Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-6f6fcd54b-sdp72 Total loading time: 0.535 Render date: 2021-05-11T11:57:57.717Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: {}

Neuropathology in Canada: The First One Hundred Years

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 September 2016

Marc R. Del Bigio
Affiliation:
Department of Pathology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba
N. Barry Rewcastle
Affiliation:
Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]

Abstract

We describe the evolution of neuropathology in Canada, beginning with William Osler who began working in Montréal in 1874 and finishing with the major period of expansion in the 1970s. Organized services began in the 1930s, in Montréal with the neurosurgeons Wilder Penfield and William Cone, and in Toronto with Eric Linell and Mary Tom, who both began their careers as neuroanatomists. Jerzy Olszewski and Gordon Mathieson, who trained in Montréal and Toronto, drove the creation of the CanadianAssociation of Neuropathologists in 1960. Training guided by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada was formalized in 1965, with the first certifying examination in 1968 and the subsequent creation of formal structured training programs. The number of neuropathologists in Canada increased rapidly through the 1960s and 1970s, with individuals coming from both clinical neuroscience and anatomic pathology backgrounds, a pattern that persists to the present day.

Type
Historical Review
Copyright
Copyright © The Canadian Journal of Neurological 2010

References

1. Hassin, GB. Neuropathology, an historical sketch. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1950; 9(1):117.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
2. Henry, JM. Neurons and Nobel Prizes: a centennial history of neuropathology. Neurosurgery. 1998;42(1):143–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
3. Roizin, L. Essay on the origin and evolution of neuropathology; some fundamental neuropathologic contributions to psychiatry. Psychiatr Q. 1957;31(3):531–55.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
4. Jasper, HH. The early development of neuroscience in Canada. Can J Neurol Sci. 1985;12(3):221–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5. Rodin, AE. Canada’s foremost pathologist of the nineteenth century-William Osler. Can Med Assoc J. 1972;107(9):890–2.Google Scholar
6. Linell, EA. The Academy of Medicine of Toronto, 1907–1957. Can Med Assoc J. 1957;76(6):437–9.Google Scholar
7. Cushing, H. The life of Sir William Osler. Oxford: Calrendon Press; 1926.Google Scholar
8. Couldwell, WT, Feindel, W, Rovit, RL. William Osler at McGill University: the baby professor and his early contributions to neurosurgery. J Neurosurg. 2004;101(4):705–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9. Feindel, W. Osler and the “medico-chirurgical neurologists”: Horsley, Cushing, and Penfield. J Neurosurg. 2003;99(1):188–99.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10. Ebers, GC. William Osler (1849–1919). J Neurol. 2006;253(1):127–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11. Ebers, GC. Osler and neurology. Can J Neurol Sci. 1985;12(3):236–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
12. Feindel, W. Neurosurgery at the Montreal Neurological Institute and McGill University Hospitals. Neurosurgery. 1996;39(4):830–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
13. Feindel, W. Osler’s brain again. Osler Libr Newsl. 1990(64):13.Google Scholar
14. Glover, E. Ernest Jones; 1879–1958. Br J Psychol. 1958;49(3):177–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
15. Jones, E. Free associations. Memories of a psycho-analyst. New York: Basic Books, Inc.; 1959.Google Scholar
16. Wherrett, JR. Origins of neurology in Toronto and discovery of progressive supranuclear palsy. 1999 [refd August 2009]; Available from: http://www.aoneuro.on.ca/HTML/PSP-Wherrett.htm. Google Scholar
17. Greenland, C. Ernest Jones in Toronto, 1908–13. A fragment of biography. Can Psychiatr Assoc J. 1961;6:132–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
18. Greenland, C. C. K. Clarke: a founder of Canadian psychiatry. Can Med Assoc J. 1966;95(4):155–60.Google Scholar
19. Wherrett, JR. A history of neurology in Toronto 1892–1960: Part I. Can J Neurol Sci. 1995;22(4):322–32.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
20. Paskauskas, RA. Ernest Jones: a critical study of his scientific development (1896–1913) [Ph.D.]. Toronto: University of Toronto; 1985.Google Scholar
21. Paskauskas, RA. The complete correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Ernest Jones 1908–1939. Cambridge, MA / London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press; 1993.Google Scholar
22. Kleimberg, L. Free associations revisited: the life and work of the psychoanalyst Ernest Jones (Ernest Jones Lecture 2008). 2008 [refd August 4 2009]; Available from: http://www.wps.swan.ac.uk/previousmeetings_ernestjones20.html.Google Scholar
23. Carr, I. William Boyd. Silver tongue and golden pen. Markham ON: Associated Medical Services, Inc. & Fitzhenry and Whiteside; 1993.Google Scholar
24. Carr, I. William Boyd – the commonplace and the books. Can Bull Med Hist. 1993;10:7786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
25. Boyd, W. Physiology and pathology of the cerebrospinal fluid. New York: Macmillan; 1920.Google Scholar
26. Greenfield, JG, Carmichal, EA. The cerebrospinal fluid in clinical diagnosis. London: Macmillan; 1925.Google Scholar
27. Boyd, W. The Winnipeg epidemic of encephalitis lethargica. Can Med Assoc J. 1920;10:117–40.Google Scholar
28. Boyd, W. The glioma group studied by ordinary histological methods. Brit Med J. 1930;2(3643)(November):720–2.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
29. Gill, AS, Binder, DK. Wilder Penfield, Pio del Rio Hortega, and the discovery of oligodendroglia. Neurosurgery. 2007;60(5):940–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
30. Penfield, W.J.G., Greenfield, M.D.; 1884-1958; appreciation of the man. AMAArch Neurol Psychiatry. 1958;80(5):587–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
31. Penfield, WG. No man alone. A neurosurgeon’s life. Boston / Toronto: Little, Brown and Co.; 1977.Google Scholar
32. Preul, MC, Stratford, J, Bertrand, G, Feindel, W. Neurosurgeon as innovator: William V. Cone (1897–1959). J Neurosurg. 1993;79(4):619–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
33. Penfield, W. Microglia and the process of phagocytosis in gliomas. Am J Pathol. 1925;1(1):7790.Google ScholarPubMed
34. Penfield, W. A further modification of del Rio Hortega’s method of staining oligodendroglia. Am J Pathol. 1930;6(4):445–8.Google Scholar
35. Penfield, W, Cone, W. Acute swelling of oligodendroglia. A specific type of neuroglia change. Arch Neurol Psychiatr. 1926;16(2): 131–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
36. Shugar, JL. W. V. Cone remembered. Can J Surg. 1984;27(5):515.Google Scholar
37. Moore, S, Seemayer, TA, Tremblay, G. The career and influence of Pierre Masson (1880–1959). Int J Surg Pathol. 2001;9(3):231–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
38. Masson, P. Experimental and spontaneous schwannomas (peripheral gliomas). Part II Spontaneous schwannomas. Am J Pathol. 1932; 8(4):389416.Google Scholar
39. Rice, JM, Wilbourn, JD. Tumors of the nervous system in carcinogenic hazard identification. Toxicol Pathol. 2000;28(1): 202–14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
40. Penfield, W, editor. Cytology and cellular pathology of the nervous system. New York: Paul B. Hoeber Inc.; 1932.Google Scholar
41. Lewis, DS. Royal Victoria Hospital 1887–1947. Montreal: McGill University Press; 1969.Google Scholar
42. Feindel, W. The Montreal Neurological Institute. J Neurosurg. 1991; 75(5):821–2.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
43. Rosen, HJ. Reminiscences of William Cone. Can J Surg. 1984;27(5):516–8.Google ScholarPubMed
44. Robb, JP. William Vernon Cone. Can J Surg. 1984;27:518.Google ScholarPubMed
