* I am grateful to Nicholas Sekunda (University of Gdansk) and Michael Charles (Southern Cross University NSW) for their comments, and to the latter for kindly allowing me to read his paper (2008) in advance of publication. The following abbreviations have been used: Bigwood (1980) = J.M. Bigwood, ‘Diodorus and Ctesias’, Phoenix 34.3 (1980), 195–207; Chamoux and Bertrac (1993) = F. Chamoux and P. Bertrac, Diodore de Sicile: Bibiothèque Historique. Introduction générale. Livre I ([Budé] Paris, 1993); Charles (2008) = M.B. Charles, ‘African forest elephants and turrets in the Ancient World’, Phoenix, forthcoming; Charles and Rhodan (2007) = M.B. Charles and P. Rhodan, ‘Magister Elephantorum: a reappraisal of Hannibal's use of elephants’, CW 100.4 (2007), 363–89; Goukowsky (1972) = P. Goukowsky, ‘Le roi Pôrus, son éléphant et quelques autres’, BCH 96 (1972), 473–502; Goukowsky, Diodore XVII = P. Goukowsky (ed. and French trans.), Diodore de Sicile, Bibliothèque Historique Livre XVII ([Budé] Paris, 1976); Goukowsky, Fragments II = P. Goukowsky (ed., French trans. and comm.), Diodore de Sicile, Bibliothèque Historique. Fragments II. Livres XXI–XXVI ([Budé] Paris 2006); Gowers and Scullard (1950) =W. Gowers and H.H. Scullard, ‘Hannibal's elephants again’, NC (ser. 6) 10 (1950), 271–83; Scullard (1948) = H.H. Scullard, ‘Hannibal's elephants’, NC (ser. 6) 8 (1948), 158–68; Scullard (1974) = H.H. Scullard, The Elephant in the Greek and Roman World (London, 1974); Walbank, Commentary = F.W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius (Oxford, 1957–67).