Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Mean thickness and thickness distribution of smectite crystallites

  • K. Mystkowski (a1), J . Środoń (a2) and F. Elsass (a3)

Abstract

A series of smectites was investigated to reveal the thickness distribution of crystallites. The Fourier decomposition technique of Bertaut-Warren-Averbach (MudMaster program) was applied to XRD reflections of <0.2 μm, glycolated Na-clays. It was shown that the thickness distribution is lognormal and the mean thickness ranges from 5.7 to 12.3 nm (3.4 – 7.3 layers). At higher humidities, characteristic of TEM sample preparation, the mean thicknesses decrease, but the differences in mean thickness between samples are preserved. Beidellites have the thickest crystallites. The relationships between the mean thickness, volume-weighted mean thickness and the parameters of the lognormal distribution were established. Calculation of these parameters is possible, using the area and the maximum intensity of the 001 reflection. The influence of the fluctuations of d-spacing on the peak width was shown. Smectite crystallites, dispersed into individual layers during infinite osmotic swelling and rebuilt through coagulation, recover their original mean thickness and thickness distribution.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Dainyak, L.G., Drits, V.A. & Heifits, L.M. (1992) Computer simulation of cation distribution in dioctahedral 2:1 layer silicates using IR-data: application to Mössbauer spectroscopy of a glauconite sample. Clays Clay Miner. 40, 470 – 479.
Drits, V.A., Środoń, J. & Eberl, D.D. (1997) XRD measurement of mean illite crystallite thickness: reappraisal of the Kubler index and the Scherrer equation. Clays Clay Miner. 45, 461 – 475.
Drits, V.A., Eberl, D.D. & Środoń, J. (1998) XRD measurement of mean thickness, thickness distribution and strain for illite and illite/ smectite crystallites by the Bertaut-Warren-Averbach technique. Clays Clay Miner. 46, 38– 50.
Eberl, D.D., Środoń, J. & Northrop, H.R. (1986) Potassium fixation in smectite by wetting and drying. Pp. 296 – 326 in. Geochemical Processes at Mineral Surfaces (Davis, J. A. & Hayes, K.F., editors). ACS Symposium Series, 323, American Chemical Society.
Eberl, D.D., Środoń, J., Lee, M., Nadeau, P.H. and Northrop, H.R. (1987) Sericite from Silverton caldera, Colorado: Correlation among structure, composition, origin and particle thickness. Am. Miner. 72, 914 – 934.
Eberl, D.D., Drits, V.A., Środoń, J. & Nüesch, R. (1996) MudMaster: a program for calculating crystallite size distributions and strain from the shapes of X-ray diffraction peaks. US Geological Survey Open File Report 96 – 171.
Eberl, D.D., Drits, V.A. & Środoń, J. (1998) Deducing growth mechanisms for minerals from the shapes of crystal size distributions. Am. J. Sci. 298, 499 – 533.
Frey, E. & Lagaly, G. (1979) Selective coagulation in mixed colloidal suspensions. J. Coll. Interf. Sci. 70, 46 – 55.
Klug, H.P. & Alexander, L.E. (1974) X-ray Diffraction Procedures for Polycrystalline and Amorphous Materials, 2nd edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York, Chichester.
Jackson, M.L. (1974) Soil Chemical Analysis – Advanced Course. Published by the author, Department of Soil Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI. 53706, USA.
Jonas, E.C. & Oliver, R.M. (1967) Size and shape of montmorillonite crystallites. Proc. 15th Clay Conf., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Pergamon Press, Oxford & New York.
MacEwan, D.M.C. & Wilson, M.J. (1980) Interlayer and intercalation complexes of clay minerals. P. 203 in. Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals and their X-ray Identification (Brindley, G.W. & Brown, G., editors). Monograph 5, Mineralogical Society, London.
Mering, J. (1975) Smectites. Pp. 112 – 113 in. Soil Components vol. 2 (Gieseking, J.E., editor). Springer- Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg & New York.
Mering, J. & Oberlin, A. (1971) The smectites. P. 213 in. The Electron Optical Investigation of Clays (Gard, J.A., editor). Monograph 3, Mineralogical Society, London.
Moore, D.M. & Hower, J. (1986) Ordered interstratification of dehydrated and hydrated Na-smectite. Clays Clay Miner. 34, 379 – 384.
Moore, D.M. & Reynolds, R.C. Jr. (1997) X-ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York.
Reynolds, R.C. Jr. (1985) NEWMOD©, a Computer Program for the Calculation of Basal X-ray Diffraction Intensities of Mixed-Layered Clays. Reynolds, R.C., 8, Brooks Rd., Hanover, NH 03755, USA.
Sato, T., Watanabe, T. & Otsuka, R. (1992) Effects of layer charge, charge location, and energy change on expansion properties of dioctahedral smectites. Clays Clay Miner. 40, 103 – 113.
Środoń, J. (1980) Precise indentification of illite/ smectite interstratification by X-ray powder diffraction. Clays Clay Miner. 28, 401 – 411.
Środoń, J., Andreoli, C., Elsass, F. & Robert, M. (1990) Direct HRTEM measurement of expandability of mixed-layer illite/ smectite in bentonite rock. Clays Clay Miner. 38, 373 – 379.
Środoń, J. & Elsass, F. (1994) Effect of the shape of fundamental particles on XRD characteristics of illitic materials. Eur. J. Miner. 6, 113 – 122.
Šucha, V., Środoń, J., Elsass, F. & McHardy, W.J. (1996) Particle shape versus coherent scattering domain of illite/ smectite: evidence from HRTEM of Dolná Ves clays. Clays Clay Miner. 44, 665 – 671.
Tessier, D. (1984) Etude expérimentale de l’organisation des matériaux argileux. Hydratation, gonflement et structuration au cours de la dessiccation et de la rehumectation. PhD thesis, Univ. Paris VII, France.
Tessier, D. (1991) Behaviour and microstructure of clay minerals. Pp. 387 – 415 in: Soil Colloids and Their Associations in Aggregates (De Boodt, M. F., Hayes, M. & Herbillon, A., editors). Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York.
Tettenhorst, R. & Roberson, H.E. (1973) X-ray diffraction aspects of montmorillonites. Am. Miner. 58, 73 – 80.
Vali, H. & Hesse, R. (1992) The microstructure of dilute clay and humic acid suspensions revealed by freezefracture electron microscopy: discussion. Clays Clay Miner. 40, 620 – 623.

Keywords

Mean thickness and thickness distribution of smectite crystallites

  • K. Mystkowski (a1), J . Środoń (a2) and F. Elsass (a3)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed