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Binge eating disorder revisited: what’s new, what’s different, what’s next

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 June 2019

Leslie Citrome*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA
*
*Address correspondence to: Leslie Citrome, 11 Medical Park Drive, Suite 106, Pomona, NY 10970, USA. Tel: + 1 845 362 2081. (Email: citrome@cnsconsultant.com).

Abstract

Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most common type of eating disorder. According to the most recent data available, the estimated lifetime prevalence of BED among US adults in the general population is 0.85% (men 0.42% and women 1.25%). Among psychiatric treatment populations, prevalence is several-fold higher. Although many people with BED are obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), roughly half are not. In the DSM-5, BED is defined by recurrent episodes of binge eating (eating in a discrete period of time, an amount of food larger than most people would eat in a similar amount of time under similar circumstances and a sense of lack of control over eating during the episode), occurring on average at least once a week for 3 months, and associated with marked distress. BED often goes unrecognized and thus untreated; in one study, 344 of 22,387 (1.5%) survey respondents met DSM-5 criteria for BED, but only 11 out of the 344 had ever been diagnosed with BED by a health-care provider. Psychiatric comorbidities are very common, with most adults with BED also experiencing anxiety disorders, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, or substance use disorders, suggesting that clinicians have patients in their practice with unrecognized BED. Multiple neurobiological explanations have been suggested for BED, including dysregulation in reward center and impulse control circuitry. Additionally, there is interplay between genetic influences and environmental stressors. Psychological treatments such as cognitive behavioral interventions have been recommended as first line and are supported by meta-analytic reviews; however, access to such treatments may be limited because of local availability and/or cost, and these treatments generally lead to little to no weight loss, although successfully eliminating binge eating can protect against future weight gain. Routine medication treatments for anxiety and depression do not necessarily ameliorate the symptoms of BED, but there are approved and emerging medication options, lisdexamfetamine and dasotraline, respectively, that specifically address the core drivers behind binge eating, namely obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors regarding food, resulting in marked decreases in binge eating behaviors as well as weight loss.

Type
CME Review Article
Copyright
© Cambridge University Press 2019 

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Footnotes

This activity is supported by an unrestricted educational grant from Sunovion Pharmaceuticals.

An addendum has been issued for this article, please see DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1092852919001366.

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