Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Foreign Interventions and Secessionist Movements: The Democratic Factor

  • Louis Bélanger (a1), Érick Duchesne (a1) and Jonathan Paquin (a2)
Abstract

Abstract. This article explores the impact of political regime type on the decision of third states to support secessionist movements abroad. It suggests that democracies share political values, which lead them to oppose their mutual secessionist claims, while autocracies are not bound by this normative consideration. The statistical analysis supports the effect of the democratic factor: democracies rarely support secessionist groups emerging from democratic states. Moreover, it shows that there is no autocratic counterpart to this argument. This research also casts some serious doubts on the ability of conventional explanations—namely vulnerability and ethnic affinities—to explain external support to secessionist movements.

Résumé. Cet article analyse l'impact du type de régime politique sur la décision des États tiers d'appuyer des mouvements sécessionnistes à l'étranger. L'étude soutient que les démocraties partagent des valeurs politiques communes qui les mènent à s'opposer aux mouvements indépendantistes qui se manifestent parmi elles, alors que les régimes autocratiques ne sont pas liés par cette considération normative. L'analyse statistique valide l'effet du facteur démocratique : les démocraties appuient rarement les groupes sécessionnistes qui émergent au sein d'autres États démocratiques. Les données démontrent également qu'il n'y a pas d'équivalent autocratique faisant écho au facteur démocratique. L'étude indique en outre que les thèses courantes de la vulnérabilité et du lien ethnique expliquent mal l'appui des États tiers aux groupes sécessionnistes.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Louis Bélanger, Department of Political Science and Institut québécois des hautes études internationales, Université Laval, Ste-Foy, Québec, G1K 7P4; louis.belanger@hei.ulaval.ca
Érick Duchesne, Department of Political Science and Institut québécois des hautes études internationales, Université Laval, Ste-Foy, Québec, G1K 7P4; erick.duchesne@pol.ulaval.ca
Jonathan Paquin, Department of Political Science, McGill University, Montréal, H3A 2T7; jonathan.paquin@mail.mcgill.ca
References
Hide All

References

Braumoeller, Bear. 1997. “Deadly Doves: Liberal Nationalism and the Democratic Peace in the Soviet Successor States.” International Studies Quarterly 41, 3: 375402.
Buchanan, Allen. 1991. Secession: The Morality of Political Divorce from Fort Sumter to Lithuania and Quebec. Boulder: Westview Press.
Buchanan, Allen. 1998. “Democracy and Secession.” In National Self-Determination and Secession, ed. Margaret Moore. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Carment, David and Patrick James. 1996. “Two-Level Games and Third-Party Intervention: Evidence from Ethnic Conflict in the Balkans and South Asia.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 29, 3: 52154.
Carment, David and Patrick James. 1997. “Secession and Irredenta in World Politics: The Neglected Interstate Dimension.” In Wars in the Midst of Peace: The International Politics of Ethnic Conflict, eds. David Carment and Patrick James. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Carment, David, Patrick James and Dane Rowlands. 1997. “Ethnic Conflict and Third Party Intervention: Riskiness, Rationality and Commitment.” In Enforcing Cooperation: Risky States and Intergovernmental Management of Conflict, eds. G. Schneider and Patricia A. Weitsman. London: Macmillan Press.
Central Intelligence Agency. 1999. The World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency.
Central Intelligence Agency. 2002. The World Factbook: Moldova. http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/md.html (April 2004).
Cervenka, Zdenek. 1969. The Organization of African Unity and its Charter. New York and Washington: Praeger Press.
Clinton, William. 1999. President Clinton's Federalism Speech. Forum of Federations. October 8, Chateau Mont-Tremblant, Mont-Tremblant, Canada.
Crawford, Beverly. 1996. “Explaining Defection from International Cooperation.” World Politics 48: 482521.
Crawford, James. 1997. “State Practice and International Law in Relation to Unilateral Secession.” In Devant la Cour Suprême du Canada: Supplément au dossier rapport d'experts. Procureurs du Procureur général du Canada. No. 25506: 153.
Davis, David R., Keith Jaggers and Will H. Moore. 1997. “Ethnicity, Minorities, and International Conflict.” In Wars in the Midst of Peace: The International Politics of Ethnic Conflict, eds. David Carment and Patrick James. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Davis, David R. and Will H. Moore. 1997. “Ethnicity Matters: Transnational Ethnic Alliances and Foreign Policy Behavior.” International Studies Quarterly 41: 17184.
Doyle, Michael. 1997. The Ways of Peace and War. New York: W.W. Norton.
Enterline, Andrew. 1996. “Driving While Democratizing.” International Security 20, 4: 18396.
Enterline, Andrew. 1998a. “Regime Changes and Interstate Conflict, 1816–1992.” Political Research Quarterly 51, 2: 385409.
Enterline, Andrew. 1998b. “Regime Changes, Neighborhoods, and Interstate Conflict, 1816–1992.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 42, 6: 80429.
État du monde(L'): annuaire économique et géopolitique mondial. (1990). Montréal : Boréal Express.
État du monde(L'): annuaire économique et géopolitique mondial. (1991). Montréal : Boréal Express.
État du monde(L'): annuaire économique et géopolitique mondial. (1992). Montréal : Boréal Express.
Frost, Mervyn. 1996. Ethics in International Relations: A Constitutive Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gleditsch, Nils Petter and Havard Hegre. 1997. “Peace and Democracy: Three Levels of Analysis.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 41, 2: 283310.
Goldstein, Joshua S. 1992. “A Conflict Cooperation Scale for WEIS Events Data.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 36: 36985.
Gowa, Joanne. 1999. Ballots and Bullets: The Elusive Democratic Peace. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Gurr, Ted Robert (with special contributions by Barbara Harff, Monty G. Marshall and James R. Scarritt). 1993. Minorities at Risk: A Global View of Ethnopolitical Politics. Washington, DC: United States Institute for Peace.
Gurr, Ted Robert. 2000. Peoples Versus States: Minorities at Risk in the New Century. Washington, DC: United States Institute for Peace.
Gurr, Ted Robert, Keith Jaggers and Will H. Moore. 1990. “The Transformation of the Western State: The Growth of Democracy, Autocracy, and State Power Since 1800.” Studies in Comparative International Development 25, 1: 84.
Henderson, Errol. 1997. “Culture or Contiguity? Ethnic Conflict, the Similarity of States, and the Onset of Interstate War, 1829–1989.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 41, 5: 64968.
Henderson, Errol. 1998. “The Democratic Peace Through the Lens of Culture, 1820–1989.” International Studies Quarterly 42, 3: 46184.
Heraclides, Alexis. 1990. “Secessionist Minorities and External Involvement.” International Organization 44, 3: 341378.
Heraclides, Alexis. 1991. The Self-determination of Minorities in International Politics. London: Frank Cass.
Herbst, Jeffrey. 1989. “Creation and maintenance of national boundaries in Africa.” International Organization 43, 4: 673692.
Horowitz, Donald. 1985. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press.
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS). 2001. The Responsibility to Protect. Ottawa: The International Development Research Centre.
Jackson, Robert H. and Carl G. Rosberg. 1982. “Why Africa's Weak States Persist: The Empirical and the Juridical in Statehood.” World Politics 35, 1: 124.
Lake, David A.. 1992. “Powerful Pacifists: Democratic States and War.” American Political Science Review 86, 1: 2437.
Leeds, Brett Ashley. 1999. “Domestic Political Institutions, Credible Commitments, and International Cooperation.” American Journal of Political Science 43, 4: 9791002.
Leeds, Brett Ashley and David R. Davis. 1999. “Beneath the Surface: Regime Type and International Interaction, 1953–78.” Journal of Peace Research 36, 1: 521.
Library of Congress, Federal Research Division (several). Country Studies. Washington, DC: Area Handbook Series.
Little, Richard. 1975. Intervention: External Involvement in Civil Wars. London: Martin Robertson Press.
Mansfield, Edward and Jack Snyder. 1995. “Democratization and the Danger of War.” International Security 20, 1: 538.
Mansfield, Edward and Jack Snyder. 1996. “The Effects of Democratization On War.” International Security 20, 4: 196207.
Mansfield, Edward and Jack Snyder. 1997. “A Reply to Thompson and Tucker.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 41, 2: 45761.
Maoz, Zeev. 1996. Domestic Sources of Global Change. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Maoz, Zeev. 1997. “Domestic Change and Strategic Response: The Impact of Domestic Conflict on State Behavior, 1816–1896.” In The International Politics of Ethnic Conflict: Theory and Evidence, eds. D.W. Carment and P. James. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Maoz, Zeev. 1998. “Realist and Cultural Critiques of the Democratic Peace: A Theoretical and Empirical Re-assessment.” International Interactions 24, 1: 189.
Maoz, Zeev and Bruce Russett. 1993. “Normative and Structural Causes of Democratic Peace, 1946–1986.” American Political Science Review 87, 3: 624638.
Marshall, Monty G. and Keith Jaggers. 2000. POLITY IV Project: Dataset Users Manual. University of Maryland, College Park: Center for International Development and Conflict Management (CIDM).
Miller, David. 1998. “Secession and the Principle of Nationality.” In National Self-Determination and Secession, ed. Margaret Moore. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Oneal, John R. and Bruce Russett. 1997. “The Classical Liberals Were Right: Democracy, Interdependence, and International Conflict, 1950–1985.” International Studies Quarterly 41, 2: 26794.
Rousseau, David. 1997. “Regime Change and International Conflict: Is Democratization Really So Dangerous?Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, DC, August 28–31.
Russett, Bruce. 1993. Grasping the Democratic Peace: Principles for a post-Cold War World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Russett, Bruce and John R. Oneal. 2001. Triangulating the Peace: Democracy, Interdependence, and International Organizations. New York: W.W. Norton.
Saideman, Stephen M. 1997. “Explaining the International Relations of Secessionist Conflicts: Vulnerability Versus Ethnic Ties.” International Organization 51, 4: 72153.
Saideman, Stephen M. 2001. The Ties That Divide: Ethnic Politics, Foreign Policy & International Conflict. New York: Columbia University Press.
Saideman, Stephen M. 2002. “Discrimination in International Relations: Analyzing External Support for Ethnic Groups.” Journal of Peace Research 39, 1: 2750.
Thompson, William R. and Richard Tucker. 1997a. “A Tale of Two Democratic Peace Critiques.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 41, 2: 42854.
Thompson, William R. and Richard Tucker. 1997b. “Bewitched, Bothered, and Bewildered: A Reply to Farber and Gowa and to Mansfield and Snyder.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 41, 2: 46277.
Ward, Michael D. and Kristian Gleditsch. 1998. “Democratizing For Peace.” American Political Science Review 92, 1: 5162.
Werner, Suzanne and Douglas Lemke. 1997. “Opposites Do Not Attract: The Impact of Domestic Institutions, Power, and Prior Commitments on Alignment Choices.” International Studies Quarterly 41, 3: 52946.
Wood, John R. 1981. “Secession: A Comparative Analytical Framework.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 14, 1: 107134.
Young, Robert A. 1994. “How Do Peaceful Secessions Happen?Canadian Journal of Political Science 27: 77392.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique
  • ISSN: 0008-4239
  • EISSN: 1744-9324
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-journal-of-political-science-revue-canadienne-de-science-politique
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 10
Total number of PDF views: 71 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 333 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.