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Print and the Reformation: A Drama in Three Acts

Abstract

Throughout the history of printing, questions of design have been crucial to the development of the book industry. This is especially the case with the development of the title page, the most crucial design feature for which there was no obvious model inherited from the manuscript book world. The Reformation both revolutionized the market for books and stimulated crucial innovations in the design and selling of books. This began in Wittenberg, where the partnership of Martin Luther and Lucas Cranach played a critical role in shaping the Reformation pamphlet. In lands more hostile to the Reformation, the design task was more complex, since design features intended to facilitate identification could place the seller or owner in deadly danger. This essay concludes with an examination of the market for devotional literature in the Dutch Republic, the home to Europe's most buoyant center of book production.

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1 Eisenstein Elizabeth, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change: Communications and Cultural Transformations in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979); and Eisenstein , The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983). For the earliest enthusiasts for print, see now especially Eisenstein , Divine Art, Infernal Machine: The Reception of Printing in the West from First Impressions to the Sense of an Ending (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2011).

2 Pettegree Andrew, The Book in the Renaissance (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2010).

3 Eisermann Falk, Verzeichnis der typographischen Einblattdrucke des 15. Jahrhunderts im Heiligen Römischen Reich Deutscher Nation: VE 15 (Wiesbaden: Reichert, 2004); Eisermann , “The Indulgence as a Media Event: Developments in Communication Through Broadsides in the Fifteenth Century,” in Promissory Notes on the Treasury of Merits: Indulgences in Late Medieval Europe, ed. Swanson R. W. (Leiden: Brill, 2006), 309330 ; and Paulus Nikolaus, “Raimund Peraudi als Ablasskommissar,” Historisches Jahrbuch 21 (1900): 645682 .

4 Winterhager W. E., “Ablasskritik als Indikator historischen Wandels vor 1517: ein Beitrag zu Voraussetzung und Einordnung der Reformation,” Archiv für Reformationsgechichte 90 (1999): 671 .

5 Using the Universal Short Title Catalogue (http://www.ustc.ac.uk/) (hereafter cited as USTC), search “religious” and “bibles” during the year range 1450–1520.

6 Volz Hans, “Der St. Peters-Ablass und das Deutsche Druckgewerbe,” Gutenberg-Jahrbuch (1966): 156172 .

7 Grossmann Maria, Humanism in Wittenberg, 1485–1517 (Nieuwkoop: De Graaf, 1975), 100112 .

8 Biographies in Reske Christoph, Die Buchdrucker des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts im deutschen Sprachgebiet: auf der Grundlage des gleichnamigen Werkes von Josef Benzing (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2007).

9 Gössner Andreas, “Die Anfänge des Buchdrucks für universitäre Zwecke am Beispiel Wittenbergs,” in Bücher, Drucker, Bibliotheken in Mitteldeutschland, ed. Bünz Enno (Leipzig: Leipziger Universitätsverlag, 2006), 133152 .

10 Meinhardi Andreas, Dialogus illustrate ac augustissime urbis albiorene vulgo vittenberg dicte situm amenitatem ac illustrationem docens tirocinia nobilium artiu iacentibus editus (Leipzig: Martin Lansberg, 1508).

11 USTC; and Grossmann Maria, Wittenberger Drucke 1502–1517: Ein bibliographischer Beitrag zur Geschichte des Humanismus in Deutschland (Vienna: Krieg, 1971).

12 USTC. See also, for a survey based on more rudimentary statistical data, Edwards Mark U. Jr., Printing, Propaganda, and Martin Luther (Berkeley: University of California, 1994).

13 The figures are computed from the USTC.

14 Benzing Josef and Claus Helmut, eds., Lutherbibliographie: Verzeichnis der gedruckten Schriften Martin Luthers bis zu dessen Tod, 2 vols. (Baden-Baden: Koerner, 1966–1994); and Moeller Bernd, “Das Berühmtwerden Luthers,” Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung 15, no. 1 (1988): 6592 .

15 von Brandenburg Albrecht, Archbishop of Mainz, Instructio summaria pro subcommissariis: penitentiariis cum confessoribus: in executionem gratie plenissimarum indulgentiarum: ac aliarum plenissimarum facultatum: in favorem basilice principis apostolorum de urbe: per sanctissimum dominum nostrum papam leonem decimum . . . (Leipzig: Melchior I Lotter, 1516), USTC 669147; and Volz, “St. Peters-Ablass.”

16 Luther Martin and Tetzel Johann Jakob, Vorlegung gemacht von bruder Johan tetzel prediger ordens ketzermeister: wyder eynen vormessen sermon von tzwentzig irrigen artickeln Bebstlichen Ablas und gnade belangende allen cristglaubigen menschen tzuwissen von notten (Leipzig: Melchior I Lotter, 1518), USTC 704278; and Luther Martin and Mazzolini Silvestro, In praesumptuosas Martini Luther conclusiones de potestate pape dialogus (Leipzig: Melchior I Lotter, 1518), USTC 689669, 689670.

17 Ozment Steven, The Serpent and the Lamb: Cranach, Luther and the Making of the Reformation (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2011); Friedlander Max J. and Rosenberg Jakob, Lucas Cranach (New York: Tabard, 1978); Koepplin Dieter and Falk Tilman, Lukas Cranach, 2 vols. (Basel: Birkhäuser, 1974); and Grimm Claus, Erichsen Johannes, and Brockhoff Evamaria, eds., Lucas Cranach: Ein Maler-Unternehmer aus Franken (Regensburg: Pustet, 1994).

18 Flood John L., “Lucas Cranach as Publisher,” German Life and Letters 48, no. 3 (July 1995): 241263 .

19 Pettegree Andrew, Brand Luther: 1517, Printing and the Making of the Reformation (New York: Penguin, 2015); and Tilman Falk, “Cranach-Buchgraphik der Reformationszeit,” in Lukas Cranach, Koepplin and Falk, 1:307–412. See also Cranach im Detail: Buchschmuck Lucas Cranachs des Älteres und seiner Werkstatt (Wittenberg: Lutherhalle, 1994).

20 Thomas Drew, “Cashing in on Counterfeits: Fraud in the Reformation Print Industry,” in Buying & Selling: The Business of Books in Early Modern Europe, ed. Graheli Shanti (Leiden: Brill, 2017).

21 On the Netherlands, see especially Duke Alastair, Reformation and Revolt in the Low Countries (London: Hambledon, 1990); and Rex Richard, “The English Campaign Against Luther in the 1520s,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th ser., 39 (1989): 85106 .

22 Visser Casper Christiaan Gerrit, Luther's Geschriften in de Nederlanden tot 1546 (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1969); and Higman Francis, Piety and the People: Religious Printing in French, 1511–1551 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1996).

23 Higman Francis, “Les traductions françaises de Luther,” in Lire et découvrir: La circulation des idées au temps de la Réforme (Geneva: Droz, 1998), 201232 .

24 Gilmont Jean-François and Peter Rodolphe, Bibliotheca Calviniana: Les oeuvres de Jean Calvin publiés au XVIe siècle, 3 vols. (Geneva: Droz, 1991–2000); and Gilmont, John Calvin and the Printed Book, trans. Maag Karin (Kirksville, Mo.: Truman State University Press, 2005).

25 Schlaepfer H. L., “Laurent de Normandie,” in Aspects de la propagande religieuse, ed. Berthoud G. (Geneva: Droz, 1957), 176230 .

26 Pettegree Andrew, Emden and the Dutch Revolt: Exile and the Development of Reformed Protestantism (Oxford: Clarendon, 1992).

27 Den Christlichen Gemene, so ym Dhome tho Bremen Predige hören Getüchenisse (Emden: Gellius Ctematius, 1560); and Pettegree, Emden and the Dutch Revolt, no. 110.

28 Pettegree Andrew, “Protestantism, Publication and the French Wars of Religion: The Case of Caen,” in The French Book and the European Book World (Leiden: Brill, 2007), 4363 .

29 Benedict Philip, Rouen during the Wars of Religion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981).

30 In the bibliography of Heijting Willem, De Catechismi en Confessies in de Nederlandse Reformatie tot 1585, 2 vols. (Nieuwkoop: De Graaf, 1889): Catechismus, ofte onderwijsinghe in de christelicke leere, ghelijck in die kercken ende scholen der cheur vorstelicken Paltz, ghedreven oft gheleert wordt (Delft: H. Schinckel, 1566); Catechismus, oft christelicke onderrichtinghe, ghelijck die in kercken ende scholen der Cheur vorstelicken Paltz, ghedreven oft gheleert wort (Emden: Gellius Ctematius, 1563).

31 van Deursen A. Th., Bavianen en Slijkgeuzen: Kerk en Kerkvolk ten Tijde van Maurits en Oldenbarnevelt (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1974). See also van Deursen , Plain Lives in a Golden Age: Popular Culture, Religion and Society in Seventeenth-Century Holland, trans. Ultee Maarten (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991): 233318 .

32 Davies David W., The World of the Elzevier (Leiden: Nijhoff, 1954), Hartz S. L., The Elseviers and Their contemporaries: An Illustrated Commentary (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1955); Dongelmans B. P. M., Hoftijzer P. G., and Lankhorst O. S., eds., Boekverkopers van Europa. Het 17de-eeuwse Nederlandse uitgevershuis Elzevier (Zutphen: Walburg, 2000); Blaeu Joan, Atlas Maior of 1665, ed. van der Krogt Peter (Cologne: Taschen, 2010); de la Fontaine Verwey Herman, “Willem Jansz Blaeu as a Publisher of Books,” Quaerendo 3 (1973): 141146 ; and Verwey De la Fontaine, “Dr. Joan Blaeu and his sons,” Quaerendo 11 (1981): 523 .

33 Bruni Flavia and Pettegree Andrew, eds., Lost Books: Reconstructing the Print World of Pre-Industrial Europe (Leiden: Brill, 2016).

34 der Weduwen Arthur, Dutch and Flemish Newspapers of the Seventeenth Century (Leiden: Brill, 2017). For auction catalogues, see especially, “Book Sales Catalogue Online: Book Auctioning in the Dutch Republic, 1599–ca. 1800,” Brill, accessed 28 October 2017, http://www.brill.com/products/online-resources/book-sales-catalogues-online.

35 Courante uyt Italien, Duytslandt, &c., no. 39, 26 September 1643. See also der Weduwen Arthur and Pettegree Andrew, News, Business and the Birth of Modern Advertising: Advertisements and Public Announcements in Dutch and Flemish Newspapers, 1620–1675 (Leiden: Brill, 2019, forthcoming).

36 This is a paraphrase of the original Dutch.

37 Pietersz Roelof, Scherm en schilt der kinderen Godes (Amsterdam: Paulus Aertsz van Ravesteyn for Marten Jansz Brandt, 1631), USTC 1013422, (Brandt, 1636) USTC 1013433, (Brandt, 1644) USTC 1013421.

38 The advertised edition is lost: Pietersz Roelof, De Spiegel der Barmhertigheyt en Gerechtigheyt Gods, in het vergeven en straffen der sonden (Amsterdam: Marten Jansz Brandt, 1643), USTC 1515575. For the other editions, see (1628) USTC 1030778, (1632) USTC 1020976, (1640) USTC 1013633, and (1644) USTC 1013875.

39 Pietersz Roelof, Korte gulden Regelen eenes heyligen levens (Amsterdam: Marten Jansz Brandt, 1643), USTC 1515577, (Brandt, 1632) USTC 1013325, (Brandt, 1634) USTC 1013324, (Brandt, 1638) USTC 1016678, and (Brandt, 1641) USTC 1021123.

40 Pietersz Roelof, Den evangelischen arendt (Amsterdam: Marten Jansz Brandt, 1643), USTC 1515578, (1637) USTC 1013433, (1639) USTC 1013622, (1645) USTC 1030787. A second part was published in 1645 (USTC 1013880) and a third part in 1650 (USTC 1014870).

41 Pietersz Roelof, Enge poorte, ofte De wegh der saligheydt (Amsterdam: Marten Jansz Brandt, 1646), USTC 1013943.

42 Though the same title is used for an earlier work by Eduard Poppius (1576–1624). See De enge poorte, ofte, Predicatien over eenighe voortreffelijcke texten der heyligher Schrifture (Gouda: Jasper Tournay for A. Burier, 1616), USTC 1010725, 1010728.

43 Trigland Jacobus, Het lof des heeren (Amsterdam: Marten Jansz Brandt, 1642), USTC 1019080.

44 Tijdinghen uyt verscheyde Quartieren, no. 9, 27 February 1644. See also Der Weduwen and Pettegree, News, Business and the Birth of Modern Advertising.

45 Drelincourt Charles, Gebeden ende meditatien om sich te bereyden tot het H. avontmael, ende met yver daer toe te gaen.Vierde druck (Amsterdam: Marten Jansz Brandt, 1639), USTC 1021196, (1649) USTC 1019894.

46 Bouma Gellius, Christelicke catechismus der Nederlantsche gereformeerde kercken (Amsterdam: Theunis Jacobsz Lootsman, 1647), USTC 1013935.

47 Bouma Gellius, Catechismus, welcke in den gereformeerden evangelischen kercken ende scholen der keur-vorstelijcken Pfaltz ende deser Nederlanden, geleert ende gheoeffent wordt (Amsterdam: Jan Fredericksz Stam for Hans Walschaert, 1628), USTC 1020106, (1631) USTC 1515005, (1635) USTC 1025135, (1642) USTC 1021181, (1644) USTC 1021008, (1646) USTC 1020107.

48 Catalogus variorum & insignium librorum Hendrici Laurentii P.M. bibliopolæ Amsterodamensis. Quorum venditio habebitur Amsterodami, in ædibus defuncti die 20 julii 1649 (Amsterdam: For the Heirs of Hendrick Laurensz, 1649), USTC 1022549.

49 A facsimile edition is available: de Kooker H. W., ed. The Catalogus Universalis (Utrecht: H&S, 1986).

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Church History
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