences of our talks given at the International Conference on Phonology and Phonetics organized by the National Institute of Japanese Language & Linguistics, Tokyo, in January 2013, at the Department of Languages, Literatures & Linguistics Talks Series, York University, Toronto, in October 2013, and at the Institute for Phonetics and Linguistics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, in May 2014. We would also like to thank Sohyun Hong, Vithangi Ramachandran, Na-Young Ryu, and Jacqueline Wong for assistance with data annotation and preparation for analysis. The work was supported by University of Toronto Connaught Matching Grants to both authors, as well as by Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada Standard Grant # 416-2010-0959 to Alexei Kochetov.


Ahn, Sang-Cheol, and Iverson, Gregory K.. 2004. Dimensions in Korean laryngeal phonology. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 13: 345379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, Victoria B. 2008. Static palatography for language fieldwork. Language Documentation and Conservation 2: 127.Google Scholar
Anderson, Victoria, Ko, Insung, O'Grady, William, and Choo, Miho. 2004. A palatographic investigation of place of articulation in Korean coronal obstruents. Korean Linguistics 12: 124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Avery, Peter, and Idsardi, William J.. 2001. Laryngeal dimensions, completion and enhancement. Phonology and phonetics, ed. Alan Hall, T., 4170. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Baik, Woonil. 1997. On tensity of Korean stops (electropalatographic study). Speech Sciences 2: 149158.Google Scholar
Beckman, Mary. 1982. Segment duration and the mora in Japanese. Phonetica 39: 113135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bouarourou, Fayssal, Vaxelaire, Béatrice, Ridouane, Rachid, Hirsch, Fabrice, and Sock, Rudolph. 2008. Gemination in Tarifit Berber: X-ray and acoustic data. Proceedings of the 8th International Seminar on Speech Production, ed. Sock, Rudolph, Fuchs, Susanne, and Laprie, Yves, 117120. Rocquencourt: Institut National en Informatique et automatique (INRIA). Google Scholar
Browman, Catherine P., and Goldstein, Louis. 1992. Articulatory phonology: An overview. Phonetica 49: 155180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brunner, Jana, Fuchs, Susanne, and Perrier, Pascal. 2011. Supralaryngeal control in Korean velar stops. Journal of Phonetics 39: 178195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Catford, John C. 1977. Fundamental problems in phonetics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
Cho, Taehong, and Keating, Patricia A.. 2001. Articulatory and acoustic studies of domain-initial strengthening in Korean. Journal of Phonetics 29: 155190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cho, Taehong, Jun, Sun-Ah, and Ladefoged, Peter. 2002. Acoustic and aerodynamic correlates of Korean stops and fricatives. Journal of Phonetics 30: 193228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cho, Young-mee Yu. 2011. Laryngeal contrast in Korean. Companion to phonology, Vol. V, ed. van Oostendorp, Marc, Ewen, Colin, Hume, Beth, and Rice, Keren, 26622684. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.Google Scholar
Cho, Young-mee Yu, and Inkelas, Sharon. 1994. Post-obstruent tensification in Korean and geminate inalterability. Theoretical issues in Korean linguistics, ed. Kim-Renaud, Young-Key, 4560. Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI).Google Scholar
Chomsky, Noam, and Halle, Morris. 1968. The sound pattern of English. New York, NY: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
Dart, Sarah N. 1987. An aerodynamic study of Korean stop consonants: Measurements and modeling. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 81: 138147.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dixit, R. Prakash. 1990. Linguotectal contact patterns in the dental and retroflex stops of Hindi. Journal of Phonetics 18: 189201.Google Scholar
Dixit, R. Prakash, and Hoffman, Paul R.. 2004. Articulatory characteristics of fricatives and affricates in Hindi: An electropalatographic study. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34: 141159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farnetani, Edda. 1990. V-C-V lingual coarticulation and its spatiotemporal domain. Speech production and speech modelling, ed. Hardcastle, W. J. and Marchal, Alain, 93130. Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flemming, Edward. 1995. Auditory representations in phonology . Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
Fletcher, Samuel G. 1989. Palatometric specification of stop, affricate and sibilant sounds. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 32: 736748.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fuchs, Susanne. 2005. Articulatory correlates of the voicing contrast in alveolar obstruent production in German . Doctoral dissertation, Queen Margaret University College.Google Scholar
Fuchs, Susanne and Perrier, Pascal. 2003. An EMMA/EPG study of voicing contrast correlates in German. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of the Phonetic Sciences, ed. Solé, Maria-Josep, Recasens, Daniel, and Romero, Joaquin, 1057–1060. Barcelona: International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS) Archive. Scholar
Fujii, Itaru. 1970. Phoneme identification with dynamic palatography. Annual Bulletin, Research Institute of Logopedics and Phoniatrics, University of Tokyo 4: 6773.Google Scholar
Fujimoto, Masako, Murano, Emi, Niimi, Seiji, and Kiritani, Shigeru. 2002. Differences in glottal opening pattern between Tokyo and Osaka dialect speakers: Factors contributing to vowel devoicing. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica 54: 133143.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fujimoto, Masako, Maekawa, Kikuo, and Funatsu, Seiya. 2010. Laryngeal characteristics during the production of geminate consonants. In Proceedings of Interspeech 2010, ed. Kobayashi, Takao, Hirose, Keikichi, and Nakamura, Satoshi, 925928. Chiba: International Speech Communication Association. Scholar
Fujimoto, Masako, Kitamura, Tatsuya, Hatano, Hiroaki, and Fujimoto, Ichiro. 2013. Timing differences in articulation between voiced and voiceless stop consonants: An analysis of cine-MRI data. In Proceedings of Interspeech 2013, ed. Bimboat, Frédéric, Cerisara, Christophe, Fougeron, Cécile, Gravier, Guillaume, Lamel, Lori, Pellegrino, François, and Perrier, Pascal, 955958. Lyon: International Speech Communication Association. Scholar
Fujimoto, Masako, Funatsu, Seiya, and Hoole, Phil. 2015. Articulation of single and geminate consonants and its relation to the duration of the preceding vowel in Japanese. In Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, ed. The Scottish consortium for ICPhS 2015, 5 pp. Glasgow: The University of Glasgow. Google Scholar
Gibbon, Fiona, and Nicolaidis, Katerina. 1999. Palatography. In Coarticulation in speech production: Theory, data, and techniques, ed. Hardcastle, William J. and Hewlett, Nigel, 229245. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Halle, Morris, and Stevens, Kenneth N.. 1971. A note on laryngeal features. MIT Research Laboratory of Electronics Quarterly Progress Report 101: 198213.Google Scholar
Han, Jeong-Im. 1996. The phonetics and phonology of tense and plain consonants in Korean . Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University.Google Scholar
Han, Mieko S. 1994. Acoustic manifestations of mora timing in Japanese. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 96: 7382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hardcastle, William J. 1973. Some observations on the tense–lax distinction in initial stops in Korean. Journal of Phonetics 1: 263272.Google Scholar
Hirata, Yukari, and Whiton, Jacob. 2005. Effects of speaking rate on the single/geminate stop distinction in Japanese. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 118: 16471660.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hirose, Hajime, and Ushijima, Tatsujiro. 1978. Laryngeal control for voicing distinction in Japanese consonant production. Phonetica 35: 110.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hirose, Hajime, Lee, Charles Y., and Ushijima, Tatsujiro. 1974. Laryngeal control in Korean stop production. Journal of Phonetics 2: 145152.Google Scholar
Homma, Yayoi. 1981. Durational relationship between Japanese stops and vowels. Journal of Phonetics 9: 273281.Google Scholar
Idemaru, Kaori, and Guion, Susan G.. 2008. Acoustic covariants of length contrast in Japanese stops. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38: 167186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ishii, Toyota. 1999. Sokuon hatsuwaji-no kouonkikan-no undou-ni kansuru kenkyuu [A study of the movement of articulatory organs in Japanese geminate production]. Journal of Otolaryngology of Japan 102: 622634.Google Scholar
Ito, Chiyuki, Kang, Yoonjung, and Kenstowicz, Michael. 2006. The adaptation of Japanese loanwords into Korean. In MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 52: Studies in loanword phonology, ed. Hsieh, Feng-fan and Kenstowicz, Michael, 65104. Cambridge, MA: MIT Department of Linguistics and Philosophy.Google Scholar
Itô, Junko and Mester, Ralf-Armin. 1986. The phonology of voicing in Japanese: Theoretical consequences for morphological accessibility. Linguistic Inquiry 17: 4973.Google Scholar
Iverson, Gregory. K. 1983a. On glottal width features. Lingua 60: 331339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iverson, Gregory K. 1983b. Korean s . Journal of Phonetics 11: 191200.Google Scholar
Jakobson, Roman. 1971. K kharakteristike evraziiskogo yazykovogo soyuza. [Characterizing the Eurasian Sprachbund] In Roman Jakobson: Selected Writings, vol. 1: Phonological Studies, 144201. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
Jakobson, Roman, Fant, Gunnar, and Halle, Morris. 1963. Preliminaries to speech analysis: The distinctive features and their correlates. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Jun, Sun-Ah, Beckman, Mary, and Lee, Hyuck-Joon. 1998. Fiberscopic evidence for the influence on vowel devoicing of the glottal configurations for Korean obstruents. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 96: 4368.Google Scholar
Kagaya, Ryohei. 1974. A fiberscopic and acoustic study of the Korean stops, affricates and fricatives. Journal of Phonetics 2: 161180.Google Scholar
Kang, Yoonjung. 2014. Voice Onset Time merger and development of tonal contrast in Seoul Korean stops: A corpus study. Journal of Phonetics 45: 7690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kawahara, Shigeto. 2006. A faithfulness ranking projected from a perceptibility scale: The case of [+voice] in Japanese. Language 82: 536574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kawahara, Shigeto. 2015. The phonetics of sokuon, obstruent geminates. In The handbook of Japanese phonetics and phonology, ed. Kubozono, Haruo, 4373. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Kim, Chin-Wu. 1965. On the autonomy of the tensity feature in stop classification (with special reference to Korean stops). Word 21: 339359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, Chin-Wu. 1970. A theory of aspiration. Phonetica 21: 107116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, Hyunsoon. 2004a. The representation of the three-way laryngeal contrast in Korean consonants. In The internal organization of phonological segments, ed. van Oostendorp, Marc and van de Weijer, Jeroen, 263293. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Kim, Hyunsoon. 2004b. Stroboscopic-cine MRI data on Korean coronal plosives and affricates: Implications for their place of articulation as alveolar. Phonetica 61: 234251.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kim, Hyunsoon. 2004c. The feature [tense] revisited: The case of Korean consonants. In Proceedings of the 34th meeting of the Northeastern Linguistics Society (NELS 34), ed. Moulton, Keir and Wolf, Matthew, 319332. Amherst: UMass Graduate Linguistic Student Association (GLSA) Publications.Google Scholar
Kim, Hyunsoon. 2008. Loanword adaptation between Japanese and Korean: Evidence for L1 feature-driven perception. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 17: 331346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, Hyunsoon, and Clements, George N.. 2015. The feature [tense]. In Features in phonology and phonetics: Posthumous writings by George N. Clements and coauthors, ed. Rialland, Annie, Ridouane, Rachid, and van der Hulst, Harry, 159178. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Kim, Hyunsoon, Honda, Kiyoshi, and Maeda, Shinji. 2005. Stroboscopic cine-MRI study on the phasing between the tongue and the larynx in Korean three-way phonation contrast. Journal of Phonetics 33: 126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, Hyunsoon, Maeda, Shinji, and Honda, Kiyoshi. 2010. Invariant articulatory bases of the features [tense] and [spread glottis] in Korean plosives: New stroboscopic cine-MRI data. Journal of Phonetics 38: 90108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, Mi-Ryoung, and Duanmu, San. 2004. Tense and lax stops in Korean. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 13: 59104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, Suk-Ja. 1996. On the misuse of Japanese /Q/ pronunciation by Korean learners [In Korean]. Ilponhakpo 36: 522.Google Scholar
