Adams R.G. 1989. Conceptual and methodological issues in studying friendships of older adults. In Adams Rebecca G. & Blieszner Rosemary (Eds.), Older Adult Friendship: Structure and Process. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
Antonucci T.C. 1990. Social supports and social relationships. In Binstock Robert H. & George Linda K. (Eds.), Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences (3rd ed.) (pp. 205–226). Toronto: Academic Press.
Atkinson T. 1980. Public perceptions on the quality of life. In Perspective Canada III (pp. 277–292). Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services.
Bachrach C.A. 1980. Childlessness and social isolation among the elderly. Journal of Marriage and the Family, August, 627–637.
Bradburn N.M. 1969. The Structure of Psychological Well-Being. Chicago: Aldine.
Broadhead E.W., Kaplan B.H., James S.A., Wagner E.H., Schoenbach V.J., Grim-son R., Heyden S., Tibblin G., & Gehlbach S.H. 1983. The epidemiologic evidence for a relationship between social support and health. American Journal of Epidemiology, 117, 521–537.
Chapman N.J. 1989. Gender, marital status, and childlessness of older persons and the availability of informal assistance. In Petersen M.D. & White D.L. (Eds.), Health Care of the Elderly: An Information Source-book (pp. 277–328). New-bury Park: Sage.
Cicirelli V. 1981. Kin relationships of childless and one-child elderly in relation to social services. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 4, 19–33.
Cobb S. 1976. Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 38, 300–314.
Connidis I., & Davies L. 1990. Confidants and companions in later life: the place of families and friends. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 45(4), S141–S149.
Connidis I.A. 1989. Family Ties and Aging. Toronto: Butterworths.
Connidis I.A., & McMullin J.A. 1992. Getting out of the house: the effect of parent status on social participation and companionship in later life. Canadian Journal on Aging, 11(4), 370–386.
Connidis I.A., & McMullin J.A. 1993. To have or have not: the effect of parent status on the subjective well-being of older adults. The Gerontologist, 5, 630–636.
Connidis I.A., & McMullin J.A. 1994. Social support in older age: assessing the impact of marital and parent status. Canadian Journal on Aging, 13(4), 510–527.
Crohan S.E., & Antonucci T.C. 1989. Friends as a source of social support in old age. In Adams Rebecca G. & Blieszner Rosemary (Eds.), Older Adult Friendship: Structure and Process (pp. 129–146). Newbury Park: Sage.
Day A.T. 1987. Family support of the elderly: survey design and policy implications. Paper presented to the European Population Conference. Jyraskyla, Finland, June.
Dean A., Kolody B., & Wood P. 1990. Effects of social support from various sources on depression in elderly persons. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 31, 148–161.
DeWit D.J., Wister A.V. & Burch T.K. 1988. Physical distance and social contact between elders and their adult children. Research on Aging, 10, 56–80.
Dowd J., & Larossa R. 1982. Primary group contact and elderly morale: an exchange/power analysis. Sociology and Social Research, 66, 184–197.
House J., Landis S.K.R., & Umberson D. 1988. Social relationships and health. Science, 241, 540–545.
Johnson C.L., & Catalano D.J. 1981. Childless elderly and their family supports. The Gerontologist, 21, 610–618.
Keith P. 1983. Patterns of assistance among parents and the childless in very old age: implications for practice. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 6, 49–59.
Kessler R.C., & McLeod J.D. 1984. Sex differences in vulnerability to undesirable life events. American Sociological Review, 49, 620–631.
Kivett V.R., & Learner M.R. 1980. Perspectives on the childless rural elderly: a comparative analysis. The Gerontologist, 20, 59–66.
Kozma A., Stones M.J., & McNeil J.K. 1991. Psychological Well-Being in Later Life. Markham: Butterworths.
Krause N. 1986. Social support, stress, and well-being among older adults. Journal of Gerontology, 41, 512–519.
Landreville P., & Cappeliez P. 1992. Soutien social et symptômes dépressifs au sein des personnes âgées. La Revue canadienne du vieillissement, 11(A), 322–346.
Larson R. 1978. Thirty years of research on the subjective well-being of older Americans. Journal of Gerontology, 33, 109–125.
Lee G.R., & Ishii-Kuntz M. 1987. Social interaction, loneliness and emotional well-being among the elderly. Research on Aging, 9, 459–482.
Litwak E. 1985. Helping the Elderly: The Complementary Roles of Informal Networks and Formal Systems. New York: The Guilford Press.
Marshall V.W. 1987. Factors affecting response and completion rates in some Canadian studies. Canadian Journal on Aging, 6(3), 217–227.
Marshall V.W., McMullin J.A., Ballantyne P.J., Daciuk J.F., & Widgor B.T. 1995. Contributions to Independence Over the Adult Life Course. Toronto: Centre for Studies of Aging, University of Toronto.
McLeod J.D., & Kessler R.C. 1990. Socioeconomic status differences in vulnerability to undesirable life events. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 31, 162–172.
Mirowsky J., & Ross C.E. 1986. Social patterns of distress. American Review of Sociology, 12, 23–15.
Morgan D.L. 1988. Age differences in social network participation. The Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 43, S129–S137.
Mullins L.C., & Dugan E. 1990. The influence of depression and family and friendship relations on residents' loneliness in congregate housing. The Gerontologist, 30, 377–384.
Mutran E., & Reitzes D.C. 1984. Intergenerational support activities and well-being among the elderly: a convergence of exchange and symbolic interaction perspectives. American Sociological Review, 49, 117–130.
Nett E. 1984. The family and aging. In Baker Maureen (Ed.), The Family: Changing Trends in Canada. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
Pearlin L.I. 1989. The sociological study of stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 30, 241–256.
Pearlin L.I., Lieberman M.A., Menaghan E.G., & Mullan J.T. 1981. The stress process. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22, 337–356.
Rempel J. 1985. Childless elderly: what are they missing? Journal of Marriage and the Family, May, 343–348.
Strain L.A., & Chappell N.L. 1982. Confidants: do they make a difference in quality of life? Research on Aging, 4, 479–502.
Turner R.J. 1983. Direct, indirect, and moderating effects of social support on psychological distress and associated conditions. In Kaplan Howard B. (Ed.), Psychosocial Stress: Trends in Theory and Research (pp. 105–146). New York: Academic Press.
Turner R.J., & Avison W.R. 1989. Gender and depression: assessing exposure and vulnerability to life events in a chronically strained population. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177, 443–455.
Verbrugge L.M. 1979. Marital status and health. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 41, 267–285.
Ward R.A., Sherman S.R., & Lagory M. 1984. Subjective network assessments and subjective well-being. Journal of Gerontology, 39, 92–101.
Willits F.K., & Crider D.M. 1988. Health rating and life satisfaction in the later middle years. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 43, S172–S176.