Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Framing Immigration in the Canadian and British News Media

  • Andrea Lawlor (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

Despite an extensive dialogue on the subject of immigration, there has been little systematic cross-national investigation into the framing of immigration in the news media. Understanding the evolution of frames is an important piece of how we conceive of the link between the public's political priorities and policy makers’ responses. While the multi-directional relationships that exist between media, public policy and public opinion often pose challenges to precisely extracting media effects, there is still much that can be said about how the content and tone of immigration frames change over time in response to major policy changes or focusing events. Using automated content analysis (ACA) of print news data from Canada and Britain, I examine immigration framing from 1999 to 2013, identifying immigration-related frames in print news coverage and identifying trends in the volume and tone of frames over time. Results offer insight into striking commonalities in the frames used by each country's print media, and the divergent evolution in the emphasis on certain frames over others, largely predicated on coverage of focusing events.

Résumé

Malgré un dialogue expansif au sujet de l'immigration, il y a eu jusqu'ici peu de recherche transnationale systématique sur le cadrage de l'immigration dans les médias. Comprendre l'évolution des cadres est un point essentiel de la manière dont on conçoit le lien entre les priorités politiques du public et les réponses des décideurs. Bien que les relations multidirectionnelles existant entre médias, politiques publiques et opinion publique représentent un défi pour discerner les effets des médias, il reste encore beaucoup à dire sur la manière dont le contenu et le ton des cadres de l'immigration évoluent dans le temps, en réponse aux changements majeurs de politiques ou événements politiques. En utilisant une analyse de contenu automatisée (ACA) de la presse écrite canadienne et britannique, j'examine le cadrage de l'immigration de 1999 à 2013, en identifiant les cadres reliés à l'immigration dans la couverture médiatique de la presse écrite ainsi que les tendances dans le volume et le ton de ces cadres à travers le temps. Les résultats offrent un aperçu des points communs frappants dans les cadres utilisés par la presse écrite des deux pays, mais aussi de l'évolution divergente dans l'emphase de certains cadres par rapport à d'autres, largement fondé sur la couverture d'événements politiques.

Copyright
Corresponding author
King's University College, Western University, 266 Epworth Ave., London ON, N6A 2M3, Email: andrea.lawlor@uwo.ca
References
Hide All
Abu-LabanY. and Garber J. A.. 2005. “The Construction of the Geography of Immigration as a Policy Problem the United States and Canada Compared.” Urban Affairs Review 40 (4): 520–61.
BaumgartnerFrank R. and Jones Bryan D.. 1994. “Attention, Boundary Effects, and Large-Scale Policy Change in Air Transportation Policy.” In The Politics of Problem Definition: Shaping the Policy Agenda, ed. Rochefort David A. and Cobb Roger W.. Lawrence KS: University Press of Kansas.
BaumgartnerFrank R., Jones Bryan D. and Leech Beth L.. 1997. “Media Attention and Congressional Agendas.” In Do the Media Govern? Politicians, Voters, and Reporters in America, ed.Iyengar Shanto and Reeves Richard. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.
BensonRodney. 2010. “What Makes for a Critical Press? A Case Study of French and US Immigration News Coverage.” The International Journal of Press/Politics 15 (1): 324.
BensonRodney. 2013. Shaping Immigration News. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
BensonRodney, Blach-Ørsten Mark, Powers Matthew, Willig Ida and Zambrano Sandra Vera. 2012. “Media Systems Online and Off: Comparing the Form of News in the United States, Denmark, and France.” Journal of Communication 62 (1): 2138.
BleichErik. 2003. Race Politics in Britain and France: Ideas and Policymaking since the 1960s. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
BoswellChristina, Geddes Andrew and Scholten Peter. 2011. “The Role of Narratives in Migration Policy-Making: A Research Framework.” The British Journal of Politics & International Relations 13 (1): 111.
BoykoffJules. 2006. “Framing Dissent: Mass-Media Coverage of the Global Justice Movement.” New Political Science 28 (2): 201–28.
BrabeckKalina M., Lykes M. Brinton and Hershberg Rachel. 2011. “Framing Immigration to and Deportation from the United States: Guatemalan and Salvadoran Families Make Meaning of Their Experiences.” Community, Work & Family 14 (3): 275–96.
BradimoreAshley and Bauder Harald. 2012. “Mystery Ships and Risky Boat People: Tamil Refugee Migration in the Newsprint Media.” Canadian Journal of Communication 36 (4): 636–61.
BuonfinoAlessandra. 2004. “Between Unity and Plurality: The Politicization and Securitization of the Discourse of Immigration in Europe.” New Political Science 26 (1): 2349.
CappellaJ. N. and Jamieson K. H.. 1997. Spiral of Cynicism. The Press and the Public Good. New York: Oxford University Press.
Charteris-BlackJonathan. 2006. ” Britain as a Container: Immigration Metaphors in the 2005 Election Campaign.” Discourse & Society 17 (5): 563–81.
ChongDennis and Druckman James N.. 2007a. “Framing Theory.” Annual Review of Political Science 10 (2): 103–26.
ChongDennis and Druckman James N.. 2007b. “A Theory of Framing and Opinion Formation in Competitive Elite Environments.” Journal of Communication 57 (1): 99118.
De VreeseClaes H. 2005. “News Framing: Theory and Typology.” Information Design Journal and Document Design 13 (1): 5162.
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2013. “International Migration Report 2013.” New York: United Nations.
EntmanRobert M. 2004. Projections of Power: Framing News, Public Opinion, and U.S. Foreign Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
FlerasAugie. 2011. The Media Gaze. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
FlerasAugie. 1995. “Please Adjust Your Set: Media and Minorities in a Multicultural Society.” In Communications in Canadian Society, 4th Ed., ed. Singer Benjamin D.. Toronto: Nelson Canada.
FlerasAugie and Kunz J.. 2001. Media and Minorities: Representing Diversity in a Multicultural Canada. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing
FrybergStephanie A., Stephens Nicole M., Covarrubias Rebecca, Markus Hazel Rose, Carter Erin D., Laiduc Giselle A. and Salido Ana J.. 2012. “How the Media Frames the Immigration Debate: The Critical Role of Location and Politics.” Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 12 (1): 96112.
GamsonWilliam A. 1992. Talking Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
GamsonWilliam A. and Modigliani A.. 1987. “The Changing Culture of Affirmative Action.” In Research in Political Sociology, eds. Baungart R.G. and Braungart M.M.. Greenwich: JAI Press.
GrimmJosh and Andsager Julie L.. 2011. “Framing Immigration: Geo-Ethnic Context in California Newspapers.” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 88 (4): 771–88.
GrimmerJustin and Stewart Brandon M.. 2013. “Text as Data: The Promise and Pitfalls of Automatic Content Analysis Methods for Political Texts.” Political Analysis 21 (3): 267–97.
HallinD.C. and Mancini P.. 2004. Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
HansenRandall. 2000. Citizenship and Immigration in Post-War Britain: The Institutional Origins of a Multicultural Nation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
HenryFrancis and Tator Carol. 2002. Discourses of Domination: Racial Bias in the Canadian English-Language Press. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
HuysmansJef. 1995. “Migrants as a Security Problem: Dangers of ‘Securitizing’ Societal Issues.” In Migration and European Security: The Dynamics of Inclusion and Exclusion, ed.Miles R. and Thränhardt D.. London: Pinter.
HuysmansJef, and Buonfino Alessandra. 2008. “Politics of Exception and Unease: Immigration, Asylum and Terrorism in Parliamentary Debates in the UK.” Political Studies 56 (4): 766–88.
IyengarShanto. 1991. Is Anyone Responsible? How Television Frames Political Issues. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
KayeRonald. 2013. “An Analysis of Press Representation of Refugees and Asylum-Seekers in the United Kingdom in the 1990s.” In Media and Migration: Constructions of Mobility and Difference, ed. King Russell and Wood Nancy. London: Routledge.
KenneyJason. 2012. “Speaking Notes for the Honourable Jason Kenney, P.C., M.P. Minister of Citizenship, Immigration and Multiculturalism.” In News Conference Regarding Citizenship and Immigration Fraud Investigations, ed. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Ottawa, Ontario.
LawlorAndrea. 2015. “Local and National Accounts of Immigration Framing in a Cross-National Perspective.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 41 (6): 918–41.
MahonAdam, Lawlor Andrea and Soroka Stuart N.. 2014. “The Mass Media and Welfare Policy Framing: A Study in Policy Definition.” In Political Communication in Canada: Meet the Press and Tweet the Rest, ed. Marland Alex, Giasson Thierry and Small Tamara. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
MahtaniMinelle. 2001. “Representing Minorities: Canadian Media and Minority Identities.” Canadian Ethnic Studies 33 (3): 99133.
MerollaJennifer, Ramakrishnan S. Karthick and Haynes Chris. 2013. “‘Illegal,’ ‘Undocumented,’ or ‘Unauthorized’: Equivalency Frames, Issue Frames, and Public Opinion on Immigration.” Perspectives on Politics 11 (3): 789807.
National Household Survey. 2011. Statistics Canada. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/dp-pd/index-eng.cfm
PennebakerJames W., Mehl Matthias and Niederhoffer Kate G.. 2003. “Psychological Aspects of Natural Language Use: Our Words, Our Selves.” Annual Review of Psychology 54 (1): 547–77.
Pérez HuberLindsay. 2009. “Challenging Racist Nativist Framing: Acknowledging the Community Cultural Wealth of Undocumented Chicana College Students to Reframe the Immigration Debate.” Harvard Educational Review 79 (4): 704–30.
PriceVincent and Tewksbury David. 1997. “News Values and Public Opinion: A Theoretical Account of Media Priming and Framing.” In Progress in Communication Sciences, ed. Barnett George and Boster Franklin. London: Abelx Publishing Corporation.
ReitzJeffrey G. and Breton Raymond. 1994. “The Illusion of Difference: Realities of Ethnicity in Canada and the United States.” Observations (C.D. Howe Institute) 37.
RienzoCinzia, and Vargas-Silva Carlos. 2012. “Migrants in the UK: An Overview.” Oxford.
RoachKent. 2005. “Must We Trade Rights for Security? The Choice between Smart, Harsh, or Proportionate Security Strategies in Canada and Britain.” Cardozo Law Review 27: 21512221.
ShanahanElizabeth, McBeth Mark, Hathaway Paul and Arnell Ruth. 2008. “Conduit or Contributor? The Role of Media in Policy Change Theory.” Policy Sciences 41 (2): 115–38.
ShehataAdam. 2007. “Facing the Muhammad Cartoons: Official Dominance and Event-Driven News in Swedish and American Elite Press.” The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 12 (4): 131–53.
SiemiatyckiMyer, and Triadafilopoulos Triadafilos. 2010. “International Perspectives on Immigrant Service Provision.” Mowat Publications 5.
SorokaStuart N. 2002. “Issue Attributes and Agenda—Setting by Media, the Public, and Policymakers in Canada.” International Journal of Public Opinion Research 14 (3): 264–85.
SorokaStuart N. and Lim Elvin T.. 2003. “Issue Definition and the Opinion-Policy Link: Public Preferences and Health Care Spending in the US and UK.” British Journal of Politics and International Relations 5 (4): 576–93.
TolleyErin. 2011. “Who Invited Them to the Party? Federal–Municipal Relations in Immigrant Settlement Policy.” In Immigrant Settlement Policy in Canadian Municipalities, ed. Tolley Erin and Young Robert. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
TossuttiLivianna S. 2012. “Municipal Roles in Immigrant Settlement, Integration and Cultural Diversity.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 45 (3): 607–33.
VliegenthartRens and Roggeband Conny. 2007. “Framing Immigration and Integration: Relationships between Press and Parliament in the Netherlands.” International Communication Gazette 69 (3): 295319.
YoungLori and Soroka Stuart N.. 2012. “Affective News: The Automated Coding of Sentiment in Political Texts.” Political Communication 29 (2): 205–31.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique
  • ISSN: 0008-4239
  • EISSN: 1744-9324
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-journal-of-political-science-revue-canadienne-de-science-politique
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 31
Total number of PDF views: 281 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 590 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.