Kim, Yong-Kak. 2004. A study on the Korean learner's mistakes in Japanese pronunciation through their errors in writing [In Korean]. Ileilmunhak 23: 5364.Google Scholar
Kochetov, Alexei. 2012. Linguopalatal contact differences between Japanese geminate and singleton stops. Canadian Acoustics 40: 2829.Google Scholar
Kochetov, Alexei. 2014. Voicing and tongue-palate contact differences in Japanese obstruents. Journal of the Phonetic Society of Japan 18: 6376.Google Scholar
Kohler, Klaus J. 1984. Phonetic explanation in phonology: the feature fortis/lenis. Phonetica 41: 150174.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ladefoged, Peter, and Maddieson, Ian. 1996. The sounds of the world's languages. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Lavoie, Lisa. 2001. Consonant strength: Phonological patterns and phonetic manifestations. New York: Garland.Google Scholar
Lee, Ki-Moon. 1985. Kukeumunsayenku [Research on the history of Korean phonology]. Seoul: Tower Press.Google Scholar
Liker, Marko, and Gibbon, Fiona. 2012. A perceptual and EPG study of the postalveolar and palatal affricate contrast in Standard Croatian. Italian Journal of Linguistics / Rivista di Linguistica 24: 4364.Google Scholar
Löfqvist, Anders. 2006. Interarticulator programming: Effects of closure duration on lip and tongue coordination in Japanese. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 120: 28722883.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Löfqvist, Anders. 2007. Tongue movement kinematics in long and short Japanese consonants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 122: 512518.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Löfqvist, Anders, and Gracco, Vincent L.. 1997. Lip and jaw kinematics in bilabial stop consonant production. Journal of Speech and Language Hearing Research 40: 877893.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lombardi, Linda. 1991. Laryngeal features and laryngeal neutralization . Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.Google Scholar
Lombardi, Linda. 1995. Laryngeal features and privativity. The Linguistic Review 12: 3559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, Samuel E. 1982. Features, markedness, and order in Korean phonology. In Linguistics in the morning calm, ed. Yang, In-Seok, 601618. Seoul: Hanshin.Google Scholar
Matsumura, Masafumi, Kimura, Kazuo, Yoshino, Katsumi, Tachimura, Takashi, and Wada, Takeshi. 1994. Measurement of palatolingual contact pressure during consonant productions using strain gauge transducer mounted palate plate. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, 655–658. Yokohama: International Speech Communication Association. Google Scholar
Moen, Inger, and Simonsen, Hanne Gram. 1997. Effects of voicing on /t,d/ tongue/palate contact in English and Norwegian. Eurospeech 97, ed. Kokkinakis, George, Fakotakis, Nikos, and Dermatas, Evangelos, 23992402. Rhodes: International Speech Communication Association. Scholar
NLRI. 1990. Nihongo no boin, shiin, onsetsu: Chouon undou no jikken onseigakuteki kenkyuu [Japanese vowels, consonants, and syllables: Experimental phonetics research of articulatory movements]: Report of the National Language Research Institute, no.100. Tokyo: National Language Research Institute.Google Scholar
Ohala, John J. 1983. The origin of sound patterns in vocal tract constraints. In The production of speech, ed. MacNeilage, Peter F., 189216. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Okada, Hideo. 1999. Japanese. In The handbook of the International Phonetic Association, 117119. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Payne, Elinor M. 2006. Non-durational indices in Italian geminate consonants. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36: 8395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Perkell, Joseph S. 1969. Physiology of speech production results and implications of a quantitative cineradiographic study . Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
Ramasubramanian, N., and Thosar, R. B.. 1971. Synthesis by rule of some retroflex speech sounds. Language and Speech 14: 6585.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Recasens, Daniel, and Espinosa, Aina. 2006. Articulatory, positional, and contextual characteristics of palatal consonants: Evidence from Majorcan Catalan. Journal of Phonetics 34: 295318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ridouane, Rachid. 2010. Geminates at the junction of phonetics and phonology. In Papers in Laboratory Phonology 10: Variation, phonetic detail and phonological representation, ed. Fougeron, Cécile, Kühnert, Barbara, D'Imperio, Mariapaola, Vallée, Nathalie, 6190. Berlin:Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Sakuma, Kanae. 1929. Nihon Onseigaku. [Reprinted 1963. Tokyo: Kazama Shobō].Google Scholar
Shibata, Sadao. 1968. A study of dynamic palatography. Annual Bulletin, Research Institute of Logopedics and Phoniatrics, University of Tokyo 2: 2836.Google Scholar
Shin, Jiyoung. 1997. Consonantal production and coarticulation in Korean . Doctoral dissertation, University of London.Google Scholar
Silva, David. 1992. The phonetics and phonology of stop lenition in Korean. Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University.Google Scholar
Silva, David. 2006. Acoustic evidence for the emergence of tonal contrast in contemporary Korean. Phonology 23(2): 287308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Son, Minjung, Kim, Sahyang, and Cho, Taehong. 2012. Supralaryngeal articulatory signatures of three-way contrastive labial stops in Korean. Journal of Phonetics 40: 92108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stevens, Kenneth N. and Keyser, Samuel J.. 1989. Primary features and their enhancement in consonants. Language 65: 81106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stone, Maureen. 2010. Laboratory techniques for investigating speech articulation. In The handbook of phonetic sciences. 2nd ed., ed. Hardcastle, William J., Laver, John, and Gibbon, Fiona E., 938. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
Tachibana, Ryosuke O., Kitamura, Tatsuya, and Fujimoto, Masako. 2012. Differences in articulatory movement between voiced and voiceless stop consonants. Acoustical Science and Technology 33(6): 391393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tiede, Mark K., Perkell, Joseph S., Zandiour, Majid, Matthies, Melanie L., and Stockmann, Ellen. 2003. A new approach to pressure-sensitive palatography using a capacitive sensing device. In Proceedings of the 15th International Congress of the Phonetic Sciences, ed. Solé, Maria-Josep, Recasense, Daniel, and Romero, Joaquin, 31493152. Barcelona: ICPhS Archive. Scholar
Trubetzkoy, Nikolaj S. 1931. Die Konsonantensysteme der Ostkaukasischen Sprachen. Caucasica 7:152. [Translated into Russian and re-published in N. S. Trubetzkoy, 1987. Izbrannye trudy po filologii [Selected works in philology], ed. V. A. Vinogradov and V.P. Neroznak, 283–323, Moscow: Progress.]Google Scholar
Tsuchida, Ayako. 1997. Phonetics and phonology of Japanese vowel devoicing. Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University.Google Scholar
Vance, Timothy. J. 1987. An introduction to Japanese phonology. New York: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
Wakumoto, Masahiko, Masaki, Shinobu, Honda, Kiyoshi, and Ouhe, Toshikazu. 1998. A pressure sensitive palatography: Application of the new pressure sensitive sheet for measuring tongue-palatal contact pressure. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, 31513154. Sydney: International Speech Communication Association. Scholar
Westbury, John R. 1983. Enlargement of the supraglottal cavity and its relation to stop consonant voicing. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 73: 13221336.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wrench, Alan A. 2007. Advances in EPG palate design. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 9: 312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wrench, Alan A., Gibbon, Fiona E., McNeill, Alison M., and Wood, Sara Elizabeth. 2002. An EPG therapy protocol for remediation and assessment of articulation disorders. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, ed. Hansen, John H. L. and Pellom, Bryan, 965968. Denver: International Speech Communication Association. Scholar
Yoshioka, Hirohide, Löfqvist, Anders, and Hirose, Hajime. 1982. Laryngeal adjustments in Japanese voiceless sound production. Journal of Phonetics 10: 110.Google Scholar
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Supralaryngeal implementation of length and laryngeal contrasts in Japanese and Korean
Available formats

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Supralaryngeal implementation of length and laryngeal contrasts in Japanese and Korean
Available formats

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Supralaryngeal implementation of length and laryngeal contrasts in Japanese and Korean
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *