Noreen Kamal reports grants from Alberta Innovates, during the conduct of the study.
Michael D. Hill owns stock in Calgary Scientific Incorporated, a company that focusses on medical imaging software; is a director of the Canadian Neurological Sciences Federation, a not-for-profit group; and has received grant support from Alberta Innovates Health Solutions, CIHR, Heart & Stroke Foundation of Canada and National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
Elaine Shand, Robert Swanson, Thomas Jeerakathil, Jennifer Bestard, Oje Imoukhuede, Irvin Heinrichs, Jackie Bakker, Carol Stoyberg, Laura Fowler, Sandy Duckett, Scott Holsworth, Balraj Mann and Shelley Valaire have nothing to disclose.
Statement of Authorship
Noreem Kamal: writing, data analysis, manuscript review, central study/QI leadership. Elaine Shand: manuscript review, study design, intervention. Robert Swanson: manuscript review, intervention. Michael D. Hill: manuscript review, central study/QI leadership. Thomas Jeerakathil: manuscript review, central study/QI leadership. Oje Imoukheude: manuscript review, intervention. Irvin Heinrichs: manuscript review, intervention. Jackie Bakker: manuscript review, intervention. Carol Stoyberg: manuscript review, intervention. Laura Fowler: manuscript review, intervention. Sandy Duckett: manuscript review, intervention. Scott Holsworth: manuscript review, intervention. Balraj Mann: manuscript review, central study/QI leadership. Shelley Valaire: manuscript review, central study/QI leadership. Jennifer Bestard: manuscript review, study design, intervention.
1. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group. Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke. New Engl J Med. 1995;333:1581-1587.
2. The ATLANTIS, ECASS, and NINDS rt-PA Study Group Investigators. Association of outcome with early stroke treatment: pooled analysis of ATLANTIS, ECASS, and NINDS rt-PA stroke trials. Lancet. 2004;363:768-774.
3. Saver, JL. Time is brain—quantified. Stroke. 2006;37:263-266.
4. Emberson, J, Lees, KR, Lyden, P, et al. Effect of treatment delay, age, and stroke severity on the effects of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase for acute ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised trials. Lancet. 2014;384:1929-1935.
6. Fonarow, GC, Smith, EE, Saver, JL, et al. Improving door-to-needle times in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2011;42:2983-2989.
8. Kamal, N, Benavente, O, Boyle, K, et al. Good is not good enough: the benchmark stroke door-to-needle time should be 30 minutes. Can J Neurol Sci. 2014;41:694-696.
9. Casaubon, LK, Boulanger, JM, Blacquiere, D, et al. Canadian stroke best practice recommendations: hyperacute stroke care guidelines, update 2015. Int J Stroke. 2015;10(6):924-940.
10. Meretoja, A, Strbian, D, Mustanoja, S, et al. Reducing in-hospital delay to 20 minutes in stroke thrombolysis. Neurology. 2012;79:306-313.
11. Kamal, N, Holodinsky, JK, Stephenson, C, et al. Improving door-to-needle times for acute ischemic stroke: effect of rapid patient registration, moving directly to computed tomography, and giving alteplase at the computed tomography scanner. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2017;10:e003242.
12. Busby, L, Owada, K, Dhungana, S, et al. CODE FAST: a quality improvement initiative to reduce door-to-needle times. J Neurointerv Surg. 2016;8:661-664.
13. Ford, AL, Williams, JA, Spencer, M, et al. Reducing door-to-needle times using Toyota’s lean manufacturing principles and value stream analysis. Stroke. 2012;43:3395-3398.
14. Kamal, N, Smith, EE, Jeerakathil, T, Hill, MD. Thrombolysis: improving door-to-needle times for ischemic stroke treatment—a narrative review. Int J Stroke 2017. .
15. Prabhakaran, S, Khorzad, R, Brown, A, Nannicelli, AP, Khare, R, Holl, JL. Academic-community hospital comparison of vulnerabilities in door-to-needle process for acute ischemic stroke. Circulation: Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2015;8:S148-S154.
16. Van Schaik, SM, Van der Veen, B, Van den Berg-Vos, RM, Weinstein, HC, Bosboom, WM. Achieving a door-to-needle time of 25 minutes in thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke: a quality improvement project. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014;23(10):2900-2906.
17. Linzey, J, Shilling-brewer, J, Thibodeaux, M, Cory, W, Berger, P, Neil, W. Abstract WP339: reducing door-to-needle time for acute ischemic stroke thrombolysis in a community hospital. Stroke. 2013;44:AWP339.
18. Funk, KE. Abstract WP251: EMS collaboration reduces door to needle times in community hospital. Stroke. 2016;47:AWP251.
19. Strbian, D, Ahmed, N, Wahlgren, N, et al. Trends in door-to-thrombolysis time in the safe implementation of stroke thrombolysis registry. Stroke. 2015;46:1275-1280.
20. Smith, EE. Door-to-needle times: let’s not leave small hospitals behind. Stroke. 2015;2015(46):1158-1159.
22. Institute for Healthcare Improvement. The Breakthrough Series: IHI’s Collaborative Model for Achieving Breakthrough Improvement. IHI Innovation Series white paper. Boston: Institute for Healthcare Improvement; 2003.
23. Xian, Y, Xu, H, Lytle, B, et al. Use of strategies to improve door-to-needle times with tissue-type plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke in clinical practice. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2017;10:e003227.
24. Xian, Y, Smith, EE, Zhao, X, et al. Strategies used by hospitals to improve speed of tissue-type plasminogen activator treatment in acute ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2014;45:1387-1395.