Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Care Ideals in the Netherlands: Shifts between 2002 and 2011

  • Thijs van den Broek (a1), Pearl A. Dykstra (a1) and Romke J. van der Veen (a1)
Abstract

Our study’s premise was that normative care beliefs can inform the current care policy debate. We conducted latent class regression analyses on two waves of Netherlands Kinship Panel Study data (n = 4,163) to distinguish care ideals that captured multiple dimensions of normative care beliefs simultaneously. We also assessed how these care ideals have shifted in the early twenty-first century. We distinguished four care ideals: warm-modern (family and state jointly responsible for caring, egalitarian gender roles), cold-modern (large state responsibility, restricted family responsibility, egalitarian gender roles), traditional (restricted state responsibility, large family responsibility, moderately traditional gender roles), and cold-traditional (large state responsibility, restricted family responsibility, traditional gender roles). Between 2002 and 2011, there has been a shift away from warm-modern care ideals and towards cold-modern care ideals. This is remarkable, because Dutch policy makers have increasingly encouraged family members to take on an active role in caring for dependent relatives.

La prémisse de notre étude était que les croyances au sujet des soins normatives peuvent éclairer le débat actuel sur la politique de soins. Nous avons réalisé des analyses impliquant la régression de classe latente sur deux vagues de données (n = 4 163) de la Netherlands Kinship Panel Study parenté pour distinguer les idéaux pour les soins qui ont capturé simultanément des dimensions multiples de croyances de soins normatifs. Nous avons également évalué comment ces idéaux en matière de soins ont changé au début du 21ième siècle. Nous avons distingué quatre idéaux pour les soins: chauds-modernes (la famille et l'État conjointement responsables de soins, rôles égalitaires des sexes); froids-modernes (grande responsabilité de l'État, responsabilité de la famille restreinte, rôles égalitaires des sexes); traditionnels (responsabilité limitée de l'État, grande responsabilité de la famille, rôles des sexes modérément traditionnels); et froids-traditionnels (grande responsabilité de l'État, responsabilité de la famille restreinte, rôles des sexes traditionnels). De 2002 à 2011 il y a eu un éloignement des idéaux de soins chauds-modernes envers les idéaux de soins froids-modernes. Ceci est remarquable, parce que les décideurs néerlandais ont de plus en plus encouragé les membres de famille à prendre un rôle actif dans les soins aux parents dépendants.

Copyright
Corresponding author
La correspondance et les demandes de tirés-à-part doivent être adressées à: / Correspondence and requests for offprints should be sent to: Thijs van den Broek, Ph.D. Erasmus University Rotterdam Department of Sociology PO Box 1738 Rotterdam 3000 DR Netherlands (broek@fsw.eur.nl)
References
Hide All
Aronson, J. (1990). Women’s perspectives on informal care of the elderly: Public ideology and personal experience of giving and receiving care. Ageing and Society, 10(1), 6184.
Berecki-Gisolf, J., Lucke, J., Hockey, R., & Dobson, A. (2008). Transitions into informal caregiving and out of paid employment of women in their 50s. Social Science & Medicine, 67(1), 122127.
Bolck, A., Croon, M., & Hagenaars, J. (2004). Estimating latent structure models with categorical variables: One-step versus three-step estimators. Political Analysis, 12(1), 327.
Brandt, M., Haberkern, K., & Szydlik, M. (2009). Intergenerational help and care in Europe. European Sociological Review, 25(5), 581601.
Cahill, E., Lewis, L. M., Barg, F. K., & Bogner, H. R. (2009). “You don’t want to burden them”: Older adults’ views on family involvement in care. Journal of Family Nursing, 15(3), 295317.
Chappell, N. L. (1993). Implications of shifting health care policy for caregiving in Canada. Journal of Aging and Social Policy, 5(1–2), 3955.
Centrum Indicatiestelling Zorg (CIZ). (2012). CIZ indicatiewijzer: Toelichting op beleidsregels indicatiestelling AWBZ 2012 zoals vastgesteld door het ministerie van VWS [CIZ adjudication: Information on the policy guidelines AWBZ 2012 as established by the ministry of VWS]. Driebergen: Author.
Cohen, C. A., Colantonio, A., & Vernich, L. (2002). Positive aspects of caregiving: Rounding out the caregiver experience. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(2), 184188.
Daatland, S. O., & Herlofson, K. (2003). ‘Lost solidarity’ or ‘changed solidarity’: A comparative European view of normative family solidarity. Ageing and Society, 23(5), 537560.
Daatland, S. O., Herlofson, K., & Lima, I. A. (2011). Balancing generations: On the strength and character of family norms in the west and east of Europe. Ageing and Society, 31(7), 11591179.
Deeming, C., & Keen, J. (2003). A fair deal for care in old age? Public attitudes towards the funding of long term care. Policy and Politics, 31(4), 431446.
de Klerk, M., de Boer, A., Kooiker, S., Plaisier, I., & Schyns, P. (Eds.). (2014). Hulp geboden: Een verkenning van de mogelijkheden en grenzen van (meer) informele hulp [Help needed: An exploration of the possibilities for and limits to (more) informal support]. The Hague: SCP The Netherlands Institute for Social Research.
Dempster, A. P., Laird, N. M., & Rubin, D. B. (1977). Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B, 39(1), 138.
Dykstra, P. A., & Fokkema, T. (2012). Norms of filial obligation in the Netherlands, Population, 67(1), 97122.
Dykstra, P. A., Kalmijn, M., Knijn, T. C. M., Komter, A. E., Liefbroer, A. C., & Mulder, C. H. (2005). Codebook of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study: A multi-actor, multi-method panel study on solidarity in family relationships, wave 1, version 1. The Hague: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute.
European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE). (2013). Gender equality index: Country profiles. Vilnius: Author.
Elder, G. H. (1994). Time, human agency and social change: Perspectives on the life course. Social Psychology Quarterly, 57(1), 415.
Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Esping-Andersen, G. (1999). Social foundations of postindustrial economies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Finch, J., & Mason, J. (1991). Obligations of kinship in contemporary Britain: Is there normative agreement? The British Journal of Sociology, 42(3), 345367.
Fonseca, J. R. S. (2013). Clustering in the field of social sciences: That is your choice. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 16(5), 403428.
Ganong, L. H., & Coleman, M. (1999). Changing families, changing responsibilities: Family obligations following divorce and remarriage. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Gans, D., & Silverstein, M. (2006). Norms of filial responsibility for aging parents across time and generations. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68(4), 961976.
Greene, V. L. (1983). Substitution between formally and informally provided care for the impaired elderly in the community. Medical Care, 21(6), 609619.
Hagenaars, J. A., & Halman, L. C. (1989). Searching for ideal types: The potentialities of latent class analysis. European Sociological Review, 5(1), 8196.
Hagestad, G. O., & Neugarten, B. L. (1985). Age and the life course. In Binstock, R. H., & Shanas, E. (Eds.), Handbook of aging and the social sciences (pp. 3561). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Havenaar, R. (2006). Twee soorten conservatism [Two sorts of conservatism]. Amsterdam: Vossius.
Herlofson, K., Hagestad, G., Slagsvold, B., & Sørensen, A. (2011). Multilinks deliverable 4.3: Intergenerational family responsibility in Europe . Retrieved online 14 March 2014 from: http://www.multilinks-project.eu/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/herlofson_deliverable1.pdf
Hochschild, A. R. (1994). The commercial spirit of intimate life and the abduction of feminism: Signs from women’s advice books. Theory, Culture, and Society, 11(2), 124.
Hochschild, A. R. (1995). The culture of politics: Traditional, postmodern, cold-modern, and warm-modern ideals of care. Social Politics, 2(3), 331346.
Hogan, D. P., Eggebeen, D. J., & Clogg, C. C. (1993). The structure of intergenerational exchanges in American families. American Journal of Sociology, 98(6), 14281458.
Janssen, B., & Portegijs, W. (2011). Betaalde arbeid [Paid employment]. In Merens, A., van den Brakel, M., Hartgers, M., & Hermans, M. (Eds.), Emancipatiemonitor 2010 (pp. 72107). The Hague: SCP The Netherlands Institute for Social Research.
Kotsadam, A. (2011). Does informal eldercare impede women’s employment? The case of European welfare states. Feminist Economics, 17(2), 12269–282 4.
Kremer, M. (2006). The politics of ideals of care: Danish and Flemish child care policy compared. Social Politics, 13(2), 261285.
Lee, Y., Tang, F., Kim, K. H., & Albert, S. M. (2015). Exploring gender differences in the relationships between eldercare and labour force participation. Canadian Journal on Aging/La Revue canadienne du vieillissement, 34(1), 1425.
Linzer, D. A., & Lewis, J. B. (2010). poLCA: An R package for polytomous variable latent class analysis. Journal of Statistical Software, 42, 129.
Lister, R. (1994). “She has other duties” – Women, citizenship and social security. In Baldwin, S., & Falkingham, J. (Eds.), Social security and social change: New challenges to the Beveridge model (pp. 3144). New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Litwak, E. (1985). Helping the elderly: The complementary roles of informal networks and formal systems. New York: Guilford Press.
Lyotard, J. (1979). The postmodern condition. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
Mau, S. (2004). Welfare regimes and the norms of social exchange. Current Sociology, 52(1), 5374.
McCutcheon, A. L. (1987). Latent class analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
McLachlan, G. J., & Krishnan, T. (1997). The EM algorithm and extensions. New York: Wiley.
Merz, E.-M., Dykstra, P. A., Hogerbrugge, M. J. A., Komter, A. E., Liefbroer, A. C., & Mulder, C. H. (2012). Codebook of the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study: A multi-actor, multi-method panel study on solidarity in family relationships, wave 3, version 1. The Hague: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute.
Morée, M., van der Zee, B., & Struijs, A. J. (2007). Formalisering van informele zorg. Over de rol van “gebruikelijke zorg” bij toekenning van professionele zorg [Formalization of informal care: On the role of “usual care” in adjudicating professional care]. The Hague: CEG The Netherlands Centre for Ethics and Health.
Mot, E. (2010). CPB document no. 204. The Dutch system of long-term care. The Hague: CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
OECD. (2011). Help wanted? Providing and paying for long-term care. Paris: OECD.
Österle, A., & Rothgang, H. (2010). Long-term care. In Castles, F. G., Leibfried, S., Lewis, J., Obinger, H., & Pierson, C. (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of the welfare state (pp. 378390). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Pavalko, E. K., & Artis, J. E. (1997). Women's caregiving and paid work: Causal relationships in late midlife. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 52(4), 170179.
Pavolini, E., & Ranci, C. (2008). Restructuring the welfare state: Reforms in long-term care in Western European countries. Journal of European Social Policy, 18(3), 246259.
Pfau-Effinger, B. (1998). Gender cultures and the gender arrangement. A theoretical framework for cross-national research. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 11(2), 147166.
Pierson, P. (1996). The new politics of the welfare state. World Politics, 48(2), 143179.
Poortman, A. R., & van Tilburg, T. (2005). Past experiences and older adults’ attitudes: A lifecourse perspective. Ageing and Society, 25(1), 1939.
Raven, J., Achterberg, P., van der Veen, R., & Yerkes, M. (2011). An institutional embeddedness of welfare opinions? The link between public opinion and social policy in the Netherlands (1970–2004). Journal of Social Policy, 40(2), 369386.
Reinhard, S. C., Levine, C., & Samis, S. (2012). Home alone: Family caregivers providing complex chronic care. Washington, D.C.: AARP Public Policy Institute.
Saraceno, C. (2010). Social inequalities in facing old-age dependency: A bi-generational perspective. Journal of European Social Policy, 20(1), 3244.
Saraceno, C., & Keck, W. (2011). Towards an integrated approach for the analysis of gender equity in policies supporting paid work and care responsibilities. Demographic Research, 25(11), 371406.
Schenk, N. (2013). Multiple Links: Public policy, family exchanges, well-being and policy endorsement. Rotterdam: Dissertation Erasmus University.
Schlesinger, M. (2012). Crowding out: Multiple manifestations, muddled meanings. Journal of Health Politics, Policy & Law, 37(5), 851864.
Schmid, T., Brandt, M., & Haberkern, K. (2012). Gendered support to older parents: Do welfare states matter? European Journal of Ageing, 9(1), 3950.
Schwarz, G. (1978). Estimating the dimension of a model. Annals of Statistics, 6(2), 461464.
Sims-Gould, J., & Martin-Matthews, A. (2010). We share the care: Family caregivers’ experiences of their older relative receiving home support services. Health and Social Care in the Community, 18(4), 415423.
Smits, C. H. M., van den Beld, H. K., Aartsen, M. J., & Schroots, J. J. F. (2014). Aging in the Netherlands: State of the art and science. The Gerontologist, 54(3), 335343.
Svallfors, S. (2010a). Public attitudes. In Castles, F. G., Leibfried, S., Lewis, J., Obinger, H., & Pierson, C. (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of the welfare state (pp. 241251). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Svallfors, S. (2010b). Policy feedback, generational replacement, and attitudes to state intervention: Eastern and Western Germany, 1990–2006. European Political Science Review, 2(1), 119135.
Tuynman, M., & Marangos, A. M. (2010). Gemeentelijk Wmo-beleid op de negen prestatievelden [Municipal Social Support Act policy in nine performance areas]. In de Klerk, M., Gilsling, R., & Timmermans, J. (Eds.), Op weg met de Wmo. Evaluatie van de Wet maatschappelijke ondersteuning 2007–2009 (pp. 69100). The Hague: SCP The Netherlands Institute for Social Research.
van den Broek, T. (2013). Formalization of informal care in the Netherlands: Cost-containment or gendered cost redistribution? International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics, 6(2), 185193.
van der Veen, R., Achterberg, P., & Raven, J. (2012). Contested solidarity. Risk perception and the changing nature of the welfare state. In van der Veen, R., Yerkes, M., & Achterberg, P. (Eds.), The transformation of solidarity. Changing risks and the future of the welfare state (pp. 3148). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
van Doorne-Huiskes, A., & Schippers, J. (2010). Vrouwen op de arbeidsmarkt: Een succesvolle worsteling [Women on the labour market: A successful struggle]. Tijdschrift voor Arbeidsvraagstukken, 26, 400416.
van Gaalen, R. I., & Dykstra, P. A. (2006). Solidarity and conflict between adult children and parents: A latent class analysis. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68(4), 947960.
van Hooren, F., & Becker, U. (2012). One welfare state, two care regimes: Understanding developments in child and elderly care policies in the Netherlands. Social Policy and Administration, 46(1), 83107.
Vlasblom, J. D., & Schippers, J. J. (2004). Increases in female labour force participation in Europe: Similarities and differences. European Journal of Population, 20(4), 375392.
Wielink, G., Huijsman, R., & McDonnell, J. (1997). Preferences for care. A study of the elders living independently in the Netherlands. Research on Aging, 19(2), 174198.
Wobma, E. (2011). Mannen en vrouwen in Nederland. [Men and women in the Netherlands]. Bevolkingstrends – Statistisch kwartaalblad over de demografie van Nederland, 59, 3742.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Canadian Journal on Aging / La Revue canadienne du vieillissement
  • ISSN: 0714-9808
  • EISSN: 1710-1107
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-journal-on-aging-la-revue-canadienne-du-vieillissement
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed