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Tractography in the Study of the Human Brain: A Neurosurgical Perspective

  • David Fortin (a1), Camille Aubin-Lemay (a1), Arnaud Boré (a2), Gabriel Girard (a2), Jean-Christophe Houde (a2), Kevin Whittingstall (a3) and Maxime Descoteaux (a2)...
Abstract
Background:

The brain functions as an integrated multi-networked organ. Complex neurocognitive functions are not attributed to a single brain area but depend on the dynamic interactions of distributed brain areas operating in large-scale networks. This is especially important in the field of neurosurgery where intervention within a spatially localized area may indirectly lead to unwanted effects on distant areas. As part of a preliminary integrated work on functional connectivity, we present our initial work on diffusion tensor imaging tractography to produce in vivo white matter tracts dissection.

Methods:

Diffusion weighted data and high-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from a healthy right-handed volunteer (25 years old) on a whole-body 3 T scanner. Two approaches were used to dissect the tractography results: 1) a standard region of interest technique and 2) the use of Brodmann's area as seeding points, which represents an innovation in terms of seeds initiation.

Results:

Results are presented as tri-dimensional tractography images. The uncinate fasciculus, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, the inferior fronto-occipital fasiculus, the corticospinal tract, the corpus callosum, the cingulum, and the optic radiations where studied by conventional seeding approach, while Broca's and Wernicke's areas, the primary motor as well as the primary visual cortices were used as seeding areas in the second approach.

Conclusions:

We report state-of-the-art tractography results of some of the major white matter bundles in a normal subject using DTI. Moreover, we used Brodmann's area as seeding areas for fiber tracts to study the connectivity of known major functional cortical areas.

RÉSUMÉ Contexte:

Le cerveau fonctionne comme un organe constitué en multiréseaux intégrés et les fonctions neurocognitives complexes ne sont pas restreintes à une seule zone du cerveau. Elles dépendent d'interactions dynamiques de différentes régions du cerveau opérant en réseaux de grande envergure. Ceci est particulièrement important dans le domaine de la neurochirurgie où une intervention à l'intérieur d'une zone très localisée peut provoquer indirectement des effets indésirables à distance. Nous présentons, dans le cadre d'un travail intégré préliminaire sur la connectivité fonctionnelle, nos travaux initiaux sur la tractographie par IRM de diffusion pour obtenir in vivo la dissection de faisceaux de la substance blanche.

Méthode:

Des données de l'IRM pondérée en diffusion et des images de haute résolution pondérées en T1 ont été acquises chez un volontaire sain droitier de 25 ans au moyen d'un scanner T3 du corps entier. Deux approches ont été utilisées pour disséquer les résultats de la tractographie: 1) une technique standard ciblant une région spécifique et 2) l'utilisation de la zone de Brodmann comme point d'essaimage, ce qui constitue une innovation.

Résultats:

Nous présentons des images de tractographie tridimensionnelles. Le faisceau unciné, le faisceau longitudinal inférieur, le faisceau fronto-occipital inférieur, le faisceau pyramidal, le corps calleux, le cingulum et les radiations optiques de Gratiolet ont été étudiés par la méthode d'essaimage conventionnelle alors que les zones de Broca et de Wernicke ainsi que les cortex primaires moteurs et visuels ont été utilisés comme zones d'essaimage dans la deuxième approche.

Conclusions:

Nous rapportons des résultats de tractographie par IRM de diffusion, une technologie de pointe, de certains des faisceaux importants de la substance blanche chez un sujet normal. De plus, nous avons utilisé la zone de Brodmann comme zone d'essaimage afin d'étudier la connectivité des zones corticales fonctionnelles majeures connues.

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Copyright
Corresponding author
Université de Sherbrooke, Division of Neurosurgery and Neuro-oncology, 3001, 12th Avenue North, Sherbrooke (Québec) J1H 5N4, Canada. Email: david.fortin@usherbrooke.ca
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Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences
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