45. Osler Library Archive Collections. Wilder Penfield fonds, P142. Montreal: The Osler Library of the History of Medicine, McGill University.Google Scholar
46. Gatenby, JB, Painter, TS, editors. A handbook of the methods of animal and plant microscopic anatomy (the microtomist’s vade mecum). 10th Ed. Philadelphia PA: P. Blakiston’s Son and Co. Inc.; 1937.Google Scholar
47. Geddes, JF. A portrait of ‘The Lady’: a life of Dorothy Russell. J R Soc Med. 1997;90(8):455–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
48. Earle, KM. In memoriam: Webb Edward Haymaker, M.D. (1902–1984). Acta Neuropathol. 1985;66(1):12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
49. Earle, KM. “Nature reveals herselfto science”. Memoirs of Kenneth Martin Earle, M.D., M.Sc. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1993;52 (2):174–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
50. Spatz, M, Hossman, K-A. In memory of Igor Klatzo, 1916–2007. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2008;67(2):170–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
51. Osler Library Archive Collections. William Vernon Cone fonds, P163. Montreal: The Osler Library of the History of Medicine, McGill University.Google Scholar
52. Morley, TP. Kenneth George McKenzie. 1892–1964 The founding of Canadian neurosurgery. Markham ON: Fitzhenry & Whiteside; 2004.Google Scholar
53. Linell, EA. The distribution of nerves in the upper limb, with reference to variabilities and their clinical significance. J Anat. 1921;55(Pt2-3):79112.Google ScholarPubMed
54. Linell, EA. An unusual cause of death from cancer. Brit Med J. 1922;1:872.Google ScholarPubMed
55. Cosbie, WG. The Toronto General Hospital, 1819–1965: achronicle. Toronto: Macmillan; 1975.Google Scholar
56. Findlay, JM. Neurosurgery at the Toronto General Hospital, 1924–1990: Part 1. Can J Neurol Sci. 1994;21(2):146–58.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
57. Morley, TP. Dr. Mary Isabel Tom (obituary). Bull Acad Med Toronto. 1971;45:2930.Google Scholar
58. Botterell, EH. Kenneth, G. McKenzie, M.D. (1892–1964). Am J Psychiatry. 1965;121:936–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
59. Linell, EA. The histology of neuroglial changes following cerebral trauma. An experimental investigation. Arch Neurol Psychiatr. 1929;22:926–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
60. Shaw, C-M, Alvord, EC Jr Neuropathology. In: Moore, AJ, Newell, DW, editors. Neurosurgery: principles and practice. London: Springer-Verlag; 2005. p. 3970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
61. Findlay, JM. Neurosurgery at the Toronto General Hospital, 1924–1990: Part 2. Can J Neurol Sci. 1994;21(3):278–84.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
62. Morley, TP. In memoriam: Eric Ambrose Linell 1891–1983. Can J Neurol Sci. 1983;10:159–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
63. Holman, WL. Oskar Klotz 1878–1936 (obituary). J Pathol Bacteriol. 1937;44(2):504–7.Google Scholar
64. Delarue, NC, Linell, EA, McKenzie, KG. An experimental study on the use of tantalum in the subdural space. J Neurosurg. 1944;1:239–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
65. Linell, EA, McKenzie, KG. Astrocytoma of the cerebrum showing extensive involvement of the opposite cerebral hemisphere. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1931;34(2):195–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
66. Wherrett, JR. A history of neurology in Toronto 1892–1960: Part II. Can J Neurol Sci. 1996;23(1):6375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
67. Potter, P, Soltan, H. Murray Llewellyn Barr, O.C. 20 June 1908–4 May 1995. Biograph Mem Fellows R Soc. 1997;43:3346.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
68. Neilson, JB, Paterson, GR. Associated Medical Services, Incorporated: a history. Toronto: Associated Medical Services and the Hannah Institute for the History of Medicine; 1987.Google Scholar
69. Hannah, JA. A case of Alzheimer’s disease with neuropathological findings. Can Med Assoc J. 1936;35(10):361–6.Google Scholar
