Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Geography, Drinking Water Chemistry, Pesticides and Herbicides and the Etiology of Parkinson's Disease

  • A.H. Rajput (a1), Ryan J. Uitti (a1), W. Stern (a1), W. Laverty (a1), K. O'Donnell (a1), D. O'Donnell (a1), W.K. Yuen (a1) and A. Dua (a1)...
Abstract:

In 1984 we made the first observation of a correlation between early age exposure to rural environment (and drinking well water) and development of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD).13 These findings were subsequently confirmed elsewhere (Barbeau, 1985 ;25 Tanner, 198526). Analysis of all early age onset IPD (EPD) cases born and raised in Saskatchewan revealed that 20 of 22 had exclusively rural exposure during the first 15 years of life. This distribution was significantly different from the general population (p = 0.0141). Further study of the EPD group included sampling and metal analysis of childhood sources of drinking water in 18 cases and 36 age and sex-matched controls. Water collected from the two groups was analyzed for 23 metals (including 7 elements implicated in the etiology of IPD). There was no difference in the metal composition of the water between the two groups.17 Finally, a review of herbicide and pesticide use in Saskatchewan agriculture was undertaken to determine if there was an increased incidence of EPD following utilization of any particular chemical. No increase was found in the incidence of EPD with the introduction of any pesticide or herbicide, including Paraquat, for agricultural use. We conclude that there is a strong correlation between early age rural environmental exposure and development of IPD. We believe well water is a likely vehicle for the causal agent, but neither water metal concentration nor any of the herbicides and pesticides used in Saskatchewan agriculture are related to the cause.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Geography, Drinking Water Chemistry, Pesticides and Herbicides and the Etiology of Parkinson's Disease
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Geography, Drinking Water Chemistry, Pesticides and Herbicides and the Etiology of Parkinson's Disease
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Geography, Drinking Water Chemistry, Pesticides and Herbicides and the Etiology of Parkinson's Disease
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, University Hospital, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 0X0
References
Hide All
1.Rajput, AH.Offord, KP, Beard, CM. Kurland, LT. Epidemiology of parkinsonism: incidence, classification, and mortality. Ann Neurol 1984; 16: 278282.
2.Rajput, AH. Rozdilsky, B, Hornykiewicz, O, et al. Reversible drug-induced parkinsonism clinicopathologic study of two cases. Arch Neurol 1982; 39: 644646.
3.Poskanzer, DC. Schwab, RS. Cohort analysis of Parkinson’s syndrome evidence for a single etiology related to sub clinical infection about 1920. J Chronic Dis 1963; 16: 961973.
4.Duvoisin, RC, Eldridge, R, Williams, A.et al. Twin study of Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 1981; 31: 7780.
5.Ward, CD, Duvoisin, RC. Ince, SE, et al. Parkinson’s disease in 65 pairs of twins and in a set of quadruplets. Neurology 1983; 33: 815824.
6.Davis, GC, Williams, AC, Markey, SP, et al. Chronic parkinsonism secondary to intravenous injection of meperidine analogues. Psychiat Res 1979; 1: 249254.
7.Langston, JW, Ballard, P, Tetrud, JW, Irwin, I.Chronic parkinsonism in humans due to a product of meperidine-analog synthesis. Science 1983: 219: 979980.
8.Rajput, AH, Elveback, LR, Beard, CM, Kurland, LT. Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease in Rochester, Minnesota. Trans 12th World Congress of Neurology 1981, Kyoto, Japan.
9.Rajput, AH. Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease. Can J Neurol Sci 1984; 11: 156159.
10.Rajput, AH, Offord, KP, Beard, CM, Kurland, LT. A case-control study of smoking habits, dementia, and other illnesses in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease in Rochester, Minn. Neurol 1986; 36 (Supp 1.1): 106.
11.Rajput, AH, Offord, KP, Beard, CM. Kurland, LT. A case-controlled study of smoking habits, dementia, and other illnesses in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Neurology (in press).
12.Rajput, AH. Juvenile Parkinson’s disease response to modern drug treatment. Proceedings of Canadian College of Neuropsycho-pharmacology, 1983, May 2527.
13.Rajput, AH, Stern, W.Christ, A.Laverty, W.Etiology of Parkinson’s disease: environmental factor(s). Neurology. 1984: 34 (Supp 1.1): 207.
14.Rajput, AH, Uitti, RJ, Stern, W, Laverty, W. Early onset Parkinson’s disease in Saskatchewan — environmental considerations for etiology. Can J Neuro Sci 1986; 13: 312316.
15.Uitti, RJ. Rajput, AH, Rozdilsky, B.Yuen, WK.Regional distribution of metals in human brain. Clinical and Investigative Medicine 1985: 8: A158.
16.Uitti, RJ, Rajput, AH, Rozdilsky, B.Yuen, WK. Regional distribution of metals in human brain. Clinical and Investigative Medicine 1986, (in press).
17.Rajput, AH. Uitti, RJ, O’Donnell, D, et al. Metal concentrations in drinking water in Parkinson’s disease and controls. Can J Neuro Sci 1986: 13: 185.
18.Chemical weed control in cereal, oilseed, pulse and forage crops 1986. SaskatchewanAgriculture Bulletin.
19.Wood, HE.Olson, PJ. A new weed killer 2,4-D. Manitoba Department of Agriculture and Immigration, Publication No. 201, January. 1946.
20.Calne, DB, Langston, JW. Aetiology of Parkinson’s disease. Lancet 1983; 2: 14571459.
21.Haack, DG, Baumann, RJ, McKean, HE, et al. Nicotine exposure and Parkinson’s disease. Amer J Epidem 1981: 114: 191200.
22.Golbe, LI, Cody, RA, Duvoisin, RC. Smoking and Parkinson’s disease. Search for a dose-response relationship. Arch Neurol 1986: 43: 774778.
23.Forno, LS, Langston, JW, DeLanney, LE, et al. Locus ceruleus lesions and eosinophilic inclusions in MPTP-treated monkeys. Ann Neurol 1986; 20: 449455.
24.Rajput, AH, Uitti, RJ, Stern, W.Laverty, W. 8Relationship between early onset Parkinson’s disease and country living. Proceedings of VIII International Symposium on Parkinson’s disease, New York, New York, June 912, 1985, 49.
25.Barbeau, A, Roy, M.Genetic susceptibility, environmental factors and Parkinson’s disease. Proceedings of the VIII International Symposium on Parkinson’s Disease. New York, New York, June 912, 1985, 13.
26.Tanner, CM.Well water drinking and Parkinson’s disease. Proceedings of the VHIth International Symposium on Parkinson’s Disease. New York, New York, June 912, 1985, 11.
27.Rosali, G, Granieri, E, Pinna, L, et al. The risk of Parkinson disease in Mediterranean people. Neurology 1980; 30: 250255.
28.Dreosti, IE, Smith, RM, et al. Neurobiology of the trace elements. Clifton, New Jersey: Humana Press, 1983, Vols 1,2.
29.Rajput, AH, Uitti, RJ. Rozdilsky, B. Yuen, WK. Distribution of metals in Parkinson’s disease and control brains. Neurology 1985; 35 (Supp 1.1): 224.
30.Barbeau, A.Etiology of Parkinson’s Disease: A research strategy. Can J Neurol Sci 1984; 11: 2428.
31.Bocchetta, A, Corsini, GUI. Parkinson’s disease and pesticides. Lancet 1986; 2: 1163.
32.Koller, WC. Paraquat and Parkinson’s disease. Neurology 1986; 36: 1147.
33.Tanner, CM. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Onset of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Neurology l986; 36 (Supp 1.1): 215.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences
  • ISSN: 0317-1671
  • EISSN: 2057-0155
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-journal-of-neurological-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 227 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 757 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.