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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Goenezen, Sevan Rennie, Monique Y. and Rugonyi, Sandra 2012. Biomechanics of early cardiac development. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, Vol. 11, Issue. 8, p. 1187.

    Männer, Jörg Wessel, Armin and Yelbuz, T. Mesud 2010. How does the tubular embryonic heart work? Looking for the physical mechanism generating unidirectional blood flow in the valveless embryonic heart tube. Developmental Dynamics, Vol. 239, Issue. 4, p. 1035.


Valveless pump models that laid a false but fortuitous trail on the way towards the total cavopulmonary connection

  • Philip J. Kilner (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 December 2005

When Fontan and Baudet devised what has become known as the Fontan operation, they understandably assumed that inflow and outflow valves should be included to achieve a pump-like action of the subpulmonary right atrial cavity. Over the following years, however, it became apparent that valves did not function satisfactorily in this situation. Worse, the implanted valves had a tendency to become obstructive, which often lead to critical elevation of the already raised systemic venous pressure. Surgeons gradually realised that the outcomes of surgery designed to create the Fontan circulation were likely to be better without inclusion of valves in the subpulmonary right atrium, and they stopped putting them in.

Corresponding author
Correspondence to: Philip J. Kilner, CMR Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, London SW3 6NP, UK. Tel: +44 207 351 8808; Fax: +44 207 351 8816; E-mail:
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Cardiology in the Young
  • ISSN: 1047-9511
  • EISSN: 1467-1107
  • URL: /core/journals/cardiology-in-the-young
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