70. Hannah, JA. The aetiology of subdural hematoma. (An anatomical and pathological study). J Nerv Ment Dis. 1936;84:169–86.Google Scholar
71. Paterson, GR. Jason A. Hannah: pathologist, economist, historian. Can Med Assoc J. 1977;117:193.Google Scholar
72. Paterson, GR. The Hannah Institute: promoting Canadian history of medicine. Can Med Assoc J. 1983;128:1325–8.Google ScholarPubMed
73. Associated Medical Services. Home Page. [refd August 2009]; Available from: http://php.ams-inc.on.ca/. Google Scholar
74. Alexander, WS. Progressive fibrinoid degeneration of fibrillary astrocytes associated with mental retardation in a hydrocephalic infant. Brain. 1949;72(3):373–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
75. Linell, EA, Farrar, CB. A cairn to the memory of Osler. Can Med Assoc J. 1961;85:1347–50.Google ScholarPubMed
76. Bailey, OT. Observations on the development of neuropathology in the United States. Proc Inst Med Chic. 1964;25:154–8.Google ScholarPubMed
77. Cruz-Sanchez, FF. European neuropathology – a scientific epistemology. Clin Neuropathol. 2006;25(1):56.Google ScholarPubMed
78. Mikol, J, Weller, R. Neuropathology in Europe: an overview. Clin Neuropathol. 2006;25(1):713.Google ScholarPubMed
79. Izquierdo, JM. Contribucion a la historia de la neuropatologia espanola. Arch Neurobiol (Madr). 1983;46(5):327–34.Google Scholar
80. Kanareikin, KF. Sovetskaia nevropatologiia za 70 let. Klin Med (Mosk). 1987;65(11):1621.Google Scholar
81. Macchi, G. Historia de la neuropatologia italiana. Evolucion de una problematica. Arch Neurobiol (Madr). 1984;47(1):45–8.Google Scholar
82. Osetowska, E. Development of neuropathology in People’s Poland. Neuropatol Pol. 1969;7(3):213–6.Google ScholarPubMed
83. McMenemey, WH. Neuropathology in Western Europe: Part II Great Britain. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1959;18(4):645–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
84. Schiffer, D. The history of neuropathology in Italy. Clin Neuropathol. 2010;29(3):177–81.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
85. Hassin, GB. The rise of neuropathology. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1942;1(1):12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
86. Mennel, HD. A brief history of neuropathology. DGNN – Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Neuropathologie und Neuroanatomie [refd September 9 2009]; Available from: http://www.dgnn.de/de/index.php?frmnav=navi.php&&sprache=e&&frmcont=welcome.php. Google Scholar
87. Peiffer, J. 100 Jahre deutsche Neuropathologie. Pathologe. 1997;18 Suppl 1:S21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
88. Allen, IV. The changing face of neuropathology. In: Hall, PA, Wright, NA, editors. Understanding disease: a centenary celebration of the Pathological Society. Hoboken NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2006. p. 185–91.Google Scholar
89. Matsushita, M. History of neuropathology in Japan. Neuropathology. 2000;20 Suppl:S2–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
90. Corvisier-Visy, N, Poirier, J. La neuropathologie en France (XIXe–XXe siecles) avatars semantiques et institutionnels. Arch Anat Cytol Pathol. 1996;44(1):1827.Google Scholar
91. Arendt, A. Die Rolle der Neuropathologie in der Allgemeinen Pathologie und Speziellen Pathologischen Anatomie. Zentralbl Neurochir. 1983;44(2):113–20.Google Scholar
92. Anonymous. Preface of the editors. Acta Neuropathol. 1961 45.Google Scholar
93. Jellinger, KA. Highlights in the history of neurosciences in Austria-review. Clin Neuropathol. 2006;25(5):243–52.Google Scholar
94. Long, ER. A history ofAmerican pathology. Springfield IL: Charles C Thomas; 1962.Google Scholar
95. Klatzo, I. In memoriam: Jerzy Olszewski, (1913–1964). J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1964;23:727–8.Google Scholar
96. Baxter, DW, Buettner-Ennever, JA, Sharpe, JA, Leigh, RJ. Jerzy Olszewski: cartographer of the brain stem reticular formation. Neurology. 1987;37(12):1881–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
97. Meessen, H, Olszewski, J. Cytoarchitektonischer Atlas des Rautenhirns des Kaninchens. Basel: Karger; 1949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
98. Olszewski, J. The thalamus of the Macaca mulatta: an atlas for use with the stereotaxic instrument. Basel: S. Karger; 1952.Google Scholar
99. Olszewski, J, Baxter, DW. Cytoarchitecture of the human brain stem. Basel & New York: S. Karger; 1954.Google Scholar
100. Olszewski, J. An atlas of the thalamus of Macaca mulatta, for use with the Horsley-Clarke instrument. [PhD]. Montreal: McGill University; 1951.Google Scholar
101. Zülch, KJ. Brain tumors: their biology and pathology. New York: Springer Publishing Company Inc.; 1957.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
102. Dyck, PJ. From fish to nerve research. University of Saskatchewan College of Medicine Alumni Connective Issue. 2007;Spring: 13–4.Google Scholar
103. Wood, LC. Peter James Dyck. Oral history. 1995 [refd August 2009]; Available from: http://www.aneuroa.org/clientuploads/docs/DyckOralHistory.pdf. Google Scholar
104. Baxter, DW. Transcript of address in memory of Jerzy (George) Olszewski. 1964.Google Scholar
105. Wisniewski, T. Henry, M. Wisniewski M.D. Ph.D. J Alzheimers Dis. 2001;3(1):722.Google Scholar
106. Powell, HC. In memoriam Peter W. Lampert. Acta Neuropathol. 1986;72:204–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
107. Steele, JC, Richardson, JC, Olszewski, J. Progressive supranuclear palsy. A heterogeneous degeneration involving the brain stem, basal ganglia and cerebellum with vertical gaze and pseudobulbar palsy, nuchal dystonia and dementia. Arch Neurol. 1964;10:333–59.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
108. Williams, DR, Lees, AJ, Wherrett, JR, Steele, JC. J. Clifford Richardson and 50 years of progressive supranuclear palsy. Neurology. 2008;70(7):566–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
109. Rothballer, AB. Transcript of address in memory of Jerzy (George) Olszewski. 1964.Google Scholar
110. Lewis, HJ. Something hidden: a biography of Wilder Penfield. Toronto: Doubleday Canada; 1981.Google Scholar
111. Mathieson, G. Pathologic aspects of epilepsy with special reference to the surgical pathology of focal cerebral seizures. Adv Neurol. 1975;8:107–38.Google ScholarPubMed
112. Imielinski, BL. Professor Miroslaw Jan Mossakowski (1929–2001). Folia Morphol. 2002;61(3):157–9.Google Scholar
113. Robert, F, Hardy, J. Human corticotroph cell adenomas. Semin Diagn Pathol. 1986;3(1):3441.Google ScholarPubMed
114. Jasmin, G. Dre. Françoise Robert (1930–1998). Forum – Université de Montreal. 1998;33(2).Google Scholar
115. Mathieson, G. Attention neuropathologists (letter). Can Med Assoc J. 1960;83:230.Google Scholar
116. Letts, H, Jacques, J. A History of the Canadian Association of Pathologists. 2nd Ed. Kingston ON: Allan Graphics Ltd.; 1994.Google Scholar
117. Canadian Association of Neuropathologists. Archives.Google ScholarPubMed
118. Carpenter, S, Karpati, G. Pathology of skeletal muscle. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1984.Google ScholarPubMed
119. Hastings, K. George Karpati (1934 – 2009) – a born scientist. Neuro News (Montreal Neurological Institute Newsletter). 2009; March.Google Scholar
120. Zubrzycka-Gaarn, EE, Bulman, DE, Karpati, G, et al. The Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene product is localized in sarcolemma of human skeletal muscle. Nature. 1988;333(6172):466–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
121. Rowland, LP. George Karpati, MD (1934–2009). J Neurol Sci. 2009;281:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
122. Carpenter, S. In memoriam. Finlayson, Morrison H.. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1983;42:300–1.Google Scholar
123. Baxter, DW, Stratford, JG. Neurology and neurosurgery at the Montreal General Hospital 1960–1980. Can J Neurol Sci. 2000;27(1):7983.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
124. Midroni, G, Bilbao, JM. Nerve biopsy in peripheral neuropathology. Woburn MA: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1995.Google Scholar
125. Wherrett, JR. John, G. Humphrey, M.D., FR.C.P.C. a remembrance. Can J Neurol Sci. 1992;19(3):402–11.Google Scholar
126. Nag, S. Neuropathology at Queens’ University. 1960s-mid 1990s. Personal reminiscences. Annual Newsletter Queen’s Pathology Alumni. 2005:1620.Google Scholar
127. Davis, RL, Robertson, DM, editors. Textbook of neuropathology. London: Williams and Wilkins; 1985.Google Scholar
128. Ferguson, GG, Hachinski, VC Dr. Drake, Charles G. 1920–1998. Can J Neurol Sci. 1999;26(4):330–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
129. Barnett, HJ. Reflections on aspects of medical progress 1944-2008-part 1. The launch of a journey lasting 65 years: personal observations made from a front-row seat at the greatest show on earth. Can J Neurol Sci. 2009;36(1):613.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
130. Rorke, LB. In memoriam. Clarisse Lenore Dolman. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1989;48:601–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
131. Dolman, CL. Ultrastructure of brain tumors and biopsies: a diagnostic atlas. New York: Praeger; 1984.Google Scholar
132. Rozdilsky, B. Experimental study on the toxicity of bilirubin [PhD thesis]. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan; 1958.Google Scholar
133. Anonymous. Provincial News - Saskatchewan. Can Med Assoc J. 1960;82:797–8.Google Scholar
134. Powers, JM. AANP award for meritorious contributions to neuropathology presented to Dikran S. Horoupian, MD. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2002;61:1024.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
135. Norman, MG, Symchych, PS. William Leslie Donohue. Perspect Pediatr Pathol. 1984;8(3):195–8.Google Scholar
136. Vinters, HV. Meritorious contributions to neuropathology. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2008;67:1214–5.Google Scholar
137. Norman, MG, McGillivray, B, Kalousek, DK, Hill, A, Poskitt, K. Congenital malformations of the brain: pathological, embryological, clinical, radiological, and genetic aspects. New York: Oxford University Press; 1995.Google Scholar
138. Dobyns, WB. Book review. Am J Med Genet. 1997;60:744.Google Scholar
139. Halliday, WC. Dr Laurence, E. Becker, MD, FRCPC (obituary). 2002 [refd June 2006]; Available from: http://www.utoronto.ca/neuropathology/faculty/becker.html. Google Scholar
140. Cutz, E. Tribute to Laurence Edward Becker, MD, FRCPC (March 30, 1943, to July 14, 2002). Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2005;8(3):255–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
141. Takashima, S. A tribute to Dr. Laurence E. Becker (1943–2002). Neuropathology. 2002;22:367–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
142. MacDermot, HE. One hundred years of medicine in Canada, 1867–1967. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart; 1967.Google Scholar
143. Routley, TC. The founding of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada. Can Med Assoc J. 1955;73(2):104–6.Google ScholarPubMed
144. Lewis, DS. The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, 1920–1960. Montreal: McGill University Press; 1962.Google Scholar
145. Shephard, DAE. The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada 1960–1980: The Pursuit of Unity. Ottawa: Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada; 1985.Google Scholar
146. Auer, R. Whither neuropathology? Can J Neurol Sci. 2003;30(4):299301.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
147. Del Bigio, MR, Johnson, ES. Neuropathology in Canada: overview of development and current status. Can J Neurol Sci. 2010;37:206–12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
You have Access

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Neuropathology in Canada: The First One Hundred Years
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Neuropathology in Canada: The First One Hundred Years
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Neuropathology in Canada: The First One Hundred Years